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SOGDIANA (Sugdiane, O. Pers. Sughuda)

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Originally appearing in Volume V25, Page 352 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SOGDIANA (Sugdiane, O. Pers. Sughuda), a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun inscription of Darius (i. ,6), corresponding to the modern districts of Samarkand and Bokhara; it lay north of Bactriana between the Oxus and the Jaxartes, and embraced the fertile valley of the Zerafshan (anc. Polytimetus). Under the Greeks Sogdiana was united in one satrapy with Bactria, and subsequently it formed part of the Bactrian Greek kingdom till the Scythians (see SCYTx1A) occupied it in the middle of the and century B.C. The valley of the Zerafshan about Samarkand retained even in the middle ages the name of the Soghd of Samarkand. Arabic geographers reckon it as one of the four fairest districts in the world. substance which is stirred or tilled by implements such as ploughs and spades. Below this is the subsoil. The soil through being acted upon by the air, heat, frost and other agencies usually consists of finer particles than those comprising the bulk of the subsoil. It contains more roots, and as a rule, is darker in colour than the subsoil on account of the larger proportion of decaying vegetable matter present in it: it is also looser in texture than the subsoil. The subsoil not unfrequently contains materials which are deleterious to the growth of crops, and roots descending into it may absorb and convey these poisonous substances to other parts of the plant or be themselves damaged by contact with them. On this account deeper tillage than usual, which allows of easier penetration of roots, or the carrying out of operations which bring the subsoil to the surface, must always be carefully considered. At first sight few natural materials appear to be of less interest than the soil; yet its importance is manifest on the slightest reflection. From it, directly or indirectly, are obtained all food materials needed by man and beast. The inorganic materials within it supply some of the chief substances utilized by plants for their development and growth, and from plants animals obtain much of their sustenance. Origin of the Soil.—It is a matter of common observation that stones of monuments, walls or buildings which are exposed to the air sooner or later become eaten away or broken up into small fragments under the influence of the weather. This disintegration is brought about chiefly by changes in temperature, and by the action of the rain, the oxygen, and the carbon dioxide of the air. During the daytime the surface of the stone may become very warm, while at night it is speedily cooled. Such alterations in temperature produce strains which frequently result in the chipping off of small fragments of the material composing the stone. Moreover the rain penetrates into the small interstices between its particles and dissolves out some of -the materials which bind the whole into a solid stone, the surface then becoming a loose powdery mass which falls to the ground below or is carried away by the wind. The action of frost is also very destructive to many stones, since the water within their cracks and crannies expands on freezing and splits off small pieces from their surfaces. In the case of lime-stones the carbon dioxide of the air in association with rain and dew eats into them and leads to their disintegration. The oxygen of the air may also bring about chemical changes which result in the production of soluble substances removable by rain, the insoluble parts being left in a loosened state. These " weathering " agents not only act upon stones of buildings, but upon rocks of all kinds, reducing them sooner or later into a more or less fine powder. The work has been going on for ages, and the finely comminuted particles of rocks form the main bulk of the soil which covers much of the earth's surface, the rest of the soil being composed chiefly of the remains of roots and other parts of plants. If the whole of the soil in the British Islands were swept into the sea and the rocks beneath it laid bare the surface of the country would ultimately become covered again with soil produced from the rocks by the weathering processes just described. Moreover where there was no transport or solution of the soil thus produced it would necessarily show some similarity in composition to the rock on which it rested. The soils overlying red sandstone rocks would be reddish and of a sandy nature, while those overlying chalk would be whitish and contain considerable amounts of lime. In many parts of the country soils exhibiting such relationships, and known as sedentary soils, are prevalent, the transition from the soil to the rock beneath being plainly visible in sections exposed to view in railway cuttings, quarries and other excavations. The upper layer or soil proper consists of material which has been subjected swine, sus. " To sully," to besmirch, to cover with " mire " (0. Eng. sol cf. Ger siihkx) is a quite distinct word. Lastly there is a form " soil," used by agriculturists, of the feeding and fattening of cattle with green food such as vetches. This is from O. Fr. saoler, saouler, mod. sotller, Lat. satullsts; full-fed (satur, satiated, satis, enough). to ages of weathering; the bulk of it is composed of finely comminuted particles of sand, clay and other minerals, among which are imbedded larger or smaller stones of more refractory nature. On descending into the substratum the finer material decreases and more stones are met with; farther down are seen larger fragments of unaltered rock closely packed, and this brash or rubble grades insensibly into the unbroken rock below. In many districts the soil is manifestly unconnected in origin with the rock on which it rests, and differs from it in colour, composition and other characters. There are transported or drift soils, the particles of which have been brought from other areas and deposited over the rocks below. Some of the stiff boulder clays or " till so prevalent over parts of the north of England appear to have been deposited from ice sheets during the glacial period. Perhaps the majority of drift soils, however, have been moved to their present position by the action of the water of rivers or the sea. As fast as the rock of a cliff is weathered its fragments are washed to the ground by the rain, and carried down the slopes by small streams, ultimately finding their way into a river along which they are carried until the force of the water is insufficient to keep them in suspension, when they become deposited in the river bed or along its banks. Such river-transported material or alluvium is common in all river valleys. It is often of very mixed origin, being derived from the detritus of many kinds of rocks, and usually forms soil of a fertile character. Quality of Soil.—The good or bad qualities of a soil have reference to the needs of the crops which are to be grown upon it, and it is only after a consideration of the requirements of plants that a clear conception can be formed of what characters the soil must possess for it to be a suitable medium on which healthy crops can be raised. In the first place, soil, to be of any use, must be sufficiently loose and porous to allow the roots of plants to grow and extend freely. It may be so compact that root development is checked or stopped altogether, in which case the plant suffers. On the other hand it should not be too open in texture or the roots do not get a proper hold of the ground and are easily disturbed by wind: moreover such soils are liable to blow away, leaving the underground parts exposed to the air and drought. The roots like all other parts of plants contain protoplasm or living material, which cannot carry on its functions unless it is supplied with an adequate amount of oxygen: hence the necessity for the continuous circulation of fresh air through the soil. If the latter is too compact or has its interstices filled with carbon dioxide gas or with water—as is the case when the ground is water-logged--the roots rapidly die of suffocation just as would an animal under the same conditions. There is another point which requires attention. Plants need very considerable amounts of water for their nutrition and growth; the water-holding capacity is, therefore, important. If the soil holds too much it becomes water-logged and its temperature falls below the point for healthy growth, at any rate of the kinds of plants usually cultivated on farms and in gardens. If it allows of too free drainage drought sets in and the plants, not getting enough water for their needs, become stunted in size. Too much water is bad, and too little is equally injurious. In addition, the temperature of the soil largely controls the yield of crops which can be obtained from the land. Soil whose temperature remains low, whether from its northerly aspect or from its high water content or other cause, is unsatisfactory, because the germination of seeds and the general life processes of plants cannot go on satisfactorily except at certain temperatures well above freezing-point. A good soil should be deep to allow of extensive root development and, in the case of arable soils, easy to work with implements. Even when all the conditions above mentioned in regard to texture, water-holding capacity, aeration and temperature are suitably fulfilled the soil may still be barren: plant food-material is needed. This is usually present in abundance although it may not be available to the plant under certain circumstances, or may heed to be replenished or increased by additions to the soil of manures or fertilizers (see MANURE). Chief Constituents of the Soil.—An examination of the soil shows it to be composed of a vast number of small particles of sand, clay, chalk and humus, in which are generally imbedded larger or smaller stones. It will be useful to consider the nature of the four chief constituents just mentioned and their bearing upon the texture, water-holding capacity and other characters which were referred to in the previous section. Sand consists of grains of quartz or flint, the individual particles of which are large enough to be seen with the unaided eye or readily felt as gritty grains when rubbed between the finger and thumb. When a little soil is shaken up with water in a tumbler the sand particles rapidly fall to the bottom and form a layer which resembles ordinary sand of the seashore or river banks. Chemically pure sand is silicon dioxide (SiO2) or quartz, a clear transparent glass-like mineral, but as ordinarily met with, it is more or less impure and generally coloured reddish or yellowish by oxide of iron. A soil consisting of sand entirely would be very loose, would have little capacity to retain water, would be liable to become very hot in the daytime and cool at night and would be quite unsuitable for growth of plants. The term clay is often used by chemists to denote hydrated silicate of alumina (Al203.2SiO2.2H20), of which kaolin or china clay is a fairly pure form. This substance is present in practically all soils but in comparatively small amounts. Even in the soils which farmers speak of as stiff clays it is rarely present to the extent of more than I or 2 °'°. The word " clay " used in the agricultural sense denotes a sticky intractable material which is found to consist of exceedingly fine particles (generally less than .005 mm. in diameter) of sand and other minerals derived from the decomposition of rocks, with a small amount of silicate of alumina. The peculiar character which clay possesses is probably due not to its chemical composition but to its physical state. When wet it becomes sticky and almost impossible to move or work with farm implements; neither air nor water can penetrate freely. In a dry state it becomes hard and bakes to a brick. It holds water well and is consequently cold, needing the application of much heat to raise its temperature. It is obvious, therefore, that soil composed entirely of clay is as useless as pure sand so far as the growth of crops upon it is concerned. Chalk consists, when quite pure, of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), a white solid substance useful in small amounts as a plant food-material, though in excess detrimental to growth. Alone, even when broken up into small pieces, it is unsuitable for the growth of plants. Humus, the remaining constituent of soil, is the term used for the decaying vegetable and animal matter in the soil. A good illustration of it is peat. Its water-holding capacity is great, but it is often acid, and when dry it is light and incapable of supporting the roots of plants properly. Few of the commonly cultivated crops can live in a soil consisting mainly of humus. From the above account it will be understood that not one of the four chief soil constituents is in itself of value for the growth of crops, yet when they are mixed, as they usually are in the soils met with in nature, one corrects the deficiencies of the other. A perfect soil would be such a blend of sand, clay, chalk and humus as would contain sufficient clay and humus to prevent drought, enough sand to render it pervious to fresh air and prevent water-logging, chalk enough to correct the tendency to acidity of the humus present, and would have within h. various substances which would serve as food-materials to the crops: Generally speaking, soils containing from 30 to' 50% of clay and 5o to 6o%, of sand with an adequate amount of vegetable residues prove the most useful for ordinary farm and garden crops; such blends are known as " foams,” those in which clay predominates being termed clay loan's, and those in which the sand predominates sandy foams. " Stiff clays " contain over 5o% of clay; " light sands " have less than io %. In the mechanical analysis of the soil, after separation of the stones and fine gravel by means of sieves, the remainder of the finer earthis subjected to various processes of sifting and deposition from water with a view of determining the relative proportions of sand, silt and clay present in it. Most of the material termed " sand " in such analyses consists of particles ranging in diameter from •5 to .05 mm., and the " silt " from .05 to .005 mm., the " clay " being composed of particles less than .005 mm. in diameter. The proportional amount of these materials in a sandy soil on the Bagshot beds and a stiff Oxford clay is given below: Soil on Soil on Bagshot Beds. Oxford Clay. Coarse sand 1—•2 mm. . 32 % II % Fine sand .2–•04 mm. 40 ,' I1] ,, Silt •04–•01 mm. I2 „ 19 Fine silt .01–•004 mm. 8 „ 19 Clay below .004 mm. . 8 „ 40 ,, The pore-space within the soil, i.e. the space between the particles composing the soil, varies with the size of these particles and with the way they are arranged or packed. It is important, since upon it largely depends the movement of air and water in the land. It is generally from 30 to 50 % of the total volume occupied by the soil. Where the soil grains are quite free from each other the smaller grains tend to fill up the spaces between the larger ones; hence it might be concluded that in clays the amount of pore-space would be less than in coarser sands. This is the case in " puddled'' clays. but in ordinary clay soils the excessively minute particles of which they largely consist tend to form groups of comparatively large composite grains and it is in such natural soils that the pore-space is largest. Chemical Composition of the Soil.—It has been found by experiment that plants need for their nutritive process and their growth, certain chemical elements, namely, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. With the exception of the carbon and a small proportion of the oxygen and nitrogen, which may be partially derived from the air, these elements are taken from the soil by crops. The following table shows the amounts of the chief constituents removed by certain crops in lb per acre: Crop . Nitro- Phos- Potash. Lime. Mag- Nitro- phoric nesia. gen. Acid. Wheat . . . lb lb lb lb lb 5o 21 29 9 7 Meadow hay 49 12 51 32 14 Turnips to 33 149 74 9 Mangels . . 149 53 300 43 42 Plants also remove from the soil silicon, sodium, chlorine, and other elements which are, nevertheless, found to be unessential for the growth and may therefore be neglected here. Leguminous crops take some of the nitrogen which they require from the air, but most plants obtain it from the nitrates present in the soil. The sulphur exists in the soil chiefly in the form of sulphates of magnesium, calcium and other metals; the phosphorus mainly as phosphates of calcium, magnesium and iron; the potash, soda and other bases as silicates and nitrates; calcium and magnesium carbonates are also common constituents of many soils. In the ordinary chemical analyses of the soil determinations are made of the nitrogen and various carbonates present as well as of the amount of phosphoric acid, potash, soda, magnesia and other components soluble in strong hydrochloric acid. Below are given examples of the analyses of a poor sandy soil and an ordinary loam Poor sandy Soil Loam or on Bagshot Beds. Lias. Nitrogen t9 % 17 % Phosphoric acrid . . . 18 „ •32 Potash . . . • 19 „ • 57 Carbonate of Lime .23 „ I.22 „ Since the dry weight of the first foot of soil over an acre is about 4,000,000 lb the poor sandy soil contains within it: Nitrogen 7,600 lb Phosphoric acid . . . 7,200 Potash 7,600 „ Lime 9,200 From the figures given previously of the amount of nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid removed by a wheat or mangel crop it would appear that this soil has enough of these ingredients in it to yield many such crops; yet experience has shown that these crops cannot be grown on such a poor sandy soil unless manures containing phosphates, potash and nitrogen are added. Many attempts have been made to correlate the results of the analyses of a soil with its known cropping power, but there is yet much to be learnt in regard to these matters. A great proportion of the food constituents which can be extracted by strong hydrochloric acid are not in a condition to be taken up by the roots of plants; they are present, but in a " dormant " state, although by tillage and weathering processes they may in time become "avail-able " to plants. Analyses of this character would appear to indicate the permanent productive capacity of the soil rather than its immediate power of growing a crop. Soils containing less than .25 % of potash are likely to need special application of potash fertilizers to give good results, while those containing as much as •4 or •5"% do not usually respond to those manures. Where the amount of phosphoric acid (P2Os) is less than *05% phosphatic manures are generally found to be beneficial; with more than •1 % present these fertilizers are not usually called for except perhaps in soils containing a high percentage of iron compounds. Similarly soils with' less than '.t % of nitrogen are likely to be benefited by applications of nitrogenous „manures. Too much stress, however, cannot be laid upon these figures, since the fertility of a soil is very greatly influenced by texture and physical constitution, perhaps more so by these factors than by chemical composition. At present it is not possible to determine with accuracy the amount of immediately available plant food-constituents in a soil: no doubt the various species of plants differ somewhat in their power of absorbing these even from the same soil. The method introduced by Dyer of dissolving out the mineral constituents of th” soil with a 1% solution of citric acid, which represents about the average acidity of the roots of most common plants, yields better results. In the case of arable soils, where the amount of phosphoric acid determined by this method falls below •ot %, phosphatic manuring is essential for good crops. The writer has found that many pasture soils containing less than .025 or .03%, respond freely to applications of phosphates; probably in such cases even the weak acid iscapable of dissolving out phosphates from the humus or other compounds which yield little or none to the roots of grasses and clovers. In soils where the potash available to citric acid is less than '•005 %, kainit and other potash fertilizers are needed. Water in the Soil.—The importance of an adequate supply of water to growing crops cannot well be over-estimated. During the life of a plant there is a continuous stream of water passing through it which enters by the root-hairs in the soil and after passing along the stem is given off from the stomata of the leaves into the open air above ground. It has been estimated that an acre of cabbage will absorb from the land and transpire from its leaves more than ten tons of water per day when the weather is fine. In addition to its usefulness in maintaining a turgid state of the young cells without which growth cannot proceed, water is itself a plant food-material and as absorbed from the soil contains dissolved in it all the mineral food constituents needed by plants for healthy nutrition. Without a sufficient supply plants remain stunted and the crop yield is seriously reduced, as we see in dry seasons when the rainfall is much below the average. If one condition is more necessary than another for good crops it is a suitable supply of water, for no amount of manuring or other treatment of the soil will make up for a deficient rainfall. The amount needed for the most satisfactory nutrition varies with different plants. In the case of fair average farm crops it has been shown that for the production of one•ton of dry matter contained in them from 300 to 500 toils of water has been absorbed and utilized by the plants. This may be more than the rainfall, in which case irrigation or special control of the water supply may be necessary. The water-holding capacity of a soil depends upon the amount of free space between the particles of which it is composed into which water can enter. In most cases this amounts to from 3o to 5o% of the volume of the soil. When the pore-space of the soil is filled' with water it becomes water-logged and few plants can effect absorption by their roots, under such conditions. The root-hairs die from want of air, and the whole plant soon suffers. Fields of wheat and other cereals rarely recover after a week's submergence, but orchards and many trees when at rest in winter withstand a flooded or water-logged condition of the soil for two or three weeks without damage. The most satisfactory growth is maintained when the amount of water present is not more than 40 to 6o% of what would saturate it. Under such conditions each particle of soil is surrounded by a thin film of water and in the pore-space. air can freely circulate. It is from such films that the root-hairs absorb all that plants require for their growth. The movement of water into the root-hairs is brought about by the osmotic action of certain salts in their cell-sap. Crops are, however, unable to absorb all the water present in the soil, for when the films become very thin they are held more firmly or cling with more force to the soil particles and resist the osmotic action of the root-hairs. Plants have been found to wither and die in sandy soils containing II % of water, and in clay soils in which there was still present 8% of water. When a long glass tube open at both ends is filled with soil and one end is dipped in _a shallow basin of water, the water is found to move upwards through the soil column just as oil will rise in an ordinary lamp wick. By this capillary action water may be transferred to the upper layers of the soil from a depth of several feet below the surface. In this manner plants whose roots descend but a little way in the ground are enabled to draw on deep supplies. Not only does water move upwards, but it is transferred by capillarity in all directions through the soil. The amount and speed of movement of water by this means, and the distance to which it may be carried, depend largely upon the fineness of the particles composing the soil and the spaces left between each. The ascent of water is most rapid through coarse sands, but the height to which it will rise is comparatively small. In clays whose particles. are exceedingly minute the water travels very slowly but may ultimately reach a height of many feet above the level of the " water-table " below. While this capillary movement of water is of great importance in supplying the needs of plants it has its disadvantages, since water may be transferred to the surface of the soil, where it evaporates into the air and is lost to the land or the crop growing upon it. The loss in this manner was found to be in one instance over a pound of water per day per square foot of surface, the " water-table " being about 4 or 5 ft. below. One of the most effective means of conserving soil moisture is by " mulching," i.e. by covering the surface of the soil with some loosely compacted material such as straw, leaf-refuse or stable-manure. The space between the parts of such substances is too large to admit of capillary action; hence the water conveyed to the surface of the soil is prevented from passing upwards any further except by slow evaporation through the mulching layer. A loose layer of earth spread over the surface of the soil acts in the same way, and a similarly effective mulch may be prepared by hoeing the soil, or stirring it to a depth of one or two inches with harrows or other implements. The hoe and harrow are therefore excellent tools for use in dry weather. Rolling the land is beneficial to young crops in dry weather, since it promotes capillary action by reducing the soil spaces. It should, however, be followed by a light hoeing or harrowing. Ia the semi-arid regions of the. United States, Argentina and other countries where the average annual rainfall lies between to to 20 in., irrigation is necessary to obtain full crops every year. Good crops, however, can often be grown in such areas without irrigation if attention is paid to the proper circulation of water in the. soil and means for retaining it or preventing excessive loss by evaporation. Of course care must be exercised in the selection of plants—such as sorghum, maize, wheat, and alfalfa or lucerne-which are adapted to dry conditions and a warm climate. So far as the water-supply is concerned—and this is what ultimately determines the yield of crops—the rain which falls upon the soil should be made to enter it and percolate rapidly through its interstices. A deep porous bed in the upper layers is essential, and this should consist of fine particles which lie close to each other without any tendency to stick together and " puddle " after heavy showers. Every effort should be made to prepare a good mealy tilth by suitable ploughing, harrowing and consolidation. In the operation of ploughing the furrow slice is separated from the soil below, and although in humid soils this layer may be left to settle by degrees, in semi-arid regions this loosened layer becomes dry if left alone even for a few hours and valuable water evaporates into the air. To prevent this various implements, such as disk harrows and specially constructed rollers, may be used to consolidate the upper stirred portion of the soil and place it in close capillary relationship with the lower unmoved layer. If the soil is allowed to become dry and pulverized, rain is likely to run off or " puddle " the surface without penetrating it more than a very short distance. Constant hoeing or harrowing to maintain a natural soil mulch layer of 2 or 3 in. deep greatly conserves the soil water below. In certain districts where the rainfall is low a crop can only be obtained once every alternate year, the intervening season being devoted to tillage with.a view of getting the rain into the soil and retaining it there for the crop in the following year. Bacteria in the Soil.—Recent science has made much progress in the investigation of the micro-organisms of the soil. Whereas the soil used to be looked upon solely as a dead, inert material containing certain chemical substances which serve as food constituents of the crops grown upon it, it is now known to be a place of habitation for myriads of minute living organisms upon whose activity much of its fertility depends. They are responsible for many important chemical processes which make the soil constituents more available and better adapted to the nutrition of crops. One cubic centimetre of soil taken within a foot or so from the surface contains from i z to 2 millions of bacteria of many different kinds, as well as large numbers of fungi. In the lower depths of the soil the numbers decrease, few being met with at a depth of 5 or 6 ft. The efficiency of many substances, such as farm-yard manure, guanos, bone-meal and all other organic materials, which are spread over or dug or ploughed into the land for the benefit of farm and garden crops, is bound up with the action of these minute living beings. Without their aid most manures would be useless for plant growth. Farm-yard manure, guanos and other fertilizers undergo decomposition in the soil and become broken down into compounds of simple chemical composition better suited for absorption by the roots of crops, the changes involved being directly due to the activity of bacteria and fungi. Much of the work carried On by these organisms is not clearly understood; there are, however, certain processes which have been extensively investigated and to these it is necessary to refer. It has been found by experiment that the nitrogen needed by practically all farm crops except leguminous ones is best supplied in the form of a nitrate; the rapid effect of nitrate of soda when used as a top dressing to wheat or other plants is well known to farmers: It has long been known that when organic materials such as the dung and urine of animals, or even the bodies of animals and plants, are applied to the soil, the nitrogen within them becomes oxidized, and ultimately appears in the form of nitrate of lime, potash or some other base. The nitrogen in decaying roots, in the dead stems and leaves of plants, and in humus generally is sooner or later changed into a nitrate, the change being effected by bacteria. That the action of living organisms is the cause of the production of nitrates is supported by the fact that the change does not occur when the soil is heated nor when it is treated with disinfectants which destroy or check the growth and life of bacteria. The process resulting in the formation of nitrates in the soil is spoken of as nitrification. The steps in the breaking down of the highly complex nitrogenous proteid compounds contained in the humus of the soil, or applied to the latter by the farmer in the form of dung and organic refuse generally, are many and varied; most frequently the insoluble proteids are changed by various kinds of putrefactive bacteria into soluble proteids (peptones, &c.), these into simpler amido-bodies, and these again sooner or later into compounds of ammonia. The urea in urine is also rapidly converted by the uro-bacteria into ammonium carbonate. The compounds of ammonia thus formed from the complex substances by many varied kinds of micro-organisms are ultimately oxidized into nitrates. The change takes place in two stages and is effected by two special groups of nitrifying bacteria, which are present in all soils. In the first stage the ammonium compounds are oxidized to nitrites by the agency of very minute motile bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrosomonas. The further oxidation of the nitrite to a nitrate is effected by bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrobacter. Several conditions must be fulfilled before nitrification can occur. In the first place an adequate temperature is essential; at 5° or Er' C. (40°–43° F.) the process is stopped, so that it does not go on in winter. In summer, when the temperature is about 24° C. (75° F.), nitrification proceeds at a rapid rate. The organisms do not carry on their work in soils deficient in air; hence the process is checked in water-logged soils. The presence of a base such as lime or magnesia (or their carbonates) is also essential, as well as an adequate degree of moisture: in dry soils nitrification ceases. It is the business of the farmer and gardener to promote the activity of these organisms by good tillage, careful drainage and occasional application of lime to soils which are deficient in this substance. It is only when these conditions are attended to that decay and nitrification of dung, guano, fish-meal, sulphate of ammonia and other manures take place, and the constituents which they contain become available to the crops for whose benefit they have been applied to the land. Nitrates are very soluble in water and are therefore liable to be washed out of the soil by heavy rain. They are, however, very readily absorbed by growing plants, so that in summer, when nitrification is most active, the nitrates produced are usually made use of by crops before loss by drainage takes place. In winter, however, and in fallows loss takes place in the subsoil water. There is also another possible source of loss of nitrates through the activity of denitrifying bacteria. These organisms reduce nitrates to nitrites and finally to ammonia and gaseous free nitrogen which escapes into the atmosphere. Many bacteria are known which are capable of denitrification, some of them being abundant in fresh dung and upon old straw. They can, however, only carry on their work extensively under anaerobic conditions, as in water-logged soils or in those which are badly tilled, so that there is but little loss of nitrates through their agency. An important group of soil organisms are now known which have the power of using the free nitrogen of the atmosphere for the formation of the complex nitrogenous compounds of which their bodies are largely composed. By their continued action the soil becomes enriched with nitrogenous material which eventually through the nitrification process becomes available to ordinary green crops. This power of " fixing nitrogen," as it is termed, is apparently not possessed by higher green plants. The bacterium, Clostridium pasteurianunz, common in most soils, is able to utilize free nitrogen under anaerobic conditions, and an organism known as Azotobacter chroococcum and some others closely allied to it, have similar powers which they can exercise under aerobic conditions. For the carrying on of their functions they all need to be supplied with carbohydrates or other carbon compounds which they obtain ordinarily from humus and plant residues in the soil, or possibly in some instances from carbohydrates manufactured by minute green algae with which they live in close union. Certain bacteria of the nitrogen-fixing class enter into association with the roots of green plants, the best-known examples being those which are met with in the nodules upon the roots of clover, peas, beans, sainfoin and other plants belonging to the leguminous order. That the fertility of land used for the growth of wheat is improved by growing upon it a crop of beans or clover has been long recognized by farmers. The knowledge of the cause, however, is due to modern investigations. When wheat, barley, turnips and similar plants are grown, the soil upon which they are cultivated becomes depleted of its nitrogen; yet after a crop of clover or other leguminous plants the soil is found to be richer in nitrogen than it was before the crop was grown. This is due to the nitrogenous root residues left in the land. Upon the roots of leguminous plants characteristic swollen nodules or tubercles are present. These are found to contain large numbers of a bacterium termed Bacillus radicicola or Pseudomonas radicicola. The bacteria, which are present in almost all soils, enter the root-hairs of their host plants and ultimately stimulate theproduction of an excrescent nodule, in which they live. For a time after entry they multiply, obtaining the nitrogen necessary for their nutrition and growth from the free nitrogen of the air, the carbohydrate required being supplied by the pea or clover plant in whose tissues they make a home. The nodules increase in size, and analysis shows that they are exceedingly rich in nitrogen up to the time of flowering of the host plant. During this period the bacteria multiply and most of them assume a peculiar thickened or branched form, in which state they are spoken of as bacteroids. Later the nitrogen-content of the nodule decreases, most of the organisms, which are largely composed of proteid material, becoming digested and transformed into soluble nitrogenous compounds which are conducted to the developing roots and seeds. After the decay of the roots some of the unchanged bacteria are left in the soil, where they remain ready to infect a new leguminous crop. The nitrogen-fixing nodule bacteria can be cultivated on artificial media, and many attempts have been made to utilize them for practical purposes. Pure cultures may be made and after dilution in water or other liquid can. be mixed with soil to be ultimately spread over the land which is to be infected. The method of using them most frequently adopted consists in applying them to the seeds of leguminous plants before sowing, the seed being dipped for a time in a liquid containing the bacteria. In this manner organisms obtained from red clover can be grown and applied to the seed of red clover; and similar inoculation can be arranged for other species, so that an application of the bacteria most suited to the particular crop to be cultivated can be assured. In many, cases it has been found that inoculation,. whether of the soil or of the seed, has not made any appreciable difference to the growth of the crop, a result no doubt due to the fact that the soil had already contained within it an abundant supply of suitable organisms. But in other instances greatly increased yields have been obtainedwhere inoculation has been practised. More or less pure cultures of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria belonging to the Azotobacter group have been tried and recommended for application to poor land in order to provide a cheap supply of nitrogen. The application of pure cultures of bacteria for improving the fertility of the land is still in an experimental stage. There is little doubt, however, that in the near future means will be devised to obtain the most efficient work from these minute organisms, either by special artificial cultivation and subsequent application to the soil, or by improved methods of encouraging their healthy growth and activity in the land where they already exist. Improvement of Soils.—The fertility of a soil is dependent upon a number of factors, some of which,. such as the addition of fertilizers or manures, increase the stock of available food materials in the soil (see MANURE), while others, such as application of clay or humus, chiefly influence the fertility of the land by improving its physical texture. The chief processes for the improvement of soils which may be discussed here are: liming, claying and marling, warping, paring and burning, and green manuring. Most of these more or less directly improve the land by adding to it certain plant food constituents which are lacking, but the effect of . each process is in reality very complex. In the majority of cases the good results obtained are more particularly due to the setting free of " dormant " or " latent " food constituents, and to the amelioration of the texture of the soil, so that its aeration, drainage, temperature and water-holding capacity are altered for the better. The material which chemists call calcium carbonate is met with in a comparatively pure state in chalk. It is present in variable amounts in limestones of all kinds, although its white- ness may there be masked by the presence of iron oxide Liming. and other coloured substances. Carbonate of lime is also a constituent to a greater or lesser extent in almost all soils. 'In certain sandy soils and' in a few stiff clays it may amount to less than 1%, while in others in limestone and chalk districts there may be 5o to 8o'/0 present. Pure carbonate' of lime when heated loses 44 % of its weight, the decrease being due to the loss of carbon dioxide gas. The resulting white product is termed calcium oxide lime, burnt lime, quicklime, cob lime, or caustic lime. This substance absorbs and combines with water very greedily, at the same time becoming very hot, and falling into a fine dry powder, calcium hydroxide or slaked lime, which when left in the open slowly combines with the carbon dioxide of the air and becomes calcium carbonate, from which we began. When recommendations are made about liming land it is necessary to indicate more precisely than is usually done which of the three classes of material named above—chalk, quicklime or slaked lime—is intended. Generally speaking the oxide or quicklime has a more rapid and greater effect in modifying the soil than slaked lime, and this again greater than the carbonate or chalk. Lime in whatever form it is applied has a many-sided influence in the fertility of the land. It tends to improve the tilth and the capillarity of the soil by binding sands together somewhat and by opening up clays. If applied in too great an amount to light soils and peat land it may do much damage by rendering them too loose and open. The addition of small quantities of lime, especially in a caustic form, to stiff greasy clays makes them much more porous and pliable. A lump of clay, which if dried would become hard and intractable, crumbles into pieces when dried after adding to it } % of lime. The lime causes the minute separate particles of clay to flocculate or group themselves together into larger compound grains between which air and water can percolate more freely. It is this power of creating a more crumbly tilth on stiff clays that makes lime so valuable to the farmer. Lime also assists in the decomposition of the organic matter or humus in the soil and promotes nitrification; hence it is of great value after green manuring or where the land contains much humus from the addition of bulky manures such as farm-yard dung. This tendency to destroy organic matter makes the repeated application of lime a pernicious practice, especially on land which contains little humus to begin with. The more or less dormant nitrogen and other constituents of the humus are made immediately available to the succeeding crop, but the capital of the soil is rapidly reduced, and unless the loss is replaced by the addition of more manures the land may become sterile. Although good crops may follow the application of lime, the latter is not a direct fertilizer or manure and is no substitute for such. Its best use is obtained on land in good condition, but not where the soil is poor. When used on light dry land it tends to make the land drier, since it destroys the humus which so largely assists in keeping water in the soil. Lime is a base and neutralizes the acid materials present in badly drained meadows and boggy pastures. Weeds, therefore, which need sour conditions for development are checked by liming and the better grasses and clovers are encouraged. It also sets free potash and possibly other useful plant food-constituents of the soil. Liming tends to produce earlier crops and destroys the fungus which causes finger-and-toe or club-root among turnips and cabbages. Land which contains less than about 1% of lime usually needs the addition of this material. The particular form in which lime should be applied for the best results depends upon the nature of the soil. In practice the proximity to chalk pits or lime kilns, the cost of the lime and cartage, will determine which is most economical. Generally speaking light poor lands deficient in organic matter will need the less caustic form or chalk, while quick-lime will be most satisfactory on the stiff clays and richer soils. On the stiff soils overlying the chalk it was formerly the custom to dig pits through the soil to the rock below. Shafts 20 or 30 ft. deep were then sunk, and the chalk taken from horizontal tunnels was brought to the surface and spread on the land at the rate of about 6o loads per acre. Chalk should be applied in autumn, so that it may be split by the action of frost during the winter. Quicklime is best applied, perhaps, in spring at the rate of one ton per acre every six or eight years, or in larger doses—4 to 8 tons—every 15 to 20 years. Small dressings applied at short intervals give the most satisfactory results. The quicklime should be placed in small heaps and covered with soil if possible until it is slacked and the lumps have fallen into powder, after which it may be spread and harrowed in. Experiments have shown that excellent effects can be obtained by applying 5 or 6 cwt. of ground quicklime. Gas-lime is a product obtained from gasworks where quicklime is used to purify the gas from sulphur compounds and other objectionable materials. It contains a certain amount of unaltered caustic lime and slacked lime, along with sulphates and sulphides of lime, some of which have an evil odour. As some of these sulphur compounds have a poisonous effect on plants, gas-lime cannot be applied to land directly without great risk or rendering it incapable of growing crops of any sort—even weeds—for some time. It should therefore be kept a year or more in heaps in some waste corner and turned over once or twice so that the air can gain access to it and oxidize the poisonous ingredients in it. Many soils of a light sandy or gravelly or peaty nature and liable to drought and looseness of texture can be improved by the addition Ciaylagaad S of large imilarly soils can be improved by applying ng to character. them Marling. marl, a substance consisting of a mixture of clay with variable proportions of lime. Some of the chalk marls, which are usually of a yellowish or dirty grey colour, contain clay and 5o to 8o % of carbonate of lime with a certain proportion of phosphate of lime. Such a material would not only have an influence on the texture of the land but the lime would reduce the sourness of the land and the phosphate of lime supply one of the mosb valuable of plant food-constituents. The beneficial effects of marls may also be partially due to the presence in them of available potash. Typical clay-marls are tenacious, soapy clays of yellowish-red or brownish colour and generally contain less than 50 % of lime. When dry they crumble into small pieces which can be readily mixed with the soil by ploughing. Many other kinds of marls are described; some are of a sandy nature, others stony or full of the remains of small shells. The amount and nature of the clay or marl to be added to the soil will depend largely upon the original composition of the latter, the lighter sands and gravel requiring more clay than thoseof firmer texture. Even stiff soils deficient in lime are greatly improved in fertility by the addition of marls. In some cases as little as 40 loads per acre have been used with benefit, in others 18o loads have not been too much. The material is dug from neighbouring pits or sometimes from the fields which are to be improved, and applied in autumn and winter. When dry and in a crumbly state it is harrowed and spread and finally ploughed in and mixed with the soil. On some of the strongest land it was formerly the practice to add to and plough into it burnt clay, with the object of making the land work more easily. The burnt clay moreover carried Clay with it potash and other materials in a state readily Burning. available to the crops. The clay is dug from the land or from ditches or pits and placed in heaps of 6o to Too loads each, with faggot wood, refuse coals or other fuel. Great care is necessary to prevent the heaps from becoming too hot, in which case the clay becomes baked into hard lumps of brick-like material which cannot be broken up. With careful management, however, the clay dries and bakes, becoming slowly converted into lumps which readily crumble into a fine powder, in which state it is spread over and worked into the land at the rate of 40 loads per acre. The paring and burning of land, although formerly practised as an ordinary means of improving the texture and fertility of arable fields, can now only be looked upon as a practice Paring to be adopted for the purpose of bringing rapidly into ni and cultivation very foul leys or [land covered with a coarse Burning. turf. The practice is confined to poorer types of land, such as heaths covered with furze and bracken or fens and clay areas smothered with rank grasses and sedges. To reduce such land to a fit state for the growth of arable crops is very difficult and slow without resort to paring and burning. The operation consists of paring off the tough sward to a depth of i to a in. just sufficient to effectually damage the roots of the plants forming the sward and then, after drying the sods and burning them, spreading the charred material and ashes over the land. The turf is taken off either with the breast plough—a paring tool pushed forward from the breast or thighs by the workman—or with specially constructed paring ploughs or shims. The depth of the sod removed should not be too thick or burning is difficult and too much humus is destroyed unnecessarily, nor should it be too thin or the roots of the herbage are not effectually destroyed. The operation is best carried out in spring and summer. After beirg pared off the turf is allowed to dry for a fortnight or so and is then placed in small heaps a yard or two wide at the base, a little straw or wood being put in the middle of each heap, which is then lighted. As burning prcceeds more turf is added to the outside of the heaps in such a manner as to allow little access of air. Every care should be taken to burn and char the sod thoroughly without permitting the heap to blaze. The ashes should be spread as soon as possible and covered by a shallow ploughing. The land is then 'usually sown with some rapidly growing green crop, such as rape, or with turnips. Paring and burning improves the texture of clay lands, particularly if draining is carried out at the same time. It tends to destroy insects and weeds, and gets rid of acidity of the soil. No operation brings old turf into cultivation so rapidly. Moreover the beneficial effects are seen in the first crop and last for many years. Many of the mineral plant food-constituents locked up in the coarse herbage and in the upper layers of the soil are made immediately available to crops. The chief disadvantage is the loss of nitrogen which it entails, this element being given off into the air in a free gaseous state. It is best adapted for application to clays and fen lands and should not be practised on shallow light sands or gravelly soils, since the humus so necessary for the fertility of such areas is reduced too much and the soil rendered too porous and liable to suffer from drought. Many thousands of acres of low-lying peaty and sandy land adjoining the tidal rivers which flow into the Humber have been improved by a process termed " warping." The warp consists Warping. of fine muddy sediment which is suspended in the tidal- river water and appears to be derived from material scoured from the bed of the Humber by the action of the tide and acertain amount of sediment brought down by the tributary streams which join the Humber some distance from its mouth. The field or area to be warped must lie below the level of the water in the river 'at high tide. It is first surrounded by an embankment, after which the water from the river is allowed to flow through a properly constructed sluice in its bank, along a drain or ditch to the land which is prepared for warping. By a system of carefully laid channels the water flows gently over the land, and deposits its warp with an even level surface. At the ebb of the tide the more or less clear water flows back again from the land into the main river with sufficient force to clean out any deposit which may have accumulated in the drain leading to the warped area, thus allowing free access of more warp-laden water at the next tide. In this manner poor peats and sands may be covered with a large layer of rock soil capable of growing excellent crops. The amount of deposit laid over the land reaches a thickness of two or three feet in one season of warping, which is usually practised between March and October, advantage being taken of the spring tides during these months. The new warp is allowed to lie fallow during the winter after being laid out in four-yard " lands " and becomes dry enough to be sown with oats and grass and clover seeds in the following spring. The clover-grass ley is then grazed for a year or two with sheep, after which wheat and potatoes are the chief crops grown on the land. Green manures are crops which are grown especially for the purpose of ploughing into the land in a green or actively growing state. The Omen crop during its growth obtains a considerable amount of MaauNng. carbon from the carbon dioxide of the air, and builds it up rcinto compounds which when ploughed into the land become humus. The carbon compounds of the latter are of no direct nutritive value to the succeeding crop, but the decaying vegetable tissues very greatly assist in retaining moisture in light sandy soils, and in 'clay soils also have a beneficial effect in rendering them more open and allowing of better drainage of superfluous water and good circulation of fresh air within them. The ploughing-in of green crops is in many respects like the addition of farm-yard manure. Their growth makes no new addition of mineral food-constituents to the land, but they bring useful substances from the subsoil nearer to the surface, and after the decay of the buried vegetation these become available to succeeding crops of wheat or other plants. Moreover, where deep-rooting plants are grown the subsoil is aerated and rendered more open and suitable for the development of future ops. he plants most frequently used are white mustard, rape, buck-wheat, spurry, rye, and several kinds of leguminous plants, especially vetches, lupins and serradella. By far the most satisfactory crops as green manures are those of the leguminous class, since they add to the land considerable amounts of the valuable fertilizing constituent, nitrogen, which is obtained from the atmosphere, By nitrification this substance rapidly becomes available to succeeding crops. On the light, poor sands of Saxony Herr Schultz, of Lupitz, made use of serradella, yellow lupins and vetches as green manures for enriching the land in humus and nitrogen, and found the addition of potash salts and phosphates very profitable for the subsequent growth of potatoes and wheat. He estimated that by using leguminous crops in this manner for the purpose of obtaining cheat nitrogen he reduced the cost of production of wheat more than 5o %. The growing crops should be ploughed in before flowering occurs; they should not be buried deeply, since decay and nitrification take place most rapidly and satisfactorily when there is free access of air to the decaying material. When the crop is luxuriant it is necessary to put a roller over it first, to facilitate proper burial by the plough. The best time for the operation appears to be late summer and autumn. (J. PE.) Soil and Disease.—The influence of different kinds of soil as a factor in the production of disease requires to be considered, in regard not only to the nature and number of the micro-organisms they contain, but also to the amount of moisture and air in them and their capacity for heat. The moisture in soil is derived from two sources—the rain and the ground-water. Above the level of the ground-water the soil is kept moist by capillary attraction and by evaporation of the water below, by rainfall, and by movements of the ground-water; on the other hand, the upper layers are constantly losing moisture by evaporation from the surface and through vegetation. When the ground-water rises it forces air out of the soil; when it falls again it leaves the soil moist and full of air. The nature of the soil will largely influence the amount of moisture which it will take up or retain. In regard to water, all soils have two actions —namely, permeability and absorbability. Permeability is practically identical with the speed at which percolation takes place; through clay it is slow, but increases in rapidity through marls, loams, limestones, chalks, coarse gravels and fine sands, reaching a maximum in soil saturated with moisture. The amount of moisture retained depends mainly upon the absorb-ability of the soil, and as it depends largely on capillary action it varies with the coarseness or fineness of the pores of the soil, being greater for soils which consist of fine particles. The results of many analyses show that the capacity of soils for moisture increases with the amount of organic substances present; decomposition appears to be most active when the moisture is about 4%, but can continue when it is as low as 2%, while it appears to be retarded by any excess over 4%. Above the level of the ground-water all soils contain air, varying in amount with the degree of looseness of the soil. Some sands contain as much as 50% of air of nearly the same composition as atmospheric air. The oxygen, however, decreases with the depth, while the carbon dioxide increases. 351 Among the most noteworthy workers at the problems involved in the question of the influence of soil in the production of disease we find von Foder, Pettenkofer, Levy, Fleck, von Naegeli, Schleesing, Muntz and Warrington. The study of epidemic and endemic diseases generally has brought to light an array of facts which very strongly suggest that an intimate association exists between the soil and the appearance and propagation of certain diseases; but although experiments and observations allow this view to be looked upon as well established, still the precise role played by the soil in an aetiological respect is by no means so well understood as to make it possible to separate the factors and dogmatize on their effects. The earliest writers upon cholera emphasized its remark-' able preference for particular places; and the history of each successive epidemic implies, besides an importation of the contagion, certain local conditions which may be either general sanitary defects or peculiarities of climate and soil. The general evidence indicates that the specific bacteria of cholera discharges are capable of a much longer existence in the superficial soil layers than was formerly supposed; consequently it is specially necessary to guard against pollution of the soil, and through it against the probable contamination of both water and air. The evidence, however, is not sufficiently strong to warrant a universal conclusion, the diffusion of cholera appearing to be largely dependent upon other factors than soil states. Again, all accounts of diphtheria show a tendency on the part of the disease to recur in the same districts year after year. The questions naturally suggest themselves—Are the reappearances due to a revival of the contagion derived from previous outbreaks in the same place, or to some favouring condition which the place offers for the development of infection derived from some other quarter; and have favouring conditions any dependence upon the character and state of the soil? Greenhow in 1858 stated that diphtheria was especially prevalent on cold, wet soils, and Airy in 1881 described the localities affected as " for the most part cold, wet, clay lands." An analysis of the innumerable outbreaks in various parts of Europe indicates that the geological features of the affected districts play a less important part in the incidence of the disease than soil dampness. In this connexion it is interesting to note the behaviour of the diphtheritic contagion in soil. Experiments show that pure cultures, when mixed with garden soil constantly moistened short of saturation and kept in the dark at a temperature of 14° C., will retain their vitality for more than ten months; from moist soil kept at 26° C. they die out in about two months; from moist soil at 3o° C. in seventeen days; and in dry soil at the same temperature within a week. In the laboratory absolute soil dryness is as distinctly antagonistic to the vitality of the diphtheria bacillus as soil dampness is favourable. Both statistically and experimentally we find that a damp soil favours its life and development, while prolonged submersion and drought kill it. We may consider that, in country districts, constant soil moisture is one of the chief factors; while in the case of urban outbreaks mere soil moisture is subsidiary to other more potent causes. Again, many facts in the occurrence and diffusion of enteric fever point to an intimate connexion between its origin and certain conditions of locality. Epidemics rarely spread over any considerable tract of country, but are nearly always confined within local limits. Observations made at the most diverse parts of the globe, and the general distribution area of the disease, show that mere questions of elevation, or even configuration of the ground, have little or no influence. On the other hand, the same observations go to show that the disease is met with oftener on the more recent formations than the older, and this fact, so far as concerns the physical characters of the soil, is identical with the questions of permeability to air and water. Robertson has shown that the typhoid bacillus can grow very easily in certain soils, can persist in soils through the winter months, and when the soil is artificially fed, as may be done by a leaky drain or by access of filthy water from the surface, the micro-organism will take on a fresh growth in the warm season. The destructive power of sunlight is only exercised on those organisms actually at the surface. Cultures of the typhoid organism planted at a depth of 18 in. were found to have grown to the surface. In the winter months the deeper layers of the soil act as a shelter to the organism, which again grows towards the surface during the summer. The typhoid organism was not found to be taken off from the decomposing masses of semi-liquid filth largely contaminated with a culture of bacillus typhosus; but, on the other hand, it was abundantly proved that it could grow over moist surfaces of stones, &c. Certain disease-producing organisms, such as the bacillus of tetanus and malignant oedema, appear to be universally distributed in soil, while others, as the bacillus typhosus and spirillum cholerae, appear to have only a local distribution. The conditions which favour the vitality, growth and multiplication of the typhoid bacillus are the following: the soil should be pervious; it should be permeated with a sufficiency of decaying—preferably animal—organic matters; it should possess a certain amount of moisture, and be subject to a certain temperature. Depriving the organism of any of these essential conditions for its existence in the soil will secure our best weapon for defence. The optimum temperature adapted to its growth and extension is 37° C. =98°•4 F. Sir Charles Cameron attributes the prevalence of typhoid in certain 352 Dublin to the soil becoming saturated with faecal matter and specifically infected. The ratio of cases to population living in Dublin on loose porous gravel soil tor the ten years 1881–1891 was 1 in 94, while that. of those living on stiff clay soil was but 1 in 145. ' This is as we should expect, since the movements of ground air are much greater in loose porous soils than in stiff clay soils." A foul gravel soil is a most dangerous one on which to build. For warmth, for dryness, for absence of fog, and for lacility of walking after rain, just when the air is at its purest and its best, there is nothing equal to gravel; but when gravel has been rendered foul by infiltration with organic matters it may easily become a. very hotbed of disease. , (J. L. N.)
End of Article: SOGDIANA (Sugdiane, O. Pers. Sughuda)
SOFIA (Bulgarian Sredetz, the middle town, a name n...

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