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Originally appearing in Volume V23, Page 609 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SIX Or TMESE OPEN ANCNE• OOOOO CN EACH PAIN. or TOWERS. p. and the passage in thickness of wall. passage has tall open arches, which look like those of an aqueduct, and at regular intervals of about 45 ft. massive square towers are built, projecting on the outside of the wall, in three storeys, the top storey rising above the top of the wall. The height of the wall varies according to the contour of the ground; in' parts it was about 6o ft. high outside and 40 inside. Necessaria, supported on two travertine corbels, projected from the top of the wall on the outside beside most of the towers. The Einsiedeln MS. gives a description of the complete circuit, counting fourteen gates, as follows: Porta S. Petri (at the Pons Aelius, destroyed) ; P. Flaminia (replaced by P. del Popolo) ; P. Pinciana (in use) ; P. Salaria (now P. Salara) ; P. Nomentana (replaced by P. Pia) ; P. Tiburtina (now P. S. Lorenzo) ; P. Praenestina (now P. Maggiore) ; P. Asinaria (replaced by P. San Giovanni); P. Metrovia or Metroni (closed); P. Latina (closed) ; P. Appia (now P. S. Sebastiano) ; P. Ostiensis (now P. S. Paolo). On the Janiculan side, P. Portuensis (destroyed) ; P. Aurelia (now Porta San Pancrazio). Besides these there was a gate, now closed (Porta Chiusa), to the south of the Castra Praetoria; and in all probability a gate on the right bank of the Tiber, replaced by the modern Porta Settimiana. These existing gates are mostly of the time of Honorius; each is flanked by a projecting tower, and some are double, with a second pair of towers inside. Several have grooves for a portcullis (cataracta) in the outer arch. The handsomest gate is the P. Appia, with two massive outer towers, three stages high, the upper semi-circular in plan. Many of the gates of Honorius have Christian symbols or inscriptions. The general design of all these gates is much the same—a central archway, with a row of windows over it and two flanking towers, some square, others semicircular in plan. In many of the gates older materials are used, blocks of tufa, travertine, or marble. The doors themselves swung on pivots, the bottom ones let into a hole in the threshold, the upper into projecting corbels. At many points along the line of the Aurelian wall older buildings form part of the circuit—near the Porta Asinaria a large piece of ' The text of the Regionary Catalogues is printed by Richter, Topographie der Stadt Rom,' pp. 371 if. ' Vita Aurel. 21, 39; Zosimus, 1. 37, 49; Eutrop. ix. 15. ' The inscriptions run thus: S. P. Q. R. IMPP . CAESS . D. D. IPi-VICTISSIMIS . PRINCIPIBVS . ARCADIO . ET . HONORIO . VICTORIBVS . AC . TRIVMPHATORIEVS . SEMPER . AVGG . OB . INSTAVRATOS . VRBIS . AETERNAE . MVROS . PORTAS . AC . TVRRES . IMESTIS . IMMENSIS . RVDERIBVS—the rest refers to honorary statues erected to commemorate this work. the Domus Lateranoruni, a house of the 3rd century which gave its name to the Lateran basilica, and a little farther on, by S. Croce in Gerusalemme, the Amphitheatrum Castrense; the latter, of about the end of theist century A.n., has two tiers of arches and engaged columns of moulded brick on the outside. Between the P. Praenestina and the P. Tiburtina comes a large castellum of the Aqua Tepula. The Praetorian Camp forms a great projection near the P. Nomentana. Lastly, the angle near the Porta Flaminia, at the foot of the Pincian Hill, is formed by remains of a lofty and enormously massive building, faced with fine opus reticulatum of the 1st century B.c. Owing to the sinking of the foundation this is very much out of the perpendicular, and was known as the " murus tortus " at a very early time." What this once important building was is uncertain. Two archways which form gates in the Aurelian wall are of much earlier date. The Porta Maggiore consists of a grand double arch of the aqueducts Anio Novus and Claudia built in travertine. The Porta S. Lorenzo enclosed a single travertine arch, built by Augustus where the aqueduct carrying the Aqua Marcia, Tepula, and Julia crossed the Via Tiburtina. The inner gateway, built of massive travertine blocks by Honorius, was pulled down by Pius IX., in 1868.2 Bibliography of Ancient Roman Topography.—Amongst ancient writers special mention is due to Varro (De Lingua Latina),Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Antiquitates Romanae), Ovid (Fasti), Vitruvius (De Architecture), Pliny the Elder (Naturalis Ilistoria), Fmntinus (De Aquis) and the remains of ancient commentaries on Virgil, Horace, &c. The inscriptions found in the city of Rome are contained in vol. VI. of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarun{. Many of them are of the highest importance for Roman topography, e.g. the Basis Capitolina, preserved in the Palazzo 'dei Conservatori, a pedestal which once supported a statue of Hadrian, dedicated in A.D. 136 by the vicomagistri of five regions; on the sides are inscribed the names of the vici and their officials. Vol.' XV. of the C.I.L. contains the inscriptions stamped on tiles and water-pipes, 'aiilhich are likewise of ggreat importance. The Monumentum Ancyranum (Res gestae divi Augusti, ed .2 Mommsen, 1883) reproduces the bronze tablets set up by Augustus on his mausoleum at Rome, and contains a list of the buildings which he erected or restored. The marble plan of Rome (Forma urbis 'Romae, ed. Jordan, 1874; the more recently discovered fragments have only been published in periodicals) dates from the reign of Septimius Severus, who restored the building to which it belonged after the fire of 191 B.C. The plan which it replaced was executed by order of Vespasian. The scale was generally 1: 250; it was oriented with S.E. at the top, N.W. at the bottom. Buildings are of course frequently represented on coins and works of art, and these may often be identified with existing remains. In the reign of Constantine the Great there was compiled a catalogue of the principal buildings of Rome, arranged according to the fourteen regions of Augustus. This has been preserved in two recensions, one made in A.D. 334 and known as the Notitia, the second in or about A.D. 357, and known as the Curiosum urbis Romae. These are called the Regionary Catalogues, and contain, besides lists of buildings, statistics as to the number of vici, domus, insulae, &c., in each region, which are of great value. (See Preller, Regionen der Stadt Rom, Jena, 1846.) In the middle ages, guide-books were written for the use of pilgrims visiting Rome. Besides giving the routes for the principal churches and cemeteries, they mention ancient buildings and give current legends regarding them. The earliest is the Itinerary of Einsiedeln, a MS. of the 8th century preserved in the monastery of Einsiedeln in Switzerland(see C. Huelsen, L'Itinerario di Einsiedeln, 1908). In the 12th century was compiled the Mirabilia urbis Romae, which became the foundation of later guide-books. The last recension is contained in a MS. of the early 15th century. These and other medieval documents are printed in Urlichs' Codex Topographicus urbis Romae (1871). The Ordo Benedicti Canonici (see $Jordan, Topographie, II. 1, 646, and Lanciani, Monumenti Aatichi, I. 437), which gives the route of papal processions, belongs also to the 12th century, and was perhaps written by the author of the Mirabilia..The Liber Pontificalis (ed. Duchesne, Paris, 1886; ed. Mommsen, in Monumenta Germanise historica, vol. i.), which gives the biographies of the early popes and was continued throughout the middle ages, is of value as illustrating the transition from pagan to Christian Rome. Several early views and plans of Rome exist, beginning with the painting by Cimabue in the upper church of S. Francesco at Assisi (1275). A collection of these was published by De Rossi, Piante icnografiche e prospettiche di Roma anteriori al secolo XVI. (1879). Many others have since come to light. (See Huelsen in Bull. Comm. Arch., 1892, p. 38). In Italian and other libraries are preserved large numbers of 'Cf. Procop. Bell. Goth. i. 23. ! On the walls of Aurelian, see (in addition to the general works, mentioned in the bibliography) Nibby and Gell, Le Mura di Roma (1820) ; Quarenghi, Le Mura di Roma (188o) ; and especially Homo, Essai surle regne de l'empereur Aurelien (Paris, 1904), IV' partie, ch. ii., " L'Enceinte de Rome."plans and drawings from ancient remains by the architects. of the 15th and later centuries, e.g. Bramantino, Fra Giocondo, th€ members of the families of Sangallo and Peruzzi, Pirro, Ligorio. Palladio, &c. These are of immense value, since the monuments which they drew have to a large extent been destroyed. Unfortunately they are not always trustworthy, especially those of Ligorio. The drawings at Florence have been indexed by Ferri; amongst recent publications may be noted those of the Codex Escorsalensis by Egger (Vienna, 1905), and of a sketch-book, probably by A. Coner, in the Soane Museum by Dr Ashby, in Papers of the British School at Rome, vol. ii. (1903). Amongst the printed works of the early Italian architects may be named Palladio, Arckitettura'(Venice, 1542), and Terme dei Romani (London, 1732); Serlio; Architetturd (Venice, 1545), and Labacco, Architettnra ed Antichita, (Rome 1557). Engravings of ancient remains in Rome have been published in great numbers since the 16th century; the most important of the earlier collections are the Speculum Romsnae Magnificentiae,a series extending over many years in the 16th century, and Du Perac's Vestigj di Roma (1575). To the 18th century belong the etchings of Piranesi, published in several volumes, and still reproduced from the copper-plates by the Calcografia. The literature of Roman topography would in itself form a large library; the best bibliographical guide is Mau's Katalog der Bibliothek des k. deutschen archaologischen Instituts in Rom (1900). The earliest modern work which can be called scientific is Flavio Biondo's Roma,instaurata, written under Eugenius IV. (1431–1447), first dated edition, 1479. Biondo's work was based on the study of ancient, literary authorities; he was followed in his method and results by the scholars of the 15th and early 16th centuries, e.g. Pozzo, Leo Battista Alberti and Andrea Fulvio. • In the 16th century the study of ancient remains took its place beside that of ancient literature. Marliani, who had followed Biondo in the first edition of his Antiquae urbis Romae topographic', (1538); issued a second edition in 1544, which contained plans and illustrations. For more than a century his book formed the foundation upon which such writers asFaunq, G. Fabricius, Mauro, Panvinius, &c., raised their works. Unfortunately the Regionary Catalogues were largely interpolated' during this period, and published in this form by Panvinius. In 1666 Famiano Nardini's Roma antica appeared, based upon the interpolated version of the Regionary Catalogues; this was productive of disastrous errors, many of which remained uncorrected until our own time. Nardini was followed in the 18th century by such writers as Ficoroni and Venuti; the most important works of this period were those produced by excavators such as Bianchini (Il palazzo dei Cesari, 1738), or independent students of the monuments such as Raphael Fabretti (De Columna Trdjana, 1683; De Aquis et Aquaeductibus, 168o). In the 18th century Winckelmann revived interest in ancient, including Roman, art (especially by his Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums, 1764), and his follower, Carlo, Fea, inaugurated the era of systematic and' scientific excavation, especially in the Forum. In 1829 there was founded the international Institute di Corrispondenze Archeologica (which in 1874 became the Kaiserlich deutsches archaologisches Institut) ; in 1830-42 was issued the Beschreibung der Stadt Rom, by Bunsen and others, in which the grosser errors which had passed current since Nardini's time were corrected. To the same period belong the magnificently illustrated works of Luigi Canina (Indicazione di Roma antica, 183o; Esposizione topografica, 1842; Architettura antica, 1834–44; Foro Romano, 1845; Edifizj di Roma antica, 1848-56), the value of which is impaired by their inaccuracy and the imaginative character of the restorations. The books on Roman topography written in the early ipth century, such as those of Antonio Nibby, still pursued the uncritical methods of Nardini; from 183o onwards, however, we find a series of writers whose work shows the influence of the new criticism. Such were Becker (Topographic der Stadt Rom, 1843), Sir Wm. Gell (Rome and its Vicinity, 1834; rev. ed. E. H. Sunbury, 1846), Braun (Ruiners und Museen Roms, 1854), Reber (Die Ruinen Roms, 1862) and T. H. Dyer (The City of Rome, 1864). Since 1861, when excavations were begun on the Palatine at the instance of Napoleon III., under the direction of P. Rosa, the discovery of ancient remains has made constant progress, and the results have been incorporated in a number of works, of which only the most important can be named here. 'These are: Jordan, Topographie der Stadt Rom im Alterthum, of which three vols. (II, I2, and II.) appeared in 1871–85, and a third (I3) was written after Jordan's death by C. Huelsen and published in 1907; Gilbert, Geschichte und Topographic der Stadt Rom im Alterthum (3 vols., 1883–90): the works of Lanciani, especially Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome (1897) and Storia degli Scavi (in progrea); O. Richter, Topographic der Stadt Rom (ed. 2, 1901) ; Middleton, The Remains of Ancient Rome (2 vols., 1892). A short handbook may be found in S. B. Platner's Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome (Boston, 1904). For the study of recent discoveries (besides the special works referred to in the course of this article) the following periodicals are the most important:-Notizie degli Scavi, published by the Accademia dei Lincei since 1876; Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica comunale di Roma (from 1872) ; Mittheilungen des k. deutschen archdologischen Institute (from 1886); Papers of the British School at Rome (from 19o3), Brief reports of discoveries are published by Dr T. Ashby in the Classical Review. All previous archaeological maps of Rome have been superseded by Lanciani's Formae urbis Romae, in 46 sheets (Milan, 1893-1902). The best recent maps are those in Kiepert's Formae orbis,antiqui, sheets 21 and 22. Kiepert and Huelsen's Formae urbis Romae antiquae date from 1896; they are accompanied, by a Nomenclator topographicus. Homo, Lexique de topographie romaine (1900), is also useful (J. H. M.; H. S. J.).
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SIWARD (d. 1055)

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