SOKOTO , an important
See also:Fula state of west central Sudan, now a province of the
See also:protectorate of
See also:Nigeria . The sultan of Sokoto throughout the loth century exercised an over-lordship over the
See also:Hausa states extending east from the Niger to
See also:Bornu and southward to the
See also:Benue and
See also:Adamawa . These states and Sokoto itself, known variously as the Sokoto or Fula
See also:empire and Hausaland,, came (c . 1900–1903) under
See also:direct British
See also:control, but the native governments are maintained . The province of Sokoto occupies the
See also:north-west corner of the British protectorate, and is bounded west and north by French territory . South and east it adjoins other parts of the British protectorate . Bordering north on the
See also:Sahara, it contains much arid
See also:land, but south-west the land is very fertile .
See also:Running through it in a south-
See also:westerly direction is the Gublin Kebbi or Sokoto
See also:river, which joins the Niger in 112° N . 4° E . On a tributary of this river is the
See also:town of Sokoto . The Sokoto or Fula empire was founded at the beginning of the loth century . The
See also:country over which the Fula ruled has, however, a
See also:history going back to the
See also:middle ages .
Between the Niger and the
See also:kingdom of Bornu (q.v.) the country was inhabited by various black tribes, of whom the Hausa occupied the plains: Under the influence of
See also:Berber and Arab tribes, who embraced Mahommedanism, the Hausa advanced in
See also:civilization, founded large cities, and
See also:developed a considerable
See also:trade, not onl)) with the neighbouring countries, but, via the Sahara, with the
See also:Barbary states . The various kingdoms which
See also:grew up
See also:round each large town had their own rulers, but in the first
See also:half of the 16th century they all appear to have owned the sway of the
See also:kings (see TIMBUKTU) . On the break-up of the Songhoi empire the north-eastern
See also:part of Hausaland became more or less subject to Bornu, whose sultans in the 17th century claimed to
See also:rule over
See also:Katsena and
See also:Kano . In this century arose a
See also:dynasty of the Habe, a name now believed to be identical with Hausa, who obtained power over a large
See also:area of the
See also:northern portion of the
See also:present British protectorate . The Hausa, whose conversion to Mahommedanism began in the 12th century, were still in the 18th century partly pagans, though their rulers were followers of the
See also:Prophet . These rulers built up an elaborate
See also:system of
See also:government which
See also:left a considerable
See also:share in the management of affairs to the
See also:body of the
See also:people . Dwelling among the Hausa were a number of Fula, mostly herdsmen, and these were devout Mahommedans . One of the more 'cultivated teachers of this ra.:a, named
See also:Dan Fodio, had been tutor to the
See also:king of Gobir (a
See also:district north of Establish-Sokoto) . He incurred the wrath of that king, who,
See also:meat of angered at some
See also:act of
See also:defiance, ordered the
See also:massacre Fula Rule. of every Fula in his dominions . The Fula flocked to Fodio's aid, and in the
See also:battle of Koto' or Rugga Fakko (18(4) the king of Gobir was utterly defeated . Thereupon Fodio unfurled the
See also:green banner of Mahomet and preached a jihad or religious war . In a few years the Fula had subdued most of the Hausa states, some, like Kano, yielding easily in
See also:order to preserve their trade, others, like Katsena, offering a stubborn resistance .
Gobir and Kebbi remained unconquered, as did the
See also:hill tribes . The Fula were also defeated in their attack on Bornu . In most places they continued the system of government which had grown up under the Habe, the chiefs or emirs of the. various II
See also:counts of
See also:Vermandois . Renaud, count of
See also:Soissons, gave his
See also:property in 1141 to his
See also:nephew Yves de Neale . By successive marriages the countship of Soissons passed to the houses of Hainaut, ClAtillon-
See also:Bar and Luxemburg .
See also:Marie de Luxemburg brought it, together with the counties of Made and St Poi, to
See also:Francis of Bourbon, count of Vendome, whom she married in 1487 . His descendants, the princes of Conde, held Soissons and gave it to their cadets .
See also:Charles of Bourbon, count of Soissons (1566–1612), son of
See also:prince of Conde, whose
See also:political vacillations were due to his intrigues with
See also:Henry IV.'s
See also:sister Catherine, became
See also:master of France and
See also:governor of
See also:Dauphine and
See also:Normandy . His son, Louis of Bourbon (1604–1641), took part in the plots against Marie de Medici and
See also:Richelieu, and attempted to assassinate Richelieu . He had only one
See also:child, a natural son, known as the Chevalier de Soissons . The countship passed to the
See also:house of Savoy-Carignan by the
See also:marriage in 1625 of Marie de Bourbon-Soissons with
See also:Thomas Francis of Savoy .
See also:Maurice of Savoy, count of Soissons (1635-1673), married the beautiful and witty
See also:Olympia Mancini, a niece of
See also:Mazarin, and obtained high military posts through his wife's influence .
He defeated the Spaniards at the battle of the
See also:Dunes in 1658; took part in the
See also:campaigns at
See also:Flanders (1667), Franche-Comte (1668) and
See also:Holland (1672); and was present as
See also:ambassador extraordinary of France at the
See also:coronation of Charles II. of England . His wife led a scandalous
See also:life, and was accused of poisoning her
See also:husband and others . She was the
See also:mother of Louis Thomas Amadeus, count of Soissons, and of the famous Prince Eugene of Savoy . In 1734 the male
See also:line of the
See also:family of Savoy-Soissons became
See also:extinct, and the heiress, the princess of Saxe-
See also:Hildburghausen, ceded the countship of Soissons to the house of
See also:Orleans, in whose possession it remained until states being, however, tributary to Dan Fodio . This sheik established himself at Sokoto, and with other titles assumed that of Sarikin Muslimin (king of the Mahommedans) . As such he became the recognized spiritual
See also:head of all the Mahomllledans of west central Sudan, a headship which his successors retained unimpaired, even after the loss of their temporal position to the British in 1903 . On the
See also:death of Fodio (c . 18t9) the empire was divided between a son and a
See also:brother, the son, famous under the name of Sultan
See also:Bello, ruling at Sokoto, the brother at
See also:Gando . All the other Fula emirs were dependent on these two sultanates . The Fula power proved, before many years had gone by, in many respects harmful to the country . This was especially the case in those districts where there was a large pagan population . Slave-raiding was practised on a scale which devastated and almost depopulated vast regions and greatly hampered the commercial activity of the large cities, of which
See also:Zaria and Kano were the most important .
The purity of the
See also:ancient administration was abandoned . The courts of
See also:justice became corrupt, administrative power was abused and degenerated into a despotism controlled only by
See also:personal considerations, oppressive taxes destroyed
See also:industry and gradually desolated the country . Soon after the Fula had established themselves Europeans began to visit the country . Hugh
See also:Clapperton, an Englishman, was at Sokoto in 1823 and again in 1827, dying there on the 13th of
See also:April of that
See also:year . Heinrich Barth made a prolonged stay in various Hausa cities at
See also:dates between 1851 and 1855 . To Barth is due a
See also:deal of our knowledge of the country . In Barth's
See also:American merchants were established on the Niger, bartering goods in
See also:exchange for slaves . This
See also:traffic was carried on through
See also:Nupe " to the great damage," says Barth, " of the commerce and the most unqualified
See also:scandal of the
See also:Arabs, who think that the
See also:English, if they would, could easily prevent it." The over-seas traffic in slaves did not continue long after the date (1851) to which Barth referred, but slave-raiding by the Fula went on unchecked up to the moment of the British occupation of the country . At Sokoto the sultanship continued in the hands of Fodio's descendants, and the reigning sultan concluded in 1885 a treaty with the Royal Niger
See also:Company (then called the
See also:African Company) which gave to the company certain rights of
See also:sovereignty throughout his dominions . In 1900 the rights of the company were transferred to the
See also:Crown . In the course of the years 1900, 1901, 1902, British submission authority was established in the states bordering to Beulah on the Niger and the Benue and in Bornu . The Ruk. northern states declined to fulfil the conditions of the
See also:treaties negotiated with the Niger Company or to submit to the abolition of the slave trade, and in 1902 Sokoto and Kano openly defied the British power .
See also:campaign was undertaken against them in the opening months of 1903 in which the British troops were entirely successful . Kano was taken in
See also:February 1903, and Sokoto after some resistance made formal submission on the 22nd of
See also:March following . From that
See also:day British authority was substituted for Fula authority through-out the protectorate . The emir of Sokoto took an
See also:oath of
See also:allegiance to the British Crown and Sokoto became a British province, to which at a later
See also:period Gando was added as a subprovince—thus making of Sokoto one of the
See also:double provinces of the protectorate . The double province thus constituted has an area of about 35,000 sq. m., with an estimated population of something over 500,000 . It includes the ancient kingdoms of Zamfara on the east and Argunga or Kebbi on the west . The dominions of the emir of Sokoto have suffered some diminutions by reason of British agreements with France
See also:relating to the
See also:common frontier of the two
See also:powers in the western Sudan . The emir
See also:felt deeply the loss of territory ceded to France in 1904 but accepted the settlement with much
See also:loyalty . Like the emir of Kano the new emir of Sokoto worked most loyally with the British administration . The province has been organized on the same principle as the other provinces of Northern Nigeria . A British
See also:resident of the first class has been placed at Sokoto andassistant residents at other centres . British courts of justice have been established and British
See also:governors are quartered in the province .
See also:police are also placed at the
See also:principal stations . The country has been assessed under the new system for taxes and is being opened as rapidly as possible for trade . After the
See also:establishment of British rule farmers and herdsmen reoccupied districts and the inhabitants of cities flocked back to the land, rebuilding villages which had been deserted for fifty years .
See also:Horse breeding and
See also:cattle raising
See also:form the chief source of
See also:wealth in the province . There is some
See also:ostrich farming . Except in the sandy areas there is extensive
See also:agriculture, including
See also:rice and
See also:cotton .
See also:Special crops are grown in the valleys by irrigation .
See also:Weaving, dyeing and tanning are the principal native
See also:industries .
See also:Fair roads are in
See also:process of construction through the province . Trade is increasing and a
See also:cash currency has been introduced . The emir of Gando, treated on the same terms as the emirs of Kano and Sokoto, proved less loyal to his oath of allegiance and had to be deposed . Another emir was installed in his place and in the whole double province of Sokoto-Gando prosperity has been general .
In 1906 a rising attributed to religious fanaticism occurred near Sokoto in which unfortunately three
See also:officers lost their lives . The emir heartily repudiated the
See also:leader of the rising, who claimed to be a
See also:Mandi inspired to drive the white man out of the country . A British force marched against the rebels, who were overthrown with great loss in March too6 . The leader was condemned to death in the emir's
See also:court and executed in the market place of Sokoto, and the incident was chiefly interesting for the display of loyalty to the British administration which it evoked on all sides from the native rulers . (See also NIGERIA FULA; and HAUSA.) See the Travels of Dr Barth (
See also:London 1857) ;
See also:Lady Lugard, A Tropical Dependency (London, 1905) ; P . L .
See also:Monteil, De
See also:Saint Louis a
See also:par le
See also:lac Tchad (
See also:Paris, 1895) ; C . H .
See also:Robinson, Hausaland (London, 1896) ; The
See also:Annual Reports on Northern Nigeria, issued since 1 by the Colonial
See also:Office, London;
See also:Sir F . D . Lugard, " Northern Nigeria," in Geo . Journ. vol.
See also:xxiii., and Major J .
A . Burdon, " The Fulani Emirates," ibid. vol
See also:xxiv . (beth London, 1904) . Except the last-named paper most of these authorities deal with many other subjects besides the Fula . (F . L .
SOKE (0. Eng. soc, connected ultimately with secan,...
SOKOTRA (also spelt Socotra and formerly Socotora)
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