SPALATO, or SPALATRO (Serbo-Croatian Spljet or Split) , an episcopalcity, and the centre of an administrative
See also:district, in Dalmatia,
See also:Austria, and on the Adriatic
See also:Sea . Pop . (1900), of
See also:town and commune, 27,198; chiefly Serbo-Croatian, and almost exclusively
See also:Roman Catholic . Spalato is situated ' on the seaward side of a peninsula between the Gulf of Brazza and the Gulf of Salona . Though not the capital, it is commercially the most important city in Dalmatia and carries on an extensive
See also:trade in
See also:wine and oil . It is a
See also:port of
See also:call for the
See also:Austrian Lloyd steamers, and communicates by
See also:rail with
See also:Sebenico, Knin and Sinj . Spalato has a striking sea-front, fn which the leading feature is the ruined
See also:facade of the
See also:great palace of
See also:Diocletian, to which the city owes its origin . A large
See also:part of Spalato is actually within the limit of the palace; and many
See also:modern houses are built against its
See also:ancient walls and incorporate parts of them, not only on the inner but also on the
See also:outer side . This palace was erected between A.D . 290 and 310 . In ground plan it is almost a square, with a quadrangular tower at each of the four corners . It covers 91 acres .
There were originally four
See also:gates, with four streets
See also:meeting in the
See also:middle of the quadrangle, after the
See also:style of a Roman
See also:camp . The eastern
See also:gate, or Porta Aenea, is destroyed, but, though the side towers are gone, the western gate, or Porta Ferrea, and the
See also:main entrance of the
See also:building, the beautiful Porta Aurea, in the
See also:north front, are still in fairly
See also:good preservation . The streets are lined with massive arcades . The
See also:vestibule now forms the Piazza del Duomo or
See also:cathedral square; to the north-east of this lies the
See also:temple of
See also:Jupiter, or perhaps the
See also:mausoleum . This has long been the cathedral of St Doimo or Domnius, small and dark, but noteworthy for its finely carved
See also:choir stalls . To the south-east is the temple of
See also:Aesculapius, which served originally as a kind of
See also:chapel, and has long been transformed into a baptistery . A beautiful Romanesque campanile was added to the baptistery in the 14th and 15th centuries . Architecturally the most important of the many striking features of the palace is the arrangement in the vestibule by which the supporting
See also:spring directly from the capitals of the large granite Corinthian columns . This, as far as the known remains of ancient
See also:art are concerned, is the first instance of such a method . The ruins of Salona or Salonae, lying about 4 m. north-east of the palace, were chiefly exhumed during a series of excavations undertaken after the visit of the emperor
See also:Francis I. in 1818 .
See also:Research was carried on regularly from 1821 to 1827, and again from 1842 to 185o . It was afterwards resumed at intervals until 1877, when the excavation
See also:committee was granted an
See also:subsidy by the Austrian
See also:government .
Many discoveries were made, including the ruins of atheatre, amphitheatre, city walls and gates,
See also:baths, aqueducts,
See also:pagan and Christian cemeteries, basilicas and many fragments of houses and arches .
See also:Professor F . Bulie, who had
See also:charge of the
See also:work and of the museum at Spalato, reported in 1894 that the collection of minor
See also:objects comprised " 2034 inscriptions, 387 sculptures, 176 architectural pieces, 1548 fragments or objects of terra-cotta and vases, 1243 objects of
See also:glass, 3184 of
See also:metal, 929 of
See also:bone, 1229 gems, 128 objects from prehistoric times, and 15,000 coins " (
See also:Munro, p . 244) . These are preserved in the museum . One
See also:vase, of Corinthian workmanship,
See also:dates from the 6th century B.c.; and many of the early Christian
See also:relics are of unusual
See also:interest . The so-called " cyclopean " walls, mortarless, but constructed of neatly squared and fitted blocks, are probably of Roman workmanship .
See also:Jackson suggests that perhaps, like the long walls at Athens, they were intended to unite the city with its port . Salona under the early Roman emperors was one of the chief ports of the Adriatic, on one of the most central sites in the Roman
See also:world . Made a Roman colony after its second capture by the Romans (78 B.c.), it appears as Colonia Martia Julia and Colonia Claudia
See also:Augusta Pia Veteranorum, and bears at different periods the titles of respublica, conventus, metropolis, praefectura . and praetorium . Diocletian died in 313; and before long the city became an episcopal see, with St Doimo as its first
See also:bishop . The palace was transformed into an imperial
See also:cloth factory, and, as most of the workers were
See also:women, it became known as the gynaecium .
Salona was several times taken and retaken by the Goths and
See also:Huns before 639, when it was sacked and nearly destroyed by the
See also:Avars . Its inhabitants fled to the Dalmatian islands, but returned shortly afterwards to found a new city within the walls of the palace . Salona itself was not entirely deserted until the close of the 12th century . In 65o the papal
See also:John of Ravenna, was created bishop of Spalato, as the new city was named . " Spalato," or " Spalatro " (a very old spelling), was long regarded as a corruption of Salonae Palatium; but its true origin is doubtful . The most ancient
See also:form is Aspalathum, used in the loth century by
See also:Constantine Porphyrogenitus . Spalathum, Spalathrum and Spalatrum are early variants: In a few years Spalato became an archbishopric, and its holders were metropolitans of all Dalmatia until 1033 . In 1105 Spalato became a vassal state of Hungary; in 1327 it revolted to Venice; in 1357 it returned to its
See also:allegiance . It was ruled by the Bosnian
See also:king, Tvrtko, from 1390 to 1391; and in 1402 the famous and powerful Bosnian
See also:prince, Hrvoje or Harvoye, received the dukedom of Spalato from
See also:Ladislaus of Naples, the claimant to the Hungarian
See also:throne . In 1413, after the overthrow of Ladislaus by the emperor
See also:Sigismund, Hrvoje was banished; but a large octagonal tower, the Torre d'Harvoye, still bears his name . Spalato received a Venetian garrison in 1420, and ceased to have an
See also:history . The
See also:castle and city walls, erected by the Venetians between 1645 and 1670. were dismantled after 1807 .
See T . G . Jackson, Dalmatia, the Quarnero and
See also:Istria (
See also:Oxford, 1887) ; and E . A . Freeman, Subject and Neighbour Lands of Venice (
See also:London, 1881), for a general description of Spalato, its antiquities and history . A valuable account of the researches at Salona is given in R . Munro, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Dalmatia (London, 1900), There are two magnificently illustrated volumes which
See also:deal with Diocletian's palace: R .
See also:Adam, Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro, in Dalmatia (London, 1764), engravings by
See also:Bartolozzi; and L . J . Cassas and J . Lavallee, Voyage pittoresque et historique de l'Istrie (
See also:Paris, 1802) . The Dalmatian
See also:chronicles, reproduced by G .
Lucio in his De regno Dalmatiae et Croatiae (Amsterdam, 1666), include several which deal specially with Salona and Spalato . The most important is the Historia salonitanorum pontificum et spalatensium, by
See also:Thomas, archdeacon of Spalato (1200-1268) .
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