SHANGHAI , acity in the
See also:Chinese province of`Kiang-su . The native city of Shanghai is situated in 310 15' N., 1210 27' E. and stands on the
See also:left or W.
See also:bank of the Hwang-p'u
See also:river, about 12 M. from the point where that river empties itself into the estuary of the Yangtsze-kiang . The walls which surround it are about 31 m. in circumference, and are pierced by seven
See also:gates . The streets and thoroughfares may be said to illustrate all the worse features of Chinese cities; while the want of any
See also:building of architectural or antiquarian
See also:interest robs the city of any redeeming traits . On the E.
See also:face of the city, between the walls and the river, stands the
See also:principal suburb, off which the native
See also:shipping lies anchored . Situated in the extreme E. portion of the province of Kiang-su, and possessing a
See also:good and commodious anchorage, as well as an easy
See also:access to the ocean, it forms the principal
See also:port of central
See also:China . From the W.
See also:wall of the city there stretches a
See also:rich alluvial plain extending over 45,000 sq. m., which is intersected by waterways and
See also:great chains of lakes and bears a population of Boo to the sq. m . The products of this fertile
See also:district, as well as the teas and silks of more distant regions, find their natural outlet at Shanghai . The looms of Suchow and the
See also:tea plantations of Ngan-hui, together with the
See also:rice of this "
See also:garden of China," for many years before treaty days, supplied the Shanghai junks with their richest
See also:freight . But though thus favourably situated as an emporium of
See also:trade, Shanghai did not attract the
See also:attention of
See also:foreign diplomatists until the outbreak of the War of 1841, when the inhabitants
See also:protection from the attacks of
See also:Parker by the payment of a ransom of £145,000 . In the
See also:Nanking treaty, which was signed in the following
See also:year, Shanghai was included among the four new ports which were thrown open to trade . In 1843 Captain (afterwards
See also:Balfour was appointed
See also:consul, and it was on his motion that the site of the
See also:English settlement, which is bounded on the N. by the Suchow creek, on the S. by the Yang-
See also:king canal, and on the E. by the river, was chosen .
The site, thus defined on its three sides (on the W. no boundary was marked out), is three-fifths of a mile in length, and was separated from the native city by a narrow
See also:strip of
See also:land which was subsequently selected as the site of the French settlement . Later again the Americans established themselves on the other side of the Suchow creek, on a piece of land fronting on the river, which there makes a
See also:sharp turn in an easterly direction . A handsome bund runs along the river frontage of the three foreign settlements, and the public buildings, especially in the British settlement, are large and
See also:fine . The
See also:cathedral, which is built in the
See also:style,_ is a notable example of Sir G .
See also:Scott's skill, and the municipal offices,
See also:house and hospitals are all admirable in their way . The
See also:climate is somewhat trying . Shanghai lies low, and, though the early winter is enjoyable,
See also:snow and ice being occasionally seen, the summer months are excessively hot . Cholera occurs in the native city every summer, malarial fever exists and dysentery is
See also:apt to become chronic in
See also:spring and autumn on account of the sudden changes of temperature—a fall of 20° to 300 taking place in a few hours—and the moisture-laden atmosphere . Smallpox is endemic in the Chinese city during the autumn and winter, and enteric is
See also:common in the autumn . In the foreign settlements, owing to sanitary enactments, cholera is rare, and Europeans who adopt ordinary precautions " have nothing to fear from the climate of Shanghai " (China
See also:Directory, vol . ..to ed . 1904) .
At first merchants appeared disinclined to take
See also:advantage of the opportunities offered them at Shanghai . " At the end of the first year of its
See also:history as an open port Shanghai could count only 23 foreign residents and families, r consular
See also:flag, 11 merchants' houses, and 2
See also:Protestant missionaries . Only
See also:forty-four foreign vessels had arrived during the same
See also:period."' By degrees, however, the manifold advantages as a port of trade possessed by Shanghai attracted merchants of all nationalities; and from the
See also:banks of the Hwang-p'u arose handsome dwelling-houses, which have converted a
See also:reed-covered swamp into one of the finest cities in the East . The number of foreigners, other than British, who took up their abode in the British settlement at Shanghai made it soon necessary to adopt some more catholic
See also:form of
See also:government than that supplied by a British consul who had
See also:control only over British subjects, and by common agreement a
See also:committee of residents, consisting of a chairman and six members, was elected by the renters of land for the purposes of general municipal administration . It was expected when the council was formed that the three settlements—the British, French and Americans—would have been incorporated into one
See also:municipality, but
See also:jealousy prevented the fulfilment of the
See also:scheme, and it was not until 1863 that the Americans threw in their lot with the British . In 18J3 the prosperity of the settlements received a severe check in consequence of the capture of the native city by the T'ai-p'
See also:ing rebels, who held possession of the walls from
See also:September in that year to
See also:February 1855 . This incident, though in many ways disastrous, was the cause of the
See also:establishment of the foreign customs service, which has proved of such inestimable advantage to the Chinese government . The confusion into which the customs
See also:system was thrown by the occupation of the city by the rebels induced the Chinese authorities to
See also:request the consuls of Great Britain, France and the
See also:United States to nominate three
See also:officers to superintend the collection of the revenue . This arrangement was found to
See also:work so well that on the reoccupation of the city the native authorities proposed that it should be made permanent, and H . N .
See also:Lay, of the British consular service, was in consequence appointed inspector of the Shanghai customs . The results of Mr Lay's administration proved so successful that when arranging the terms of the treaty of 1858 the Chinese willingly assented to the application of the same system to all the treaty ports, and Mr Lay was thereupon appointed inspector-general of maritime customs .
On the retirement of Mr Lay in 1862 SirRobert
See also:Hart was appointed to the
See also:post . From 1856 to 1864 the trade of Shanghai vastly increased, and its prosperity culminated between 186o and 1864, when the influx of Chinese into the foreign settlement in consequence of the advance E. of the T'ai-p'ing rebels added enormously to the value of land . Both in 186o and again in 1861 the rebels advanced to the walls of Shanghai, but were driven back by the British troops and
See also:volunteers, aided by the
See also:naval forces of England and France . It was in this connexion that General
See also:Gordon assumed the command of the Chinese force, which under his direction gave a reality to the boastful title of " ever-victorious army " it had assumed under the two
See also:American adventurers
See also:Ward and Burgevine . To Shanghai the successful operations of Gordon brought temporarily disastrous consequences . With the disappearance of the T'ai-p'ings the refugees returned to their homes, leaving whole quarters deserted . The loss thus inflicted on the municipality was very considerable, and was intensified by a commercial crisis in
See also:cotton and tea, in both of which there had been a great
See also:deal of over-
See also:speculation . But, though the abnormal prosperity was thus suddenly brought to an end, the genuine trade of the port has steadily advanced, subject of course to occasional fluctuations . For example, in 188o the value of trade was 8,223,017, and in 1908 it was £40,400,000 . The
See also:total burthen of foreign steamers which entered and cleared at Shanghai during 1884 was 3,145,242 tons, while in 1908 it was over 15,000,000 tons . The principal items of import are cotton yarns, metals,
See also:sugar, petroleum and
See also:coal ; of export,
See also:silk, representing in value 34% of the total exports, cotton, tea, rice, hides and skins, wool, wheat and beans . Great Britain and the British colonies supply nearly 31 % of the imports,
See also:Japan 121%, and the United States 12%; and of the exports Great Britain and the British colonies take 18%, the United States 12% and Japan 10 % .
Shanghai, moreover, is not only a port of trade, but is rapidly becoming a large manufacturing and
See also:industrial centre . In this category the first place must be given to cotton mills, which, though not very numerous, give promise of considerable development . The demand in China for cotton
See also:yarn, chiefly the produce of the Bombay mills, has been steadily on the increase . On the other
See also:hand, China produces raw cotton in indefinite quantity, and has hitherto been the
See also:main source of supply for the
See also:Japanese mills .
See also:weaving has been tried in two of the mills, but abandoned in favour of
See also:spinning . Next in importance is the ' The Treaty Ports of China and Japan, by W . F . Mayers . reeling of silk cocoons by machinery . This is gradually supplanting the wasteful method of native reeling, giving a much better finished and consequently more valuble article . Shanghai also contains three large establishments for docking, repairing and building
See also:ships . Among minor
See also:industries are match factories, rice and paper mills, ice, cigarette, piano,
See also:carriage and furniture factories,
See also:carving, &c .
The vastness of British interests in China and the large British population at Shanghai gave rise in 1865 to the establishment of a British supreme
See also:court for China and Japan, Sir Edmund Hornby, then
See also:judge of the British court at Constantinople, being the first judge appointed to the new
See also:office . Now, by virtue of extra-territorial clauses in the various
See also:treaties, all foreigners, subjects of any treaty power, are exempted from the jurisdiction of the Chinese authorities, and made justiciable only before their own officials, As there are now fourteen treaty
See also:powers represented at Shanghai, there are consequently fourteen distinct courts sitting side by side, each administering the
See also:law of its own
See also:nationality . In addition, there is also a Chinese court, commonly called the Mixed Court, though it is no more mixed than any of the others in an international sense, except that a foreign assessor sits with the Chinese judge in cases where any of his own nationality are interested as plaintiffs . At first sight this arrangement seems somewhat complicated, but the principle is
See also:simple enough, viz. that a
See also:defendant must always be sued in the court of his own nationality In criminal cases there is, of course, no difficulty . For the British, English law alone prevails, and they can only be tried and punished in the British court, and so on for every nationality . In
See also:civil cases, where both parties are of the same nationality, there is also no difficulty, e.g. for British subjects the British court is the forum, for German subjects it is the German court . In cases involving
See also:cross actions with mutual accounts, say between an Englishman and a German, if the German constitutes himself
See also:plaintiff he must sue his opponent before the British court, and
See also:vice versa . The greatest
See also:anomaly, however, in respect of the government of Shanghai is the
See also:local municipal control . This is exercised by the foreign community as a whole without regard to nationality, and is a
See also:share of the power which properly belonged to the Chinese local authorities, but which by
See also:convention or usage they have allowed to fall into foreign hands . It is exercised only within the
See also:area termed the foreign settlements, which were originally nothing more than the " area set apart for the residence of foreign merchants." Of these " settlements " there were and are still. only three—the British, acquired in 1845, the French, acquired in 1849, and the American, acquired in 1862 . At an early date, as a foreign
See also:town began to spring up, the
See also:necessity of having some authority to lay out and pave streets, to build drains, &c., for the common benefit, became evident, and as the Chinese authorities shirked the work and the expense, the foreigners resolved to tax themselves voluntarily, and appointed a committee of
See also:works to see the
See also:money properly laid out . In 1854 the consuls of Great Britain, France and the United States drew up a joint
See also:code of regulations applicable to both the then settlements, British and French, which being ratified by the respective govermnents became binding on their respective subjects .
The two areas thus became an international settlement, and the subjects of all three nationalities—the only powers then interested—acquired the same privileges and became liable to the same burdens . The code thus settled was acquiesced in by the Chinese authorities and by other nationalities as they came in, and it conferred on the foreign community local self-government, practically
See also:free from official control of any description . In 1863 the area covered by the regulations was extended by the addition of the American settlement, which meanwhile had been obtained by that government from the Chinese . But about the same
See also:time, 1862, the French decided to withdraw from the joint arrangement, and promulgated a set of municipal regulations of their own applicable to the French area . These regulations differed from those applicable to the joint settlement, in that a general supervision over municipal affairs was vested in the French consul-general, his approval being made necessary to all votes, resolutions, &c., of the ratepayers before they could be enforced at law . Since the above date there have, consequently, been two municipalities at Shanghai, the French and the amllgamated British and American settlements, to which the
See also:original regulations continued to apply . The area of the latter now amounts to some 9 or 10 sq. m . The regulations have been altered and amended from time to time, and they have been accepted expressly or impliedly by all the treaty powers which have since come into the
See also:field . The settlements have thus lost their original character of British or American, and become entirely cosmopolitan . The consuls of all the treaty powers
See also:rank equally, and claim to have an equal
See also:voice in municipal affairs with the British or American consuls . The powers of self-government thus conferred on the foreign community consist in exclusive
See also:police control within the area, in draining,
See also:maintenance of streets and roads, making and enforcement of sanitary regulations, control of markets, dairies and so forth . To meet these expenses the foreign ratepayers are authorized to
See also:levy taxes on land and houses; to levy wharfage dues on goods landed or shipped, and to
See also:charge licence fees .
Taxes are payable by every one living within the settlements, Chinese included, though the latter have no voice in the local administration . The executive is entrusted to a municipal council of nine, elected annually from among the general
See also:body of foreign ratepayers, irrespective of nationality . The legislative
See also:function is exercised by all ratepayers possessing a certain pecuniary qualification in public
See also:meeting assembled . Proxies for absentee landlords are allowed . One such public meeting must be held annually to pass the
See also:budget and
See also:fix the
See also:taxation for the year . No official sanction is required, and no
See also:veto is allowed for such money votes .
See also:Special meetings may be held at any time for special purposes . New legislation of a general kind requires to be approved by all the treaty powers in
See also:order to be binding on their several nationalities, but within certain limits the ratepayers can pass by-
See also:laws which do not require such sanction . The French municipality is worked on similar lines, except that every
See also:vote and every disbursement of money is subject to the approval of the French consul-general . The executive council consists of eight members, four of whom must be French and four may be foreign . The.French consul-general is chairman ex officio, so that the control in any case is French and practically official . Both settlements were originally intended for the residence of foreign merchants only, but as the advantages of living under foreign protection became evident by reason of the security it gave from arbitrary taxation and arrest, Chinese began to
See also:flock in .
See also:movement has continued, and is now particularly
See also:notice-able in the cases of retired officials, many of whom have made Shanghai their home . The total native population in the settlements by the
See also:census of 1895 was 286,753, and the estimated population of the native city was 125,000, making a total for all Shanghai of 411,753 . The census of the foreign population in 1905 showed 3713 British, 2157 Japanese, 1329 Portuguese, 991 Americans, 785 Germans and 568
See also:Indians, out of a total of 11,497 . The magnitude of the foreign interests invested in Shanghai may be gathered from the following rough
See also:summary: Assessed value of land in settlements registered as foreign-owned £5,500,000; docks, wharves and other industrial public companies—market value of stock, X2,250,000; private
See also:property estimated £1,500,000 — total £9,250,000 . This is exclusive of banks, shipping and
See also:insurance companies, and other institutions which draw profits from other places besides Shanghai . SHANHAI-KWAN, a garrison town in the extreme east of the province of Chih-li, China . Pop. about 30,000 . It is situated at the point where the range of hills carrying the Great Wall of China dips to the sea, leaving a kwan or pass of limited extent between China proper and
See also:Manchuria . It is thus an important military station, and the thoroughfare of trade between Manchuria and the great plain of China . The Imperial
See also:Northern railway from
See also:Tientsin and Taku, 174 in. from the former, runs through the pass, and skirts the
See also:shore of the Gulf of Liao-tung as far as the treaty port of Niu-chwang, where it connects with the
See also:railways leading from Port Arthur to the Siberian main
See also:line . The pass formed the
See also:southern limit of the
See also:Russian sphere of influence as defined in the convention between Great Britain and Russia of the 28th of
See also:April 1899 .
JAGANNATH SHANKARSETT (1800-1865)
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