See also:ancient medical writers, as is apparent from the accurate description of the disease given by
See also:Celsus and Aretaeus . Its occurrence in an epidemic
See also:form was noticed by various physicians in the 16th century, and an admirable account of the disease was subsequently given by
See also:Thomas Sydenham in 1669-167z . This disease is sometimes called Cholera Nostras, the word nostras, which is
See also:good Latin and used by
See also:Cicero, meaning " be-longing to our
See also:country." The relations between it and
See also:Asiatic cholera (see below) are obscure . Clinically they may exactly resemble each other, and
See also:bacteriology has not been able to draw an absolute
See also:line between them . The real difference is epidemiological, cholera nostras having no epidemic significance . The chief symptoms in well-marked cases are vomiting and purging occurring either together or alternately . The seizure is usually sudden and violent . The contents of the stomach are first ejected, and this is followed by severe retching and vomiting of thin fluid of bilious appearance and bitter taste . The diarrhoea which accompanies or succeeds the vomiting, and is likewise of bilious character, is attended with severe griping abdominal
See also:pain, while cramps affecting the legs or arms greatly intensify the suffering . The effect upon the
See also:system is rapid and alarming, a few
See also:hours of such an attack sufficing to reduce the strongest
See also:person to a state of extreme prostration . The
See also:surface of the
See also:body becomes
See also:cold, the
See also:pulse weak, the
See also:voice husky, and the whole symptoms may resemble in a striking manner those of malignant cholera, to be subsequently described . In unfavourable cases, particularly where the disorder is epidemic,
See also:death may result within
See also:forty-eight hours .
Generally, however, the attack is arrested and recovery soon follows, although there may remain for a considerable
See also:time a degree of irritability of the alimentary canal, rendering necessary the utmost care in regard to
See also:diet . Attacks of this kind are of frequent occurrence in summer and autumn in almost all countries . They appear specially liable to occur when cold and
See also:damp alternate with
See also:heat . Occasionally the disorder prevails so extensively as to constitute an epidemic . The exciting causes of an attack are in many cases errors in diet, particularly the use of unripe fruit and new vegetables, and the excessive drinking of cold liquids during perspiration . Out-breaks of this disorder in a
See also:household or community can some-times be traced to the use of impure
See also:water, or to noxious emanations from the sewers . In the treatment, vomiting should be encouraged so long as it shows the presence of undigested
See also:food, after which opiates ought to be administered . Small opium pills, or
See also:Dover's powder, or the aromatic powder of
See also:chalk with opium, are likely to be retained in the stomach, and will generally succeed in allaying the pain and diarrhoea, while ice and effervescing drinks serve to quench the thirst and subdue the sickness . In aggravated cases where medicines are rejected, enemata of
See also:starch and
See also:laudanum, or the hypodermic injection of morphia, ought to be resorted to .
See also:Counter-irritation by
See also:mustard or
See also:turpentine over the
See also:abdomen is always of use, as is also
See also:friction with the hands where cramps are
See also:present . When sinking threatens,
See also:brandy and
See also:ammonia will be called for . During convalescence the food should be in the form of milk and farinaceous diet, or
See also:light soups, and all indigestible articles must be carefully avoided .
In the treatment of this disease as it affects
See also:children (Cholera Infantum), most reliance is to be placed on the administration of chalk and the use of starch enemata . In their case opium in any form cannot be safely employed .
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