See also:BUILDING Battleships . . . E . F . R . G . I . U . J . 9 6 8 8 2 4 3 Armd . Cruisers 3 2 2 3 2 .. I Protected Cruisers, II .
9 • . • • 5 • • • • 3 Unprotected Cruisers 2 .. . . . . . . T.B . Destroyers . . 37 17 .. 12 2 15 . 2 Submarines . . . II 23 3 * 10 3 * Number uncertain .
organizations of the
See also:world, and of the
See also:sea fighting of the
See also:time are to be found in the historians of
See also:Greece and Rome: Signor G . Corazzini has written a Storia della marina militare antica (Livorno, 1882) . Valuable details of the Imperial
See also:navy and of the
See also:Byzantine navy will be found in
See also:Professor Bury's appendices to his edition of Gibbon's Decline and Fall, vol . 1. apx . 5, and vol. vi . apx . 5 . General histories of the navies of the world have been written, but they are inevitably
See also:apt to be little more than jejune reviews of the
See also:dates, and results of battles . This is certainly the case with the
See also:folio of the
See also:English writer Josiah Burchett, A
See also:History of the most remarkable transactions at Sea, from the earliest accounts of time to the conclusion of the last war with France, wherein is given an account of the most considerable
See also:Naval Expeditions, Sea Fights, Stratagems, Discoveries and other Maritime Occurrences that have happened among all nations that have flourished at Sea; and in a more particular manner of Great Britain from the time of the Revolution in 1688 to the aforesaid
See also:period (1720) . The later
See also:part is however valuable, for Burchett, who was secretary to the
See also:admiralty, had
See also:access to
See also:good authorities for his own time, and had served at sea as secretary to
See also:Orford . There is an Histoire de la marine de tous
See also:les peuples, by M . A. du Sein (
See also:Paris, 1879) which is of no great value .
See also:Medieval: As regards the medieval navies the first place may be allowed to the Italians . A general bibliography of
See also:Italian nautical literature, Saggio de una bibliografia marittima italiana, occupying fifty-eight pages,
See also:drawn up by Signor Enrico Celani, will be found in the Revista marittima, supplement for 1894 (Rome) . The histories of the different Republics of the
See also:middle ages record their maritime enterprises . An excellent
See also:book, which gives far more than its title promises, is the Storia della marina pontificia of A . Guglielmotti, O.P., in Io volumes published at different times, and in two
See also:editions, at Florence 1856, &c . The general maritime history of the Mediterranean in the middle ages is well illustrated in the Memorias sobre la marina comercio y arses de
See also:Barcelona (1779–1792) by Don A . Capmany . The naval enterprises of the Norsemen are dealt with in a scholarly fashion by M . G . B . Depping, Histoire
See also:des expeditions maritimes des Normands (1826); and with newer knowledge by Mr C . F .
See also:Keary, The Vikings of Western Christendom (1891) . The medieval periods of Western navies are treated in their respective naval histories . Great Britain:—The History of the Royal Navy to the French Revolution, by
See also:Sir N .
See also:Harris Nicolas (1847), is unfortunately in-complete . It ends at the
See also:year 1422, but is the
See also:work of a most laborious and exact
See also:antiquary, who had been a naval officer in his youth . The administrative history of the
See also:British navy until 166o is the subject of the History of the Administration of the Navy and of
See also:Shipping in relation to the Navy (1896) by Mr M .
See also:Oppenheim —a most valuable collection of materials . The
See also:campaigns and battles of the navy are told, generally from the public letters of the admirals, and with no great measure of
See also:criticism in several compilations . The Naval History of England (1735) by Mr T . Lediard, is copious and useful . The Naval Chronology, or an
See also:Summary of Naval and Maritime Events from the Time of the Romans to the Treaty of Peace 1802, by Captain Isaac
See also:Schomberg (1802), contains a mass of valuable information, lists of ships, dates of construction, &c., and some administrative details . Less comprehensive, but still useful, is such a compilation as The General History of the
See also:Late War (that is, the Seven Years' War), by Dr
See also:John Entick " and other gentlemen " (1763) .
A much better book is The Naval and Military
See also:Memoirs of Great Britain 1727 10_ 1783 (1804) by Mr R . Beatson, a very careful and well-informed writer who had seen some service as a marine officer . The Lives of the British Admirals, containing a new and accurate Naval History from the earliest periods, by Dr J .
See also:Campbell (1779), may he profitably consulted, with caution, for it by no means justifies its claim to novelty and accuracy in all parts . The Naval History of Great Britain, from 1793 to the accession of
See also:George IV., by Mr W .
See also:James (1827), republished with a continuation by Captain
See also:Chamier in 1837, is a standard authority . A far less useful work, which, however, is in parts written from first-
See also:hand knowledge, is The Naval History of Great Britain by Captain W . P .
See also:Brenton, first published in 1823, and republished in 1836 . The
See also:Field of
See also:Mars, a compilation in
See also:form published in 1781, with an enormous title-page, is not without value for some of the naval transactions of the 18th century . The History of the British Navy from the Earliest Period to the
See also:Present Time (1863) by Dr C . D .
Yonge, contains some
See also:matter for the naval transactions of the 19th century . The Royal Navy, in 7 large volumes (1897–1903), edited and partly written by Sir W . L . Clowes, is a compilation of unequal value . Some of Sir W . L . Clowes's coadjutors, notably Captain
See also:Mahan and Sir C . R .
See also:Markham, are of high
See also:standing and authority . The book is copiously illustrated . The Naval
See also:Chronicle, 1799–1818, a
See also:magazine, contains masses of useful matter, for the Revolutionary and
See also:Wars . The Royal Naval Biography of Captain John
See also:Marshall, giving the lives of all
See also:officers on the
See also:list in 1823 or promoted later (1823-1835), with a supplement (1827–1830), may be consulted, but is too uncritical and too uniformly laudatory .
See also:Biographical Dictionary:
See also:life and services of every living officer (1846), by
See also:Lieutenant W . R . O'Bryne, is a solid book of reference . The publications of the Navy Record Society (1894 and subsequent years) contain large and valuable publications of original matter, with some reprints of old authorities, such as Sir W .
See also:Monson's Tracts, which were difficult of access . See also A
See also:Short History of the Royal Navy, by
See also:Hannay . France:—The naval history of France has been much written about since 184o . Not many of the books published have been of considerable value . The Histoire maritime de la France of M . Leon Guerin (1844), was meant to meet a popular demand and satisfy
See also:national vanity . The Histoire de la marine francaise of M .
See also:Eugene Sue (1845–1846) is mainly a
See also:romance, but it contains some useful evidence .
The Histoire de la marine francaise of LeComte de Bonfils Lablenie (1845), a naval officer, is of more value, but is somewhat wanting in criticism . The Precis historique de la marine francaise of M .
See also:Chasseriau (1845); the Histoire generale de la marine (1853); the Histoire de la marine francaise of M . In
See also:Saint (1877) ; and the Histoire nationale de la marine frangaise depuis
See also:Bart (1878) of M . Trousset are compilations . La Marine de guerre, ses institutions militaires depuis son origine jusqu'a nos jours, by Capne Gougeard (1877); the Essai sur l'histoire de l'administration de la marine francaise of M .
See also:Lambert de Sainte Croix (1892); and the excellent little book of M . Loir on La Marine royale, 1789 (n.d.), may be consulted with pleasure and profit . The three books of M . Jai, Archeologie navale (184o), Glossaire nautique .(1848) and Abraham du Quesne et la marine de son temps (1872) are all of high value . Les Batailles navales de la France of Capne Troude (1867), is a carefully written account of naval actions . The Histoire de la marine francaise, pendant la guerre de l'independence americaine (1877); Sous la premiere republique (1886); Sous le consulat et l'
See also:empire (1886) ; De 1815 al 87o (1900) and La Marine frangaise et la marine allemande, 1870–1871 (1873) of Capne Chevalier, are thorough and critical .
M . G . Lacour-Gayet, Professor at L'Ecole superieure de la Marine, has published two books of serious
See also:research, but marked by some national
See also:prejudice, La Marine militaire de la France sous le regne de
See also:Louis X V . (1902), and La Marine militaire de la France sous le regne de Louis XVI . (1905) . The Recherches sur l'ancien clos des galees de
See also:Rouen (1864) of M . C. de Robillard de Beaurepaire, and the life of Jean de Vienne by the
See also:Marquis Terrier de Loray (1878), are valuable monographs on passages of early French naval history . The Projets et tentatives de debarquement aux Iles britanniques by Capne Desbriere (1900 seq.) is a most valuable authority . A very scholarly Histoire de la marine frangaise was begun in 1899 by M . C. de la Ronciere .
See also:Miscellaneous :—The standard authorities for
See also:Spanish naval history are, La Marina de Castilla (1892), and La
See also:Armada Espanola desde la union de Castilla y
See also:Aragon (1895–1901), of Captain Cesareo
See also:Fernandez Duro . The Geschienes
See also:van het Nederlandsche Zeewezen of Mr J .
C. de Jonghe (1858), is an admirable and exhaustive history of the Dutch navy . The History of the Maritime Wars of the
See also:Turks, by Haji Khalfa (or Hugji Chalifa), translated by Mr J .
See also:Mitchell for the
See also:Translation Fund (1831), may be read with curiosity and some profit . There are two general histories of the navy of the
See also:United States by Fenimore
See also:Cooper (1839), and by Mr E . S . Maclay (1894) ; the second is the
See also:fuller, and the more critical . Captain Mahan's Influence of Sea Power on History 1660–1783 (189o), and his Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire 1793 1812 (1892), must be classed apart as studies of the general inter-
See also:action of navies on one another and on
See also:international relations . The long series of readable monographs by
See also:Admiral Jurien de la Graviere, covering the whole field of naval warfare from the Peloponnesian War to his own time, contain much information and sound criticism . (D .
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