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SIQUIJOR

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Originally appearing in Volume V25, Page 154 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SIQUIJOR, a town of the province of Negros Oriental, Philip-pine Islands, on a small island of the same name about 14 M. S.E of Dumaguete, the capital of the province. Pop. (1903) after the annexation of San Juan, 19,416. There are sixty-four barrios or villages in the town, but only one of these had in 1903 more than moo inhabitants. The language is Bohol-Visayan. The principal industry is the raising of coco-nuts and preparing them for market. Other industries are the cultivation of tobacco, rice, Indian corn and hemp, and the manufacture of sinamay, a coarse hemp cloth. The island is of coral formation; its highest point is about 1700 ft." Qui par lignage esteit des buens, apres son pere fu cuens," 4 and such simple knights as " Sire Johan d'Erlee " (Early in Berks), the originator of the poem, who was squire to William the Marshal, or " Seingnor Will. de Monceals," who, though of very good family, was but constable of a castle. Throughout the poem, moreover, though Sire is the form commonly used it is freely interchanged with Seignor and Monseignor. Thus we have " Seingnor Huc. de Corni " (l. 10935), " Sire Hug. de Corni " (1. 10945) and " Monseingnor Huon de Corni (1. 10955). Occasionally it is replaced by Dan (dominus), e.g. the brother of Louis VII. of France is " Dan Pierre de Cortenei " (1. 2131). Very rarely the e of Sire is dropped and we have Sir: e.g. " Sir Will." (1. 12513). Sometimes, where the surname is not territorial, the effect is closely approximate to more modern usage: e.g. " Sire Aleins Basset," " Sire Enris li filz Gerolt " (Sir Henry Fitz Gerald), " Sire Girard Talebot," " Sire Robert Tresgoz." It is notable that in connexion with a. name the title Sire in the poem usually stands by itself: sometimes mis (my) is prefixed, but never li (the). Standing alone, how- ever, Sire denominates a class and the article is prefixed: e.g. les seirs d'Engleterre—the lords of England—(l. 15837).6 " Sire," " Seignor " are used in addressing the king or a great noble. It is thus not difficult to see how the title " Sir " tame in England to be " prefixed to the expressions of knights." Knight-hood was the necessary concomitant of rank, the ultimate proof of nobility. The title that expressed this was Sire " or " Sir " prefixed to the Christian name. In the case of earls or barons it might be lost in that of the higher rank, though this was not t Certainly not " from Cyr, KVp, a diminutive of the Greek word Kbpioi " (F. W. Pixley, A History of the Baronetage, 1900, p. 208). 2 For not very obvious reasons some baronets now object to the contracted form " Bart.," which had become customary. See Pixley, op. Cit. p. 212. 3 Edited in 3 vols., with notes, introduction and mod. French translation by Paul Meyer for the Soc. de 1'Histoire de France (Paris, 1891). 4 " Who was of good lineage and after his father became earl." 6 Cf. 1. 18682. N'entendi mie bien li sire Que mis sire Johan volt dire. ii is 19 12, Coelom of upper lip; it is continuous with 21. 13, Mouth. 14, Lower lip. 15, Blood-sinus of ventral side, continuous with 6. 16, Ventral portion of " skeleton." 17, Ventral nerve-cord. 18, Coelom, continuous with 12 and 21. 19, Oesophagus. 20, Dorsal vessel arising from the blood-sinus 6. 21, Coelom. mesoblastic universal even much later: e.g. in the 14th century, Sir Henry of three, and only three fingers. The only species, P. striatus, Percy, the earl marshal, or Sir John Cobham, Lord Oldcastle. is a much smaller creature, growing to six inches only, and striated The process by which the title lost all connotation of nobility black and yellow; it inhabits Georgia and Florida. would open up the whole question of the evolution of classes As E. D. Cope has first shown, the siren must be regarded as in England (see GENTLEMAN). In the case of baronets the prefix a degenerate rather than a primitive type. He has observed "Sir" before the Christian name was ordained by King James I. that in young specimens of Siren lacertina (the larva is still un- when he created the order. known) the gills are rudimentary and functionless, and that it is The old use of " Sir " as the style of the clergy, representing only in large adult specimens that they are fully developed in a translation of dominus, would seem to be of later origin; in structure and function; he therefore concludes that the sirens are Guillaume le Mareschal even a high dignitary of the church is the descendants of a terrestrial type of batrachians, which passed still maistre (master): e.g. " Maistre Pierres li cardonals " through a metamorphosis like the other members of their class, (l. 11399). It survived until the honorific prefix " Reverend " but that more recently they have adopted a permanently aquatic became stereotyped as a clerical title in the 17th century. It life, and have resumed their branchiae by reversion. From was thus used in Shakespeare's day: witness " Sir Hugh Evans," what we have said above about Proteus and similar forms, it is the Welsh parson in The Merry Wives of Windsor. In the English evident that the " perennibranchiates " do not constitute a universities there is a curious survival of this use of " Sir " for natural group. dominos, members of certain colleges, technically still " clerks," See E. D. Cope, " Batrachia of North America," Bull. U.S. Nat. being entered in the books with the style of " Sir " without Mus. No. 34 (1889), P. 223. the Christian name (e.g. " Sir Jones "). SIRENIA, the name (in reference to the supposed mermaid-like In ordinary address the title " Sir," like the French Monsieur, appearance of these animals when suckling their young) of an is properly applied to any man of respectability, according to order of aquatic placental mammals, now represented by the circumstances. Its use in ordinary conversation, as readers manati (or manatee) and dugong, and till recently also by the of Boswell will realize, was formerly far more common than is rhytina. Although in some degree approximating in external now the case; nor did its employment imply the least sense of form to the Cetacea, these animals differ widely in structure from inferiority on the part of those who used it. The general decay the members of that order, and have a totally distinct ancestry. of good manners that has accompanied the rise of democracy The existing species present the following leading characteristics. in Great Britain has, however, tended to banish its use, together The head is rounded and not disproportionate in size as compared with that of other convenient forms of politeness, from spoken with the trunk, from which it is scarcely separated by any externally intercourse. As an address between equals it has all but vanished visible constriction or neck. Nostrils valvular, separate, and placed from social usage, though it is still correct in addressing a stranger above the fore-part of the obtuse, truncated muzzle. Eyes very „ small, with imperfectly formed eyelids, capable, however, of con-to call him Sir.” In general it is now used in Great Britain traction, and with a well-developed nictitating membrane. Ear as a formal style, e.g. in letters or in addressing the chairman without any conch. Mouth of small or moderate size, with tumid of a meeting; it is also used in speaking to an acknowledged lips beset with stiff bristles. General form of the body depressed superior, e.g. a servant to his master, or a subaltern to his colonel. fusiform. No dorsal fin. Tail flattened and horizontally expanded. " Sir " is also the style used in addressing the king prince Fore-limbs paddle-shaped, the digits being enveloped in a common g or a P cutaneous covering, though sometimes rudiments of nails are of the blood royal (the French form " Sire " is obsolete). present. No trace of hind-limbs. External surface covered with a In the United States, on the other hand, or at least in certain tough, finely wrinkled or rugous skin, naked, or with sparsely parts of it, the address is still commonly used by people of all scattered fine hairs. classes among themselves, no relation of inferiority or su eriorit The skeleton is remarkable for the massiveness and density of g Y P Y most of the bones, especially the skull and ribs, which add to the being in general implied. specific gravity of these slow-moving animals, and aid in keeping The feminine equivalent of the title "sir" is legally " dame" them to the bottom of the shallow waters in which they dwell, while (doming); but in ordinary usage it is " lady," thus recalling a feeding on mong which may be indicated the largesizeeand backward position the original identity of the French sire with the English of the nasal aperture, and the downward flexure of the front of both " lord." (W. A. P.) jaws. The nasal bones are absent, or rudimentary and attached to
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