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Originally appearing in Volume V25, Page 417 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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BARON SIDNEY SONNINO (1847– ), Italian statesman upwards of roo sq. m. in area. The mineral resources include and financier, was born at Florence on the 11th of March 1847. silver, gold, copper, lead, tin, iron and coal, and mining is the Entering the diplomatic service at an early age, he was appointed chief industry. The lack of transportation facilities has been successively to the legations of Madrid, Vienna, Berlin and partly relieved by the construction of a branch of the Southern Versailles, but in 1871 returned to Italy, to devote himself to Pacific (American) from Nogales southward to Guaymas and the political and social studies. On his own initiative he conducted Sinaloa frontier, from which it has been extended to Mazatlan. exhaustive inquiries into the conditions of the Sicilian peasants Guaymas is the only port of importance on the coast, but it and of the Tuscan metayers, and in 1877 published in co-operation has a large trade and is visited by the steamers of several lines. with Signor Leopoldo Franchetti a masterly work on Sicily (La The capital of the state (since 1882) is Hermosillo (pop. 1900, Sicilia, Florence, 1877). In 1878 he founded a weekly economic 17,618), on the Sonora river, fro m. north of Guaymas, with review, La Rassegna Seltimanale, which four years later he con- which it is connected by rail. It suffered much in 1865–1866 verted into a political daily journal. Elected deputy in 1880, from the savage struggle between Imperialists and Repubhe distinguished himself by trenchant criticism of Magliani's licans, and in subsequent partisan warfare. Other important finance, and upon the fall of Magliani was for some months, towns are Alamos (pop. 1895, 6197), 132 M. E.S.E. of in 1889, under-secretary of state for the treasury. In view of Guaymas, Moctezuma, 90 m. north of Hermosillo, and Ures, the severe monetary crisis of 1893 he was entrusted by Crispi the old capital of Sonora and seat of a bishopric, 33 M. north-with the portfolio of finance (December 1893), and in spite of east of Hermosillo. determined opposition dealt energetically and successfully The first Jesuit mission in Sonora, founded among the Mayos with the deficit of more than £6,000,000 then existing in in 1613, seems to have been the first permanent settlement the exchequer. By abolishing the illusory pensions fund, by in the state, although Coronado passed through it and its coast applying and amending the Bank Laws, effecting economies, had been visited by early navigators. The hostility of certain and increasing taxation upon corn, incomes from consolidated tribes prevented its rapid settlement. Urea was founded in stock, salt and matches, he averted national bankruptcy, and 1636, and Arizpe in 1648. Near the end of the century Sonora placed Italian finance upon a sounder basis than at any time and Sinaloa were divided into two districts, in 1767 the Jesuit since the fall of the Right. Though averse from the policy of missions were secularized, in 1779 the government of the unlimited colonial expansion, he provided by a loan for the cost province was definitely organized by Caballero de Croix, and of the Abyssinian War in which the tactics of General Baratieri in 1783 Arizpe became the provincial capital. The bishopric of had involved the Crispi cabinet, but fell with Crispi after the Sonora was created in 1781 with Arizpe as its seat. Up to this disaster at Adowa (March 1896). Assuming then the leadership time the history of the province is little else than a record of of the constitutional opposition, he combated the alliance savage warfare with the Apaches, Seris, Yaquis and other between the Di Rudini cabinet and the subversive parties, tribes. The development of rich gold and silver mines brought criticized the financial schemes of the treasury minister, Luzzatti, in more Spanish settlers, and then the record changes to one of and opposed the " democratic" finance of the first Pellou% partisan warfare, which continued down to the administration administration as likely to endanger financial stability. After the of President Porfirio Diaz. modification of the Pelloux cabinet (May 1899) he became leader SONPUR, a feudatory state of India, in the Orissa division of the ministerial majority, and bore the brunt of the struggle of Bengal, to which it was transferred from the Central Provinces in 1905. Area, 906 sq. m. Pop. (1901), 169,877, showing a decrease of 13% in the decade, due to the results of famine. Estimated revenue £800o, tribute £600. The chief is a Rajput of the Patna line. Rice and timber are exported, and iron ore is said to abound. The town of Sonpur is on the Mahanadi river just above the point where it enters Orissa. Pop. (1901), 8887.
End of Article: BARON SIDNEY SONNINO (1847– )
SONNET (Ital. Sonetto, dim. of Suono, Fr. Sonnet)

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