STADTHOLDER (Du. stadhouder, a delegate or representative) , thetitle of the chief
See also:magistrate of the seven states which formed the
See also:Netherlands by the union of Utrecht in 1579 . Though the word stad means a
See also:town, it has also the force of the kindred
See also:English "
See also:stead." A stadhouder was not the
See also:governor of a " stad " or " stead " in the sense of a place or town . He was in the place, or stead, of the
See also:sovereign . The word is translated into Latin by legatus, gubernator and praefectus . The
See also:office of stadtholder is a procousulatus, and the High German
See also:equivalent is Statthalter, a delegate . When the
See also:northern Netherlands revolted from
See also:Philip II. of Spain, who had inherited his sovereign rights from the
See also:house of
See also:Burgundy (see NETHERLANDS:
See also:History), the stad- The Stade Elbe-dues (Stader Elbezoll) were an
See also:impost upon all goods carried up the Elbe, and were levied at the
See also:village of Brunshausen, at the mouth of the Schwinge . The tax was abolished in 1267 by the Hanseatic
See also:League, but it was revived by the Swedes in 1688, and confirmed by Hanover . The dues were fostered by the growing
See also:trade of
See also:Hamburg, and in 1861, when they were redeemed (for £427,600) by the nations trading in the Elbe, the
See also:exchequer of Hanover was in the yearly
See also:receipt of about £45,000 from this source . Hamburg and
See also:Great Britain each paid more than a third of the redemption
See also:money.houder passed from being the representative of an absent sovereign
See also:prince and became the chief magistrate of the states in whom the
See also:sovereignty resided . Six of the seven states forming the
See also:confederation of the United Netherlands took as their stadtholder
See also:William of Orange-
See also:Nassau, called " the Silent," and his descendants during three generations . The seventh,
See also:Friesland, had for stadtholder William's
See also:John " the Old," and his descendants . The younger
See also:line became stadtholders of the other states after the extinction of the elder, and were the ancestors of the
See also:present royal
See also:family of the Netherlands .
Though the stadtholders of the house of Orange-Nassau were of princely
See also:rank and intermarried with the royal families of
See also:Europe, they were not sovereign princes . They exercised large administrative
See also:powers, and commanded the
See also:land and
See also:sea forces, but it was with delegated authority given them by each state in domestic affairs, and by the states-general of the confederation in all
See also:common and
See also:foreign affairs . The states-general and some of the individual states not only claimed but exercised the right of suspending the stadtholdership, as for instance after the
See also:death of William II., 165o, and of William III., 1702 .
MADAME DE STAEL
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