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SIMLA

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V25, Page 122 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SIMLA, a town and district in British India, in the Delhi division of the Punjab. The town is the summer residence of the viceroy and staff of the supreme government, and also of the Punjab government. It is 58 m. by cart-road from the railway station of Kalka, which is 1116 m. from Calcutta. A metre-gauge railway, 68 m. long, was opened from Kalka to Simla in 1903. The population in 1901 was 13,960, but that was only the winter population, and the summer census of 1904 returned the number of 35,250. The sanatorium of Simla occupies a spur of the lower Himalaya, running E. and W. for about 6 m. The ridge culminates at the E. in the eminence of Jakko, in the vicinity of which bungalows are most numerous; the viceregal lodge stands on Observatory Hill. The E. of the station is known as Chota Simla and the W. as Boileauganj. The situation is one of great beauty; and the houses, built separately, lie at elevations between 6600 and 8000 ft. above sea-level. To the N., a beautiful wooded spur, branching from the main ridge, is known as Elysium. Three miles W. is the cantonment of Jutogh. The minor sanatoria of Kasauli. Sabathu, Dagshai and Solon lie some distance to the S. The first European house at Simla was built in 1819, and the place was first visited by a governor-general in 1827. It has gradually chronicler, embraced the monastic life before the year ro83 in the monastery of Jarrow; but only made his profession at a later date, after he had removed with the rest of his community to Durham. He was author of two historical works which are particularly valuable for northern affairs. He composed his Historia ecclesiae Dunelmensis, extending to the year 1096, at some date between 1104 and IIo8. The original manuscript is at Durham in the library of Bishop Cosin. It is divided into four books, which are subdivided into chapters; the order of the narrative is chronological. There are two continuations, both anonymous. The first carries the history from Io96 to the death of Ranulf Flambard (1129); the second extends from 1133 to 1144. A Cambridge MS. contains a third continuation covering the years 1141-11J4. About 1129 Simeon undertook to write a Historia regum Anglorum et Dacorum. This begins at the point where the Ecclesiastical History of Bede ends. Up to 957 Simeon merely copies some old Durham annals, not otherwise preserved, which are of value for northern history; from that point to 1119 he copies Florence of Worcester with certain interpolations. The section dealing with the years 1119–1129 is, however, an independent and practically contemporaneous narrative. Simeon writes, for his time, with ease and perspicuity; but his chief merit is that of a diligent collector and copyist. Other writings have been attributed to his pen, but on no good authority. They are printed, along with his undoubted works, in the Scriptores decem of Roger Twysden (1652). The most complete modern edition is that of Thomas Arnold (" Rolls " series, 2 vols., 1882-1885). The value of the " Northumbrian Annals," which Simeon used for the Historia regum, has been discussed by J. H. Hinde in the preface to his Symeonis Dunelmensis opera, vol. i. pp. xiv. If. (1868); by R. Pauli in Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte, xii. pp. 137 sqq. (Gottingen, 1872); and by W. Stubbs in the introduction to Roger of Hoveden, vol. i. p. x. (" Rolls " series). Simeon's works have been translated by J. Stevenson in his Church Historians of,England, vol. iii. part ii. (1855). (H. W. C. D.)
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