SHIRAZ , thecapital of the province of Fars in
See also:Persia, situated in a fertile plain, in 2g° 36' N., 52° 32' E , at an
See also:elevation of 5100 ft., 156 m. by road N.E. by E. from
See also:Bushire (112 M.
See also:direct) . According to Eastern authorities Shiraz was founded in A.D . 693 by Mahommed b . Yusuf Thakefi, a
See also:brother of the famous Hajjaj . It is approached on the south from the Persian Gulf through lofty and difficult
See also:mountain passes (highest 7400 ft.) and on the
See also:north through chains of hills which
See also:separate the plain of Shiraz from that of Mervdasht, where the ruins of
See also:Persepolis are . It is surrounded by a low mud
See also:wall flanked by towers, and a dry ditch, and
See also:measures about 4 M. in circumference . There are six
See also:gates . The
See also:town is divided into eleven quarters (mahalleh), one of which is exclusively inhabited by Jews and called Mahalleh Yahudi . The population of Shiraz is estimated at 6o,000, but in 1884 it was 53,607, of which 1970 were Jews . The houses of Shiraz are, in general, small, and the streets narrow . A
See also:bazaar, built by Kerim Khan Zend, forms an exception to this ; it is about 500 yds. in length and has a vaulted roof 22 ft. high, and contains many spacious shops well supplied with goods and merchandise . There are many mosques, the most notable being the old Jama, a foundation of the Saffarid ruler Amr b .
See also:Leith in 894, now in a state of ruin; the new Jama, generally called Masjed i Nau; the New Mosque, built by Atabeg S'ad b . Zengi, c . 1200; and the Jama i Vakil, built by Kerim Khan Zend in 1766 . Shiraz still possesses the title "
See also:Dar ul ilm," the " Seat of Know-ledge," and has many colleges (madresseh), the
See also:oldest being the Mansurieh built in 1478 by Seyed Sadr ed din Mahommed Dashteki; the Hashimiyeh and Nizamieh date from the
See also:middle of the 17th century, the
See also:college called M. i Agha Baba was begun by Kerim khan Zend, c . 1760, but finished in 1823 by Agha Baba Khan Mazanderani . Of the twenty caravanserais, or more, which Shiraz has, the oldest is that called
See also:Car Chiragh
See also:Ali, built in 1678 . There are several shrines of
See also:Imam-zadehs, the most venerated and
See also:rich being that of Seyed Amir Ahmed, commonly known as Shah Chiragh, a son of Musa Kazim, the seventh imam of the Shiites . It was built c . 1240 by Atabeg
See also:Abu Bekr . Two of Shah Chiragh's
See also:brothers and a
See also:nephew also989 have their
See also:graves at Shiraz . Within the town and in close proximity to it are many pleasant gardens (bagh), among them the B . Jehan Nema (Kerim Khan 1766), where C .
J . Rich,
See also:resident at
See also:Bagdad and explorer of
See also:Babylon and
See also:Kurdistan, died on the 5th of
See also:October 1821, and the adjoining B. i Nau (18ro); B. i Takht i Kajar (built 1087 by Atabeg Karajeh under the Seljuk Malik Shah; restored 1794 by
See also:order of Agha Mahommed Khan, the first Kajar ruler); B. i Dilgusha (restored 1785), &c . Close to the last-mentioned
See also:garden is the Sadiyeh, an enclosure with the
See also:tomb of the celebrated poet S'adi, and in a cemetery near the
See also:northern side of the town stands the Hafiziyeh, with the tomb of the likewise celebrated poet
See also:Hafiz, a sarcophagus made of yellow Yezd marble with two of the poet's odes beautifully chiselled in
See also:relief in a number of elegant panels upon its lid . A
See also:fine view of the town and environs is obtained from the narrow pass (tang), which leads into the Shiraz plain a mile or two north of the city, and " so overwhelmed with astonishment at the beauty of the panorama is the wayfarer expected to be, that even the pass takes its name of Tang i Allahu
See also:Akbar, the Pass of
See also:God is Most Great, from the expression that is supposed to leap to his lips as he gazes upon the entrancing spectacle " (Curzon) . The most noted product of Shiraz is its
See also:wine made from the famous grapes of the Khullar vineyards, 30 M . N.W. of Shiraz, but only a very small quantity of it is exported, and religious scruples still prevent its manufacture on a large scale . The
See also:climate of Shiraz is agreeable and healthy in the winter, but unhealthy in the
See also:spring and summer .
See also:July is the hottest
See also:month with a mean temperature of 85°,
See also:February the coldest with 47° The lowest temperature observed during a number of years was 21°, the highest 1130, showing a difference of 92° between extremes . The mean
See also:annual temperature is 65° . Earthquakes are of frequent occurrence; those in
See also:modern times which caused great loss of
See also:life and destruction of
See also:property happened in 1824 and 1853 . Shiraz is the residence of a British
See also:consul (since 1903) and has
See also:post and telegraph offices . On a
See also:hill adjoining the Dilgusha garden stand the ruins of an old
See also:castle known as Kal'ah i
See also:Bender (a corruption of Fahn-dar), with two
See also:wells hewn in the
See also:rock to a
See also:depth of several
See also:hundred feet .
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