See also:ACADEMIES will be found a general account of the
See also:principal bodies of which that word forms
See also:part of the titles, usually denoting some kind of state support or patronage . But that account excludes a number of important scientific, archaeological, and
See also:societies, chiefly founded and carried on by private collective effort . Most of the institutions hereinafter mentioned are still flourishing .
See also:art societies are not included . In their
See also:form learned and literary societies have their -origin in the
See also:Italian academies of the
See also:Renaissance: private scientific societies arose chiefly during the 19th century, being due to the
See also:necessity of increased organization of knowledge and the
See also:desire among scholars for a
See also:common ground to meet, compare results, and collect facts for future generalization . These bodies rapidly tend to increase in number and to become more and more specialized, and it has been necessary to systematize and co-
See also:ordinate their scattered
See also:work . Many efforts have been made from
See also:time to time to tabulate and analyse the literature published in their proceedings, as, for instance, in the Repertorium of Reuss (1801–1821) and the
See also:Catalogue of Scientific Papers of the Royal Society (1867–1902) for physics and natural science, with its subject indexes and the indexes of
See also:Walther (1845) and Koner (1852–1856) for German
See also:historical societies . A more
See also:recent example may be found in G . L . Gomme's
See also:Index of Archaeological Papers (1907) .. A further development of the work done by societies was made in 1822, when, chiefly owing to Humboldt, the Gesellschaft deutscher Naturforscher and Arzte first met at
See also:Leipzig .
This inauguration of the
See also:system of
See also:national congresses was followed in 1831 by the
See also:British Association for the
See also:Advancement of Science, which has served as the
See also:model for similar societies in France,
See also:America, Italy,
See also:Australia and South Africa . The merit of introducing the idea of migratory congresses into France is due to the distinguished archaeologist, M . Arcisse de Caumont (1802–1873), who established the Association Normande, which from" 1845 held a
See also:reunion in one or other of the towns of the province for the discussion of matters
See also:relating to
See also:history, archaeology, science and
See also:agriculture, with
See also:local exhibitions . From the same initiation came the Congres Archeologique de France (1834), which was organized by the Societe Francaise pour la Conservation
See also:des Monuments Historiques, the Congres Scientifique, which held its first
See also:meeting at
See also:Caen in 1833 (directed by the Institut des Provinces), and the Congres des Societes Savantes des Depa.rte ments, which for many years after 185o held its
See also:annual sittings at
See also:Paris . The idea received the sanction of the French
See also:government in 1861, when 'a Congres des Societes Savantes was first convoked at the
See also:Sorbonne by the
See also:minister of public instruction, who had in 1846 produced an Annuaire des Societes Savantes . In Italy
See also:prince of Canino, started an association with like
See also:objects, which held its first meeting at Pisa in 1839 . Russia has had an itinerant gathering of naturalists since 1867 .
See also:International meetings are a natural growth from national congresses . Two remarkable examples of these cosmopolitan societies are the Congres International d'Archeologie et d'Anthropologie Prehistoriques, founded at Spezzia in 1865, and the Congres International des Orientalistes (1873) . I .
PRACTICE AND PROTECTION SOCIETIES OF SPECIAL STUDY
SOCIETY ISLANDS (French Archipel de la Societe)
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