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STANISLAUS

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V22, Page 61 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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STANISLAUS PoNIATOwsKI (1757—1833), son of Casimir, joined the emperor at Lutzen. In the campaign of 1813 he shared in the aggrandisement of the family during the reign of guarded the passes of the Bohemian mountains and defended Stanislaus II., becoming grand treasurer of Lithuania, starost the left bank of the Elbe. As a reward for his brilliant services of Podolia and lieutenant-general of the royal army. In 1793 at the three days' battle of Leipzig he was made a marshal of he settled in Vienna, and subsequently in Rome, where he made France and entrusted with the honourable but dangerous duty a magnificent collection of antique gems in his house on the of covering the retreat of the army. Poniatowski heroically Via Flaminia. This collection was sold at Christie's in London defended Leipzig, losing half his corps in the attempt, finally in May 1839. He died in Florence on the 13th of February falling back slowly upon the bridge over the Elster which the 1833, and with him the Polish and Austrian honours became French in the general confusion blew up before he reached it. extinct. Contesting every step with the overwhelming forces of the His natural, but recognized, son, JOSEPH MICHAEL XAVIER pursuers, he refused to surrender, and covered with wounds FRANCIS JOHN PONIATOWSKI (1816-1873), was born at Rome plunged into the river, where he flied fighting to the last. His and in 1847 was naturalized as a Tuscan subject. He received relics were conveyed to Poland and buried in Cracow Cathedral, the title of prince in Tuscany (1847) and in Austria (1850). where he lies by the side of Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Jan Sobieski. He had studied music under Ceccherini at Florence, and wrote Poniatowski's Mes souvenirs sur la campagne de 1992 (Lemberg, numerous operas, in the first of which, Giovanni di Procida, 1863) is a valuable historical document, he sang the title role himself at Lucca in 1838. He represented See Stanislaw Kostka Boguslawski, Life of Prince Joseph Poniathe court of Tuscany in Paris from 1848, and he was made a towski (Pol.; Warsaw, 1831) ; Franciszek Paszkowski, Prince Joseph senator by Napoleon III., whom he followed to England in Poniatowski (Pol.; Cracow, 1898) ; Correspondence of Poniatowski r8 His last opera, Gelmina, was produced at Covent Garden (ed. E. Raczynski, Posen, 1843); Bronislaw Dembinski, Stanislaus 71. Pro Augustus and Prince Joseph Poniatowski in the light of their Corre- in 1872. He died on the 3rd of July 1873, and was buried at spondence (Fr.; Lemberg, 1904); Szymon Askenazy, Prince Chislehurst. His son, Prince Stanislaus Augustus, married and Joseph Poniatowski (Pol.; Warsaw, 1905). (R. N. B.) settled in Paris. He was equerry to Napoleon III., and died PONS, JEAN LOUIS (1761-1831), French astronomer, was in January 1908. born at Peyres (Hautes Alpes) on the 24th of December 1761.
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