Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V21, Page 162 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SPORTS.--L'Aerophile (1893) ; L'Aeronautique (1902) ; L'Aerostation (1904) ; La Vie au grand air (1898) ; La Vie automobile (1901) ; Revue de l'aeronautique (,888). GERMANY The earliest trace of the literary journal in Germany is to be found in the Erbauliche Monatsunterredungen (1663) of the poet Johann Rist and in the Miscellanea curiosa medico-physica (167o–1704) of the Academia naturae curiosorum Leopoldina-Carolina, the first scientific annual, uniting the features of the Journal des savants and of the Philosophical Transactions. D. G. Morhof, the author of the well-known Polyhistor, conceived the idea of a monthly serial to be devoted to the history of modern books and learning, which came to nothing. While professor of morals at Leipzig, Otto Mencke planned the Acta eruditorum, with a view to make known, by means of analyses, extracts and reviews, the new works produced throughout Europe. In 1680 he travelled in England and Holland in order to obtain literary assistance, andthe first number appeared in 1682, under the title of Acta eruditorum lipsiensium, and, like its successors, was written in Latin. Among the contributors to subsequent numbers were Leibnitz, Seckendorf and Cellarius. A volume came out each year, with supplements. After editing about thirty volumes Mencke died, leaving the publication to his son, and the' Acta remained in the possession of the family down to 1745, when they extended to 117 volumes, which form an extremely valuable history of the learning of the period. A selection of the dissertations and articles was published at Venice in 7 vols. 4to (1740). The Acta soon had imitators. The Ephemerides litterariae (1686) came out at Hamburg in Latin and French. The Nova litteraria maxis Balthici et Septen/rionis (1698–1708) was more especially devoted to north Germany and the universities of Kiel, Rostock and Dorpat. Supplementary to the preceding was the Nova litteraria Germaniae collecta Hamburgi (1703–1709), which from 1707 widened its field of view to the whole of Europe. At Leipzig was produced the Teutsche acta eruditorum (1712), an excellent periodical, edited by J. G. Rabener and C. G. Jocher, and continued from 1740 to 1758 as Zuverlassige Nachrichten. It included portraits. The brilliant and enterprising Christian Thomasius brought out periodically, in dialogue form, his Monatsgesprache (1688–1690), written by himself in the vernacular, to defend his novel theories against the alarmed pedantry of Germany, and, together with Strait!, Buddeus and others, Observationes selectee ad rem litterariam spectantes (1700), written in Latin. W. E. Tenzel also published Monatliche Unterredungen (1689–1698), continued from 1704 as Curieuse Bibliothek, and treating various subjects in dialogue form. After the death of Tenzel the Bibliothek was carried on under different titles by C. Woltereck, J. G. Krause and others, down to 1721. Of much greater importance than these was the Monatlicher Auszug (1701), supported by J. G. Eccard and Leibnitz. Another periodical on Thomasius's plan was Neue Unterredungen (1702), edited by N. H. Gundling. The Gundlingiana of the latter person, published at Halle (1715–1732), and written partly in Latin and partly in German by the editor, contained a miscellaneous collection of juridical, historical and theological observations and dissertations. Nearly all departments of learning possessed their several special periodical organs about the close of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. The Anni franciscanorum (1680) was edited by the Jesuit Stiller; and J. S. Adami published, between 1690 and 1713, certain theological repertories under the name of Deliciae. Historical journalism was first represented by Electa juris publici (1709), philology by Neue acerra philologica (1715–1723), philosophy by the Acta philosophorum (1715–1727), medicine by Der patriolische Medikus (1725), music by Der musikalische Patriot (1725), and education by Die Matrone (1728). Reference has already been made to the Miscellanea curiosa medico-physica (1670–1704); the Monatliche Erzahlungen (1689) was also devoted to natural science. Down to the early part of the 18th century Halle and Leipzig were the headquarters of literary journalism in Germany. Other centres began to feel the-need of similar organs of opinion. Hamburg had its Niedersachsische neue Zeitungen, styled from 1731 Niedersachsische Nachrichten, which came to an end in 1736, and Mecklenburg owned in 1710 its Neuer Vorrath, besides others brought out at Rostock. Prussia owes the foundation of its literary periodicals to G. P. Schulze and M. Lilienthal, the former of whom began with Gelehrtes Preussen (1722), continued under different titles down to 1729; the latter helped with the Erlautertes Preussen (1724), and was the sole editor of the Acta borussica (1730–1732). Pomerania and Silesia also had their special periodicals in the first quarter of the 18th century. Franconia commenced tvith Nova litteraria, and Hesse with the Kurze Historie, both in 1725. In south Germany appeared the Wurttembergische Nebenstunden (17,8), and the Parnassus boicus, first published at Munich in 1722. The Frankfurter gelehrte Zeitungen was founded in 1736 by S. T. Hocker, and existed down to 1790. 'Austria owned Das merkwiirdige Wien. In 1715 the Neue Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachen was founded by J. G. Krause at Leipzig and carried on by various editors down to 1797. It was the first attempt to apply the form of the weekly political journal to learned subjects, and was imitated in the Vermischte Bibliothek (1718–1720) and the Bibliotheca novissima (1718–1721), both founded by J. G. Francke in Halle. Shortly after the foundation of the university of Gottingen appeared Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachsen (1739), still famous as the Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen, which during its long and influential career has been conducted by professors of that university, and among others by Haller, Heyne and Eichhorn. Influenced by a close study of English writers, the two Swiss, Bodmer and Breitinger, established Die Discurse der Maler (1721), and by paying more attention to the matter of works reviewed than to their manner, commenced a critical method new to Germany. The system was attacked by Gottsched, who, educated in the French school, erred in the opposite direction. The struggle between the two parties gave fresh life to the literature of the country but German criticism of the higher sort can only be said really to begin with Lessing. The Berlin publisher Nicolai founded the Bibliothek der schonen Wissenschaften, and afterwards handed it over to O. F. Weisse in order to give his whole energy to the Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffend (1759-1765), carried on by the help of Lessing, Mendelssohn and Abbt. To Nicolai is also due the Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek (1765–1806), which embraced a much wider field and soon became extremely influential. Herder founded the Kritische Walder in 1766. Der deutsche Merkur (1773–1789, revived 1790–1810) of Wieland was the solitary representative of the French school of criticism. A new era in German periodical literature began when Bertuch brought out at Jena in 1785 the Allgemeine Literaturzeitung, to which the leading writers of the country were contributors. On being transferred to Halle in 1804 it was replaced by the Jenaische allgemeine Literaturzeitung, founded by Eichstadt. Both reviews enjoyed a prosperous career down to the year 1848. At the beginning of the 19th century we find the Erlanger Literatur-'eitung (1799–1810), which had replaced a Gelehrte Zeitung (1746); the Leipziger Literaturzeitung (1800–1834); the Heidelbergische Jahrbucher der Literatur (1808–1872); and the Wiener Literaturzeitung (1813–1816), followed by the Wiener Jahrbucher der Literatur (1818–1848), both of which received government support and resembled the English Quarterly Review in their conservative politics and high literary tone. Hermes, founded at Leipzig in 1819 by W. T. Krug, was distinguished for its erudition, and came out down to 1831. One of the most remarkable periodicals of this class was the Jahrbucher fur wissenschaftliche Kritik (1827–1846), first published by Cotta. The Hallische Jahrbiicher (1838–1842) was founded by Ruge and Echtermeyer, and supported by the government. The Repertorium der gesammten deutschen Literatur, established by Gersdorf in 1834, and known after 1843 as the Leipziger Repertorium der deutschen and ausldndischen Literatur, existed to 186o. Buchner founded the Literarische Zeitung at Berlin in 1834. It was continued by Brandes down to 1849. The political troubles of 1848 and 1849 were most disastrous to the welfare of the literary and miscellaneous periodicals. Gersdorf's Repertorium, the Gelehrte Anzeigen of Gottingen and of Munich,•and the Heidelbergische Jahrbucher were the sole survivors. The Allgemeine Monatschrift fir Literatur (185o), conducted after 1851 by Droysen, and others, continued only down to 1854; the Literarisches Cent,alblatt (185o) is still published. The Blotter fur literarische Unterhaltung sprang out of the Literarisches Wochenblatt (1818), founded by Kotzebue; after 1865 it was edited by R. Gottschall with considerable success. Many of the literary journals did not disdain to occupy themselves with the fashions, but the first periodical of any merit specially devoted to the subject was the Bazar (1855). The first to popularize science was Natur (1852). The Hausbldtter (1855), a bi-monthly magazine, was extremely successful. The Salon (1868) followed more closely the type of the English magazine. About this period arose a great number of weekly serials for popular reading, known as " Sonntagsblatter," of which the Gartenlaube (1858) and Daheim (1864) are surviving examples. In course of time a large number of similar publications were issued, some illustrated, for instance: Illustrierte Zeitung (Leipzig, 1843), Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung (1892), Die Woche (1899) the last the most widely circulated of the kind, 500,000 being printed. At a somewhat earlier date commenced a long series of weekly and monthly periodicals of a more solid character, of which the following list indicates the more important in chronological order: Die Grenzboten (1862), weekly; the Deutsches Museum (1851–1857), of Prutz and Frenzel; Berliner Revue (1855-1873); Westermanns Monatshefte (1856), monthly; Unsere Zeit 1857–1891), beginning as a kind of supplement to Brockhaus's Conversationslexikon; Preussische Jahrbucher (1858), monthly; Deutsches Magazin (186'–1863); Die Gegenwart (1873), weekly; Konservative Monatsschrift (1873), preceded by the Volksblatt fur Stadt and Land (1843); Deutsche Rundschau (1874), fortnightly, conducted upon the method of the Revue des deux mondes; Deutsche Revue (1876), monthly; Nord and Slid (1877), monthly; Das Echo (1882), weekly; Die Zukunft (1882), weekly; Die neue Zeit (1883), weekly; Reclams Universum (1884), weekly; Velhagen and Klasings Monatshefte (1889), monthly; Die deutsche Rundschau (189o), monthly; Die Wahrheit (1893–1897) ; Kritik (1894–1902) ; Die Umschau (1897), weekly; Das literarische Echo (1898), fortnightly; Kynast (1898–1899), known later as Deutsche Zeitschrift (1899–1903) and Iduna (1903–1906) ; Der Termer (1898), monthly; Die Warte(1900),weekly; Deutschland (1902–1907); Deutsche Monatsschrift (1902–1907); Hochland (1903), monthly; Charon (1904), monthly; Siiddeutsche Monatshefte (1904) ; Der Deutsche (1905–1908) ; Deutsche Kultur (19o5--19o8) ; Arena (1906) , monthly; Das Blaubuch (1906), weekly; Eckart (1906), monthly; Die Standarte (1906), weekly; Marz (1907), fortnightly; Morgen (1907), weekly; Neue Revue (1907), weekly; Internationale Wochenschrift fur Wissenschaft, Kunst, and Technik (1907), weekly supplement to the Miinchener allgemeine Zeitung; Wissen (190. weekly; Unsere Zeit (1907), monthly; Hyperion (1908), bi-monthly; Xenien (1908), monthly; Das neue Jahrhundert (1909), monthly; Die Tat (1909), monthly. Periodicals have been specialized in Germany to an extent perhaps unequalled in any other country. No subject of human interest is now without one or indeed several organs. Full details of these serials are supplied by a special class of periodical with which every department of science, art and literature in German- AUSTRIA The most notable periodicals of a general character have been the Wiener Jahrbucher der Literatur (1818–1848) and the Oesterreichische Revue (1863–1867). Among current examples the following may be mentioned: Heimgarten (1877), monthly; Oesterreichisch-Ungarische Revue (1886), monthly; Allgemeines Literaturblatt (1892), fortnightly; Die Kultur (1899), quarterly; Deutsche Arbeit (1900), monthly; Oesterreichische Rundschau (1904), fortnightly; Die Karpathen (1907); fortnightly. There were in Austria 22 literary and 41 special periodicals in 1848, and 1to literary and 413 special periodicals in 1873 (see the statistical inquiry of Dr Johann Winckler, Die period. Presse Oesterreichs, 1875). In 1905 the total number had increased to 806, of which 564 were published in Vienna. According to the Deutscher Zeitschriften-Katalog (1874), 2219 periodicals were published in Austria, Germany and Switzerland in 1874 in the German language. In 1905 the number of periodicals in German-speaking countries was 5066, of which 4019 appeared in Germany (in Berlin alone 1107) 8o6 in Austria and 218 in Switzer-land (Borsenblatt fur den deutschen Buchhandel, 1909, No. 124). SWITZERLAND The Nova litteraria helvetica (1703–1715) of Zurich is the earliest literary periodical which Switzerland can show. From 1728 to 1734 a Bibliothi que italique, and towards the end of the century the Bibliotheque britannique (1796–1815), dealing with agriculture, literature, and science, in three separate series, were published at Geneva. The latter was followed by the leading periodical speaking countries is equipped, the Jahresberichte and Bibliographien, which give each year a full account of the literature of the subject with which they are concerned. The chief of these are: Bibliography and Librarianship: Bibliographie des Buch- and Bibliothekswesens (1905); Chemistry: Jahresbericht fiber die Fortschritte der Chemie (1847); Classical Archaeology and Philology: Jahresbericht fiber die Fortschritte der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft (1873); Education: Jahrbuch der padagogischen Literatur (1901) ; Geography : Geographisches Jahrbuch (1874); Bibliotheca geographica (1891) ; History: Jahresberichte der Geschichtswissenschaft (1878); Fine Arts: Internationale Bibliographie der Kunstwissenschaft (1902); Law and Political Economy: Uebersicht der gesamten staats- and reclztswissenschaftlichen Literatur (1868); Jurisprudentia Germaniae (1905) ; Bibliographie des burgerlichen Rechts (1888) ; Bibliographie der Sozialwissenschaften (1905); Bibliographie fur Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte (1903) ; Bibliographie fur Volkswirtschaftslehre and Rechtswissenschaft (1906); Literature and Languages: Bibliographie der vergleichenden Literaturgeschichte (1903); Jahresberichte fur neuere deutsche Literaturgeschichte (1890);' Jahresbericht fiber die Erscheinungen auf dem Gebiete der germanischen Philologie (1879) ; Uebersicht fiber die auf dem Gebiete der englischen Philologie erschienenen Bucher, Schriften, and Aufsatze (1878); Kritischer Jahresbericht fiber die Fortschritte der romanischen Philologie (1875) ; Bibliographie fur romanische Philologie—Supt. zur Zeitschr. f. roman. Philologie (1875); Orientalische Bibliographie (1888) ; Mathematics: Jahrbuch fiber die Fortschritte der Mathematik (1869) ; Medicine and Surgery: Jahresbericht fiber die Leistungen and Fortschritte der gesamten Medizin (1866); Jahresbericht fiber die Leistungen auf dem Gebiete der Veterinarmedizin ^ (1881) ; Military: Jahresbericht fiber Veranderungen and Fortschritte im Militarwesen (1874) ; Jahresbericht fiber die Leistungen and Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete des Militarsanitatswesens (1873); Natural Science: Naturae novitates (1879), fortnightly; Bibliographie der deutschen naturwissenschaftlichen Literatur (1901); Bibliographia zoologica (1896); Zoologischer Jahresbericht (1879); Jests botanischer Jahresbericht (1873) ; Die Fortschritte der Physik (1847) ; Technicology : Repertorium der technischen Journalliteratur (1874); Theology: Theologischer Jahresbericht (1881) ; Bibliographie der Kirchengeschichtlichen Literatur (1877). of French-speaking Switzerland, the Bibliothique universelle (1816), which has also had a scientific and a literary series. The Revue suisse (1838) was produced at Neuchatel. These two have been amalgamated and appear as the Bibliotheque universe/le et revue suisse. La Suisse romande (1885) only lasted twelve months. Theologie et philosophie (1868–1872), an account of foreign literature on those subjects, was continued as Revue de theologie et de philosophie (1873) at Lausanne. Among current serials may be mentioned Archives de psychologie de la Suisse romande (1901) edited by Flournoy and Claparede; Jahresverzeichnis der schweizerischen Universit¢tsschriften (1897–1898); Untersuchungen zur neueren Sprach- and Literaturgeschichte (1903); Zwingliana: Mitteilungen zur Geschichte Zwingli and der Reformation (1897). ITALY Prompted by M. A. Ricci, Francesco Nazzari, the future cardinal, established in 1668 the Giornale de' letterati upon the plan of the French Journal des savants. His collaborateurs each agreed to undertake the criticism of a separate literature while Nazzari retained the general editorship and the analysis of the French books. The journal was continued to 1675, and another series was carried on to 1769. Bacchini brought out at Parma (1688–169o) and at Modena (1692–1697) a periodical with a similar title. A much better known Giornale was that of Apostolo Zeno, founded with the help of Maffei and Muratori (1710), continued after 1718 by Pietro Zeno, and after 1728 by Mastraca and Paitoni. Another Giornale, to which Fabroni contributed, was published at Pisa from 1771 onwards. The Galleria di Minerva was first published at Venice in 1696. One of the many merits of the antiquary Lami was his connexion with the Novelle letterarie (1740-1770), founded by him, and after the first two years almost entirely written by him. Its learning and impartiality gave it much authority. The Frusta letteraria 0763–1765) was brought out at Venice by Giuseppe Baretti under the pseudonym of Aristarco Scannabue. The next that deserve mention are the Giornale enciclopedico (1806) of Naples, followed by the Progresso delle scienze (1833–1848) and the Museo di scienze e letteratura of the same city, and the Giornale arcadico (1819) of Rome. Among the contributors to the Poligrafo (1811) of Milan were Monti, Perticari, and some of the first names in Italian literature. The Biblioteca italiana (1816–184o) was founded at Milan by the favour of the Austrian government, and the editorship was offered to and declined by Ugo Foscolo. It rendered service to Italian literature by its opposition to the Della-Cruscan tyranny. Another Milanese serial was the Conciliatore (1818–1820), which although it only lived two years, will be remembered for the endeavours made by Silvio Pellico, Camillo Ugoni and its other contributors to introduce a more dignified and courageous method of criticism. After its suppression and the falling off in interest of the Biblioteca italiana the next of any merit to appear was the Antologia, a monthly periodical brought out at Florence in 182o by Gino Capponi and Giampetro Vieusseux, but suppressed in 1833 on account of an epigram of Tommaseo, a principal writer. Some striking papers were contributed by Giuseppe Mazzini. Naples had in 1832 Ii Progresso of Carlo Troya, helped by Tommaseo and Centofanti, and Palermo owned the Giornale di statistica (1834), suppressed eight years later. The Archivio storico, consisting of reprints of documents with historical dissertations, dates from 1842, and was founded by Vieusseux and Gino Capponi. The Civill¢ catlolica (1850), fortnightly, is still the organ of the Jesuits. The Rivista contemporanea (1852) was founded at Turin in emulation of the French Revue des deux mondes, which has been the type followed by so many continental periodicals. The Politecnico (1839) of Milan was suppressed in 1844 and revived in 1859. The Nuova antologia (1866) soon acquired a well-deserved reputation as a high-class review and magazine; its rival, the Rivista europea, being the special organ of the Florentine men of letters. The Rassegna settimanale was a weekly political and literary review, which after eight years of existence gave place to a daily newspaper, the Rassegna. The Archivio Irentino (1882) was the organ of " Italia Irredenta." The Rassegna nazionale, conducted by the marchese Manfredo di Passano, a chief of the moderate clerical party, the Nuova rivista of Turin, the Fanfulla della Domenica, and the Gazzetta letteraria may also be mentioned. Some of the following are still published: Annali di matematica (1867); Annuario di giurisprudenza (1883); Archivio di statistica (1876); Archivio storico lombardo (1874); Archivio veneto (1871); Archivio per lo studio delle tradizioni popolari; Archivio per la zoologia; Il Bibliofilo; Il Filangieri (1876); La Natura (1884); Nuovo giornale botanico (1869) ; Giornale degli eruditi (1883) ; Giornale di filologia romanza; Nuova rivista Internazionale (1879) ; La Rassegna italiana (1881); Revue internationale (1883). In more recent years a great expansion has been witnessed. Local reviews have largely increased, as well as those devoted to history, science and university undertakings. Among representative serials are the following—Archaeology: Museo italiano di antichita classica (1885) with atlas in folio; Oriens christianus (1901); Nuovo bollettino di archeologia cristiana, quarterly at Rome (1895). Bibliography: Rivista delle biblioteche e degli archivi (1888), published monthly at Rome and Florence, the official organ of librarians and archivists; Giornaledella libreria della tipografia (1888), supplement to the Bibliografia italiana; Bollettino di bibliografia e scoria delle scienze matematiche (1898); La Bibliofzlia (1899), Florence, monthly; Raccolta Vinciana (1904). Philology: Bollettino di filologia classica (1894); Giornale italiano di filologia e linguistica classica (1886); Studi di filologia romanza (1885) ; Studi italiani di filologia classica (1893) ; Bessarione, bi-monthly. No class has developed more usefully than the historical, among them being: Bollettino dell' instituto storico italiano (1886); Nuovo archivio veneto (189o) ; Rivista di storia antica e scienze affini (1895); Rivista storica italiana (1884). New literary and scientific reviews are: L'Alighieri, rivista di case dantesche (1889); Giornale dantesco (1894); Giornale storico delta letteratura italiana (1883); Studi di letteratura italiana (1899); Studi medievali (1904); L'Arcadia, periodico mensile di scienze, lettere, ed arti (1889); Periodico di matematica per l'insegnamento secondario (1885) ; Rivista di matematica (1891); Rivista philosofica (1899); Rivista d'Italia, monthly at Rome. Fine Arts: L'Arte, monthly; Arte italiana, monthly; Rassegna d'arte, monthly. BELGIUM The Journal encyclopedique (1756–1793) founded by P. Rousseau, made Liege a propagandist centre for the philosophical party. In the same city was also first established L'Esprit des journaux (1772–1818), styled by Sainte-Beuve " cette considerable et excellente collection," but " journal voleur et cotnpilateur." The Journal historique et litteraire (1788–1790) was founded at Luxemburg by the Jesuit De Feller; having been suppressed there, it was transferred to Liege, and subsequently to Maestricht. It is one of the most curious of the Belgian periodicals of the 18th century, and contains most precious materials for the national history. A complete set is very rare and much sought after. The Revue belge (1835–1843), in spite of the support of the best writers of the kingdom, as well as its successor the Revue de Liege (1844–1847), the Tresor national (1842–1843), published at Brussels, and the Revue de Belgique (1846–1851) were all short-lived. The Revue de Bruxelles (1837–1848), supported by the nobility and the clergy, had a longer career. The Revue nationale was the champicn of Liberalism, and came to an end in 1847. The Messager des sciences historiques (1833), at Ghent, was in repute on account of its historical and antiquarian character. The Revue catholique, the organ of the professors of the university of Louvain, began in 1846 a controversy with the Journal historique et litteraire, of Kersten (1834) upon the origin of human knowledge, which lasted for many years and excited great attention. The Annales des travaux publics (1843), the Bulletin de l'industrie (1842), the Journal des beaux-arts (1858), and the Catholic Precis historiques (1852), the Protestant Chretien beige (1850), are other examples. The Revue trimestrielle was founded at Brussels by Van Bemmel in 1854. The Athenaeum beige (1868) did not last long. Among current periodicals in French are the following—Biblioraphy: Bulletin bibliographique et pedagogique du musee belge (81897) ; La Revue des bibliotheques et archives de Belgique (1903) ; Le Glaneur litteraire, musical et bibliographie (1901); Archives des arts et de la bibliographie de Belgique (Tables 1833–1853 and 1875–1894). Philosophy and ecclesiastical history: Revue neo-scholastique publiee par la societe philosophique de Louvain (1894); Revue d'histoire ecclesiastique (1900), the organ of the Catholic university of Louvain; Revue benedictine (1884); Analectes pour servir a l'histoire ecclesiastique de la Belgique, 2e serie (1881–1904) and 3e serie 1905); with an Annexe for Cartularies. Science: Archives internationales de physiologie (1902), published by Leon Fredericq; La Cellule, recueil de cytologie et d'histologie generale (1884); Le Museon (1882); Le Mouvement geographique (1884); Le Musee beige (1897); Revue chirurgicale beige et du nord de la France (1901). Annales des mines belgiques appears quarterly, and L'Art modern weekly at Brussels. Among Flemish serials may be mentioned the Nederduitsche Letteroefeningen (1834); the Belgisch Museum (1836–1846), edited by Willems; the Broederhand, which did not appear after 1846; the Taalverbund of Antwerp; the Kunst- en Letterblad (1840—1843); and the Vlaemsche Rederyker (1844). Current Flemish periodicals include: Onze kunst geillustreed maandschrift voor beeldende kunst (1900); Averbode's weekblad Godsdienst huisgezin moedertaal (1907); De Raadselbode talk van den vlamschen raadselliefhebber (1901); Rechtskundig tijdschrift voor vlamsch Belgie (1901). It has been calculated that in 1860 there were 51 periodicals published in Belgium. In 1884 the number had increased to 412, and in 1908 to 1701. See U. Capitaine, Recherches sur les journaux et les &nits periodiques liegeois (185o); Releve de taus les ecrits periodiques qui se publient clans le royaume de Belgique (1875); Catalogue des journaux, revues, et publications periodiques de la Belgique (1910) ; Revue bibliographique beige. HOLLAND The first serial written in Dutch was the Boekzaal van Europa (1692–1708, and 1715–1748), which had several changes of name during its long life. The next of any note was the Republijk der Geleerden (1710-1748). The English Spectator was imitated by J. van Effen in his Misanthrope (1711—1712), written in French, and in the Hollandsche Spectator (1731—1735), in Dutch. An important serial was the long-lived Vaderlandsche Letteroefeningen (1761). The Algemeene Kunst en Letterbode (1788) was long the leading review of Holland; in 186o it was joined to the Nederlandsch Spectator (1855). Of those founded in the 19th century may be mentioned the Recensent (1803), and Nieuwe Recensent; the Nederlandsch Museum (1835); the Tijdstroom (1857); the Tijdspiegel, a literary journal of Protestant tendency; the Theologisch Tijdschrift (1867), the organ of the Leiden school of theology; and the Dietsche Warande, a Roman Catholic review devoted to the national antiquities. Colonial interests have been cared for by the Tijdschrift voor nederlandsch Indie (1848). Current periodicals are Hollandsche revue, monthly; De Gids (1837), monthly; De nieuwe Gids (1886), monthly; De Architect, bi-monthly; Caecilia (for music); Tijdschrift voor Strafrecht; Museum, for philology (1893), monthly; Tijdschrift voor nederlandsche taal en letterkunde; Nederlandsch Archievenblad; De Paleograaf; Elseviers geillustreerd Maandschrift, monthly; Groot Nederland, monthly. DENMARK Early in the 18th century Denmark had the Nye Tidender (1720), continued down to 1836 under the name of Danskliteraturtidende. The Minerva (1785) of Rahbek was carried on to 1819, and the Skandinavisk Museum (1798—1803) was revived by the Litteratur-Selskabs Skrifter (1805). These were followed by the Laerde Efterretninger (1799—1810), afterwards styled Litteratur-Tidende (1811—1836), the Athene (1813—1817), and Historisk Tidsskrift (1840). In more modern times appeared Tidsskrift for Litteratur og Kritik (1832—1842, 1843) ; Maanedsskrift for Litteratur (1829—1838) ; Nord og Syd (1848—1849) of Goldschmidt, succeeded by Ude og Hjemme, and the Dansk Maanedsskrift (1858) of Steenstrup, with signed historical and literary articles. One of the most noteworthy Scandinavian periodicals has been the Nordisk Universitets Tidsskrift (1854—1864), a bond of union between the universities of Christiania, Upsala, Lund and Copenhagen. Current periodicals are: Studier fra Sprog- og Oldtidsforskning (1891), quarterly; Danske Magazin, yearly; Nyt Tidsskrift for Mathematik, monthly; Theologisk Tidsskrift, monthly; Nationalokonomisk Tidsskrift, bi-monthly; Dansk bog fortegnelse, bi-monthly for bibliography; Athenaeum finsk; Tilskueren, monthly; Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed (archaeology) quarterly. Iceland has had the Islenzk Sagnablod (1817—1826), Ny Fjelagsrit (1841—1873), and Gefn (1870—1873). Skirnir (1831), which absorbed in 1905 Timarit hins islenska Bokmentafelags (1880-1904), is still published. SWEDEN The Swenska Argus (1733—1734) of Olof Dalin is the first contribution of Sweden to periodical literature. The next were the Tidningar om den Lardas Arbeten (1742) and the Ldrda Tidningar. The patriotic journalist C. C. Gjorweli established about twenty literary periodicals of which the most important was the Swenska Mercurius (1755—1789). Atterbom and some fellow-students founded about 1810 a society for the deliverance of the country from French pedantry, which with this end carried on a periodical entitled Phosphoros (ISIO-1813), to propagate the opinions of Schlegel and Schelling. The Svensk Literatur-Tidning (1813—1825) of Palmblad and the Polyfem (1810-1812) had the same objects. Among later periodicals we, may mention Skandia (1833—1837); Literaturbladet (1838—184o); Stallningar och Forhallanden (1838) of Crusenstolpe, a monthly review of Scandinavian history; Tidskrift for Litteratur (185o) ; Norsk Tidsskrift (1852), weekly, FOrr och Nu; and the Revue suedoise (1858) of Kramer, written in French. Among the monthlies which now appear are the following: Social Tidskrift, Nordisk Tidskrijt and Ord och Bild xxI. 6SPAIN Spain owes her intellectual emancipation to the monk Benito Feyjoo, who in 1726 produced a volume of dissertations somewhat after the fashion of the Spectator, but on graver subjects, entitled Teatro critico, which was continued down to 1739. His Cartas eruditas (1742—1760) were also issued periodically. The earliest critical serial, the Diario de los literatos (1737—1742), kept up at the expense of Philip V., did not long survive court favour. Other periodicals which appeared in the 18th century were Mailer's Mercurio (1738); the Diario noticioso (1758—1781); El Pensador (1762—1767) of Joseph Clavijo y Fajardo; El Belianis literario (1765), satirical in character; the Semanario erudito (1778—1791), a clumsy collection of documents; El Correo literario de la Europa (1781—1782); El Censor (1781) ; the valuable Memorial literario (1784—18o8); El Correo literario (1786—1791), devoted to literature and science; and the special organs El Correo mercantil (1792—1798) and El Semanario de agriculture (1797—1805). In the 19th century were Variedades de ciencias, literature, y artes (1803—1805), among whose contributors have been the distinguished names of Quintana, Moratin and Antillon; Misceldnea de comercio (1819); and Diario general de las ciencias medicas. The Spanish refugees in London published Ocios de es anoles refugiados (1823—1826) and Misceldnea hispanoamericana (1824-1828), and at Paris Misceldnea escojida americana (1826). The Cronica cientifica y literaria (1817—182o) was afterwards transformed into a daily newspaper. Subsequently to the extinction of El Censor (1820—1823) there was nothing of any value until the Cartas espanolas (1832), since known as the Revista espan"ola (1832—1836) and as the Revista de Madrid (1838). Upon the death of Ferdinand VII. periodicals had a new opening; in 1836 there were published sixteen journals devoted to science and art. The fashion of illustrated serials was introduced in the Semanario pintoresco espaniol (1836—1857), noticeable for its biographies and descriptions of Spanish monuments. El Panorama (1839—1841) was another literary periodical with engravings. Of later date have been the Revista iberica (1861—1863), conducted by Sanz del Rio; La America (1857—187o), specially devoted to American subjects and edited by the brothers Asquerino; Revista de Cataluna, published at Barcelona; Revista de Espana; Revista contempordnea; Espana moderna (1889), and Revista critica (1895). Current special periodicals are: Euskal-erria, revista bascongada (188o, San Sebastian); Monumenta historica societatis Jesu (1894) ; El Progreso matematico, afterwards Revista de matematicas Auras y aplicadas (1891); Revista de bibliografia Catalano (Catalunya, Baleares, Rosselo, Valencia, 1901): La Naturaleza, fortnightly; La Energia electrica, fortnightly; Revista minera, weekly; Revista de medicina, weekly; Bibliografia espanola, fortnightly; La Lectura; Espana y America, monthly. See E. Hartzenbusch, Periddicos de Madrid (1876); Lapeyre, Catalogo-tarifa de los periodicos, revistas, y ilustraciones en Espana (1882) ; Georges le Gentil, Les Revues litteraires de l'Espagne pendant in premiere moitie du XIX' siecle (Paris, 1909). PORTUGAL Portugal could long boast of only one review, the Jornal endclopedico (1779—1806), which had many interruptions; then came the Jornal de Coimbra (1812—1820) ; the Panorama (1836—1857), founded by Herculano; the Revista universal lisbonense (1841—1853), established by Castilho; the Institute (1853) of Coimbra; the Archivo pittoresco (1857) of Lisbon; and the Jornal do sociedade dos amigos das letteras. In 1868 a review called Vox femenina, and con-ducted by women, was established at Lisbon. Current periodicals include: 0 Archeologo portugues (1895); Jornal de sciencias mathematicas et astronomicas (1877); Revista lusitana, Archive de estudos philologicos e ethnologicos relatives d Portugal (1887); Ta-ssi-Yang-Kuo, Archives e annaes de extreme orients portuguez (1899) ; Portugal artistic°, fortnightly; Revista militer; Arte musical, fortnightly; Bolelim do agricultor, monthly; Archive historico portuguez, monthly. NORWAY The first trace of the serial form of publication to be found in Norway is in the Ugentlige korte Afhandlinger (176o—1761), " Weekly Short Treatises," of Bishop Fr. Nannestad, consisting of moral and theological essays. The Maanedlige Afhandlinger (1762), " Monthly Treatises," was supported by several writers and devoted chiefly to rural economy. These two were followed by Politik og Historie (1807—1810); Saga (1816-182o), a quarterly review edited by J. S. Munch; Den norske Tilskuer (1817—1821), a miscellany brought out at Bergen; Hermoder (1821—1827), a weekly aesthetic journal; Iduna, (1822—1823), of the same kind but of less value; Vidar (1832—1834), a weekly scientific and literary review; Nor (1840-1846), of the same type; Norsk Tidsskrift for Videnskab og Litteratur (1847—1855); Illustreret Nyhedsblad (1851—1866). " Illustrated News "; Norsk Maanedsskrift (1856—186o), " Monthly Review for Norway," devoted to history and philology; and Norden (1866), a literary and scientific review. Popular serials date from the Skilling Magazin (1835), which first introduced wood-engraving. Representative current periodicals are: Samtiden, monthly; Elektroteknisk tidsskrift; nordisk GREECE musik-revue, fortnightly; Naturen; Norsk havetidende, monthly; Urd; Norvegia The periodical literature of modern Greece commences with 1 '0 Abyios 'Epuils, brought out at Vienna in 1811 by Anthimos Gazi and continued to 1821. In Aegina the Aiywaia appeared in 1831, edited by Mustoxidis; and at Corfu, in Greek, Italian and English, the 'Aveo\oyla (1834). After the return of King Otho in 1833 a literary review called 'Ipir was commenced. Le Spectateur de l'Orient, in French, pleaded the national cause before Europe for three years from 1853. A military journal was published at Athens in 1855, and two years later the archaeological periodical con-ducted by Pittakis and Rangabes. For many years Hav&u,pa (1850—1872), edited by Rangabes and Paparrigopoulos, was the leading serial. 'Naas dealt with natural science, the I'EsnrovuKa with agriculture, and 'Iepouvineev with theology. 'EOvoshv aaveirivrituiov (1831) and 'IiXoXoyu:or cbXXoyos Hapeacebs (1863) appear annually, and 'AOrtva (1899) quarterly. See A. R. Rangab6, His'. litteraire de in Grece modern (Paris, 1879) ; R. Nicolai, Geschichte der neugriechischen Literatur (1876). RUSSIA The historian Gerhard Friedrich Muller made the first attempt to establish periodical literature in Russia in his Yejem'yesvatchniya Sotchineniya (2755–1764), or" Monthly Works." In 1759 Sumarakov founded the Trudolyubivaya Ptcheld, or " Industrious Bee," giving translations from the Spectator, and, for the first time, critical essays. Karamsin brought out in 1802 the V'yestnik Evropi, an important review with Liberal tendencies. The Conservative Russkoi V'yestnik (1808) was revived at Moscow in 1856 by Kattkov. The two last named are still published each month. The romantic school was supported by Sin Otetchestva (1812), " Son of the Father-land," united in T825 to the Severnoi Arkhiv (1822), which dwindled and came to an end soon after 1839. One of the most successful Russian reviews has been the Biblioteka dl'ya Tchtenia (1834) or " Library of Reading." The Russkaya Missl, " Russian Thought," published in Moscow, represented the Slavophil party. The following are some representative periodicals of the day: Zurnal ministersva narodnago prosvescenija, monthly; Baltische Monatsschrift (1860), monthly; V'yestnik vospitania (for education); Mir iskusstra for fine art) ; Russkoie bogatstvo (for literature) ; Russki arkhiv archives); Mir Boji, monthly; Istorichesky v'yestnik (history) ; Russkaia starina (archaeology). In Finland Suomi (1841), written in Swedish, is still published.
End of Article: SPORTS
SPORT (a contracted or shortened form of "disport,"...

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