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SILVESTRINES, or SYLVESTRINES

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Originally appearing in Volume V25, Page 120 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SILVESTRINES, or SYLVESTRINES, an order of monks under the Benedictine rule, founded 1231 by St Silvester Gozzolini. He was born at Osimo near Ancona and held a canonry there. About 1227 he resigned it to lead an austere eremitical life. Disciples came to him, and in 1231 he built a monastery at Montefano. The rule was the Benedictine, but as regards poverty in external things, far stricter than the Benedictine. The order was approved in 1247 by Innocent IV., and at Silvester's death in 1267 there were eleven Silvestrine monasteries. At a later date there were 56, mostly in Umbria, Tuscany and the March of Ancona. In 1907 there were nine Silvestrine houses, one in Rome, and about 6o choir monks. Since 1855 they 1 A communication to Eichhorn on the Paris MS. of the Syro-Hexaplar version of IV. Kings formed the basis of a paper in the latter's Repertorium, vol. vii. (1780). This was de Sacy's literary debut. It was followed by text and translation of the letters of the Samaritans to Jos. Scaliger (ibid. vol. xiii., 1783) and by a series of essays on Arabian and Persian history in the Recueil of the Academy of Inscriptions and in the Notices et extraits. School gardens and school farms have been widely introduced, while bee-keeping is taught in over 50 schools. Owing to the efforts of the zemstvos (local councils), sanitation is well looked after. Agri-culture is the principal occupation. Out of the total area the peasant village communities hold 40%, private owners 20%, the imperial domains 5 %, and the towns and the crown o.6%. The area under forests amounts to 30% of the whole and over 5o% is under cultivation. The peasants are rapidly buying land in considerable quantities. Most of their allotments (more than 76%) are cultivated, and besides what they own they rent over 500,000 acres from private owners. The principal crops are wheat, rye, oats, barley and potatoes. Good breeds of horses are kept, and considerable numbers are exported. Fishing (sturgeon) is carried on in the Volga and the Sura, timber trade in the N. and shipbuilding on the Sura. Domestic trades give employment to over 15,000 persons; carts, sledges, wheels and all sorts of wooden wares are made in the villages, as also felt goods, boots, gloves, caps, handkerchiefs, ropes and fishing-nets, all extensively exported. The factories employ less than 20,000 persons. They comprise mainly cloth mills, flour-mills and distilleries, with tanneries, glass, oil and starch works, There are 82 fairs, the most important of which are held at Simbirsk, Syzran and Karsun. There is a considerable export trade in grain, °mostly rye, and in flour. have had a house and a mission in Ceylon. The order has no history. The habit is blue. See Helyot, Histoire des ordres religieux (1718), vi. c. 21; Max Heimbucher, Orden u. Kongregationen (1907), i. § 3o; Wetzer u. Welte, Kirchenlexicon (ed. 2). (E. C. B.)
End of Article: SILVESTRINES, or SYLVESTRINES
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PAUL ARMAND SILVESTRE (1837-1901)
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