See also:American general, was
See also:born at Albany, N.Y., on the 6th of
See also:March 1831 . His early
See also:life was spent in a
See also:district in
See also:Ohio, and he proceeded to West Point in 1848, graduating in 1853 . He was assigned to the
See also:infantry and served on the frontier and on the Pacific
See also:coast, gaining some experience of war in operations against the
See also:Indians . At the outbreak of the
See also:Civil War in 1861 he had just become first
See also:lieutenant, and soon afterwards he was promoted captain and entrusted with administrative duties in the western theatre of war . Early in 1862 he was commissioned colonel of the 2nd Michigan
See also:cavalry, with which he served in Halleck's army on the
See also:Tennessee . In
See also:June he was placed in command of a cavalry
See also:brigade, and a
See also:month later he won
See also:pro-motion to the
See also:rank of brigadier-general U.S.V. by his skilful conduct of the fight of Booneville on the 1st of
See also:July . He took
See also:part in General
See also:campaign against
See also:Bragg, and led the Irth division of the Army of the Ohio at the hard-fought
See also:battle of
See also:Perryville (
See also:October 8) . Sheridan distinguished himself still more at the sanguinary battle of
See also:Murfreesboro (
See also:river), and on the recommendation of Rosecrans was made major-general of
See also:volunteers, to date from the 31st of
See also:December 1862 . His division took part in Rosecrans's campaign of 1863 and a very distinguished part at Chickamauga and
See also:Chattanooga (q.v.) . Sheridan's leading of his division at the latter battle attracted the
See also:notice of General
See also:Grant, and when the latter, as general in chief of the U.S. armies, was seeking an " active and energetic man, full of spirit and vigour and life " to command the cavalry of the Army of the
See also:Potomac, Sheridan was chosen on the
See also:suggestion of General Halleck . The extraordinary activity of the Union cavalry under his command justified the choice . Sheridan's
See also:corps took part in the battles of the
See also:Wilderness and
See also:House (see the article WILDERNESS), incidents of which led to a bitter
See also:quarrel between Sheridan and Meade and to Sheridan's being despatched by General Grant on a fats reaching cavalry
See also:raid towards
See also:Richmond .
In the course of this was fought the battle of Yellow
See also:Tavern, where the Confederate general J . E . B .
See also:Stuart was killed . After rejoining the army Sheridan fought another well-contested
See also:action at Hawes'
See also:Shop and took and held
See also:Cold Harbor . After the battle at that place Sheridan undertook another raid, this
See also:time towards
See also:Charlottesville (June 7-28), in view of co-operation with the army of General
See also:Hunter in the Valley . In the course of this was fought the action of Trevilian's Station (June II) . A little later came General Sheridan's greatest opportunity for distinction . He was appointed to command a new " Army of the
See also:Shenandoah " to oppose the forces of General Early, and
See also:con-ducted the brilliant and decisive campaign which crushed the Confederate army and finally put an end to the war in
See also:Northern' Virginia (see AMERICAN CIVIL WAR and SHENANDOAH VALLEY .
See also:CAMPAIGNS) . The victories of the Opequan, or Winchester (
See also:September 19),
See also:Hill (September 22) and
See also:Cedar Creek (October to), produced
See also:great elation in the
See also:North and corresponding depression in the Confederacy, and Sheridan was made successively brigadier-general U.S.A. for Fisher's Hill and major-general U.S.A. for Cedar Creek . " Sheridan's Ride " of 20 M. from Winchester to Cedar Creek to take command of the hard-pressed Union troops is a celebrated incident of the war .
His capacity for accepting the gravest responsibilities was shown, not less than by his handling of an army in battle, by his ruthless devastation of the Valley-a severe measure
See also:felt to be necessary both by Sheridan himself and by Grant . From the Valley the cavalry rode through the enemy's country to join Grant before
See also:Petersburg, fighting the action of
See also:Waynesboro', destroying communications and material of war, and finally
See also:reporting to the general-in-chief on the 25th of March 1865 . A few days later the indefatigable Sheridan won the last great victory of the. war at Five Forks . The operations were conducted entirely by him and were brilliantly successful, leading to the retreat of
See also:Lee from the lines of Petersburg and the final catastrophe of Appomattox Court House . In the course of the battle of Five Forks Sheridan once more displayed his utter fearlessness of
See also:criticism by summarily dismissing from his command General G . K .
See also:Warren, an officer of the highest repute, whose corps was only temporarily under Sheridan's orders . The part played by the cavalry corps in the pursuit of Lee was most conspicuous, and Sheridan himself commanded the large forces of infantry and cavalry which cut off Lee's retreat and compelled the surrender of the famous Army of Northern Virginia (see AMERICAN CIVIL WAR and PETERSBURG) . Soon after the close of the war Sheridan, who by these services 'had gained his reputation as one of the greatest soldiers of the time, was sent to exercise the military command in the south-west, where a corps of observation, on the Mexican frontier, watched the struggle between Maximilian and the Liberals (see MExlco:
See also:History) . General Sheridan stated in his
See also:memoirs that material assistance was afforded to the Liberals out of the U.S. arsenals, and the moral effect of his presence on the frontier certainly influenced the course of the struggle to a very great extent . Later, in the Reconstruction
See also:period, he commanded the Fifth Military District (
See also:Louisiana and
See also:Texas) at New
See also:Orleans, where his administration of the conquered states was most stormy, his differences with
See also:Johnson culminating in his recall in September 1867 . He was then placed in
See also:charge of the Department of the
See also:Missouri, which he commanded for sixteen years, and in 1869, on Grant's election to the
See also:presidency and Sherman's consequent promotion to the full rank of general, he was made lieutenant-general .
In 1868–1869 he conducted awinter campaign against the Indians, which resulted in their defeat and surrender . During the Franco-German War of 1870 General Sheridan accompanied the great headquarters of the German armies as the
See also:guest of the
See also:king of Prussia . In 1873, at the time of the " Virginius " incident (see
See also:CUBA), when an invasion of Spain was projected, Sheridan was designated to command the
See also:United States
See also:field army . In 1875 he was sent to New Orleans to
See also:deal with
See also:grave civil disorder, a
See also:duty which he carried out with the same uncompromising severity that he had previously shown in 1867 . In 1883 he succeeded Sherman in the chief command of the United States army, which he held until his
See also:death at Nonquitt, Mass., on the 5th of
See also:August 1888 . A few months previously he had been raised to the full rank of general . As a soldier, Sheridan combined brilliant courage and pains-taking skill . As a fighting general he was unsurpassed . Few of the leaders of either side could have stemmed the
See also:tide of defeat as he did at Stone river and turned a mere rally into a great victory as he did at Cedar Creek, by the pure force of
See also:personal magnetism . His restless energy was that of a
See also:Charles XII., to whom in this respect he has justly been compared, while, unlike the king of Sweden, he was as careful and vigilant as the most methodical strategist . He was a devout
See also:Roman Catholic, and in his private life he had the esteem and admiration of all who knew him well . General Sheridan was president of the Society of the Army of the Potomac and of the Society of the Army of the
See also:Cumberland, the latter for fourteen years .
In 1875 he married
See also:Irene, daughter of General D . H . Rucker, U.S.A . His Personal Memoirs (2 vols.) were published soon after his death .
SHERIF PASHA (1818-1887)
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