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STOCKTON

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V25, Page 939 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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STOCKTON, a city and the county seat of San Joaquin county in central California, U.S.A., at the head of the Stockton channel of the San Joaquin river, about 48 in. S.E. of Sacramento. Pop. (1900), 17,506, of whom 4057 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 23,253. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, the Western Pacific and the Southern Pacific railways, and has also a considerable river trade with San Francisco. It is at the head of regular navigation on the river; at high water boats occasionally go to Hills Ferry, 150 M. beyond Stockton. The channel has been much improved by the Federal government since 1877. Stockton has a perfectly level site, broad streets and a regular plan. In the city are a good public library, the San Joaquin county law library, St Agnes academy, St Mary's college, a children's home (1896; under the Ladies' Aid Society), St Joseph's home (1899) for the aged, and St Joseph's hospital (1899), both under the Sisters of St Dominic, the Pacific hospital, a county hospital and a state hospital for the insane (1851). Situated in the great valley of the San Joaquin, in the midst of a rich agricultural region, it is one of the largest grain, vegetable and fruit markets of the West. It manufactures flour, lumber, agricultural machinery and implements, &c. Its factory product in 1905 was valued at $8,029,490, or 45.3% more than in 1900. Stockton rose into prominence in the early mining days. A settlement named Tuleberg, later called New Albany, stood on the city site in 1847; its future was precarious when the discovery of gold insured its prosperity. In the spring of 1849 a town was laid out and the present name adopted in honour of Commander Robert Field Stockton (1795-1866), who with Colonel John C. Fremont and General Stephen W. Kearny had gained possession of California for the United States during the war with Mexico. In 185o Stockton became the county-seat and was chartered as a city. STOCKTON-ON-TEES, a market town, municipal and parliamentary borough, and port of Durham, England, on the N. bank of the Tees, 51 M. above its mouth, and on the North Eastern railway, 236 M. N. by W. from London. Pop. (1901), 51,478. The parliamentary borough extends across the river into Yorkshire, to include the municipal borough of Thornaby-on-Tees. At Norton, ' m. north, the church of St Mary, formerly collegiate, shows fine Norman work. The chief buildings are a town hall, with clock-tower and spire, borough-hall, exchange and public library. The quays are accessible to vessels drawing 20 ft. at high water spring tides. There are extensive steel works, blasting furnaces, iron and brass foundries and rolling-mills; and iron shipbuilding is an important industry. There are also sailcloth works, potteries, breweries and brick and tile works. Exports (iron manufactures, coal and agricultural produce) were valued at £435,439 in 'goo; imports (timber, iron, grain, &c.) at £280,371; trade being chiefly with Holland and the Baltic ports, and coastal. The parliamentary borough returns one member. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 10 aldermen and 30 councillors, and has an area of 2935 acres. Tt would seem that Stockton (Stokton) grew up round the castle of the bishops of Durham, to whom the town belonged even before their purchase of the earldom of Sadberge. In 1183 the Boldon Book records that the whole town rendered one milch cow and the ferry twenty pence to the bishop. The castle was probably built between 1183 and 1214. King John visited Bishop Philip of Poitou (d. 1208) there and is said to have granted the place a charter similar to that of Hartlepool in 1214. Of this, however, no traces remain, the rights of the borough, which must have come into existence during the 13th century, being purely prescriptive. Stockton was divided into two parts: the " town," governed by the bailiff of the bishop and afterwards by the vicar and vestrymen, and the borough, under a mayor and alder-men. The bishop's bailiff was also the keeper of the castle, though in the 17th century the office belonged to the borough-bailiff. The borough is first mentioned in 1283, when the king took tallage from it during the vacancy of the see. It occurs again in a record of 1328, and in 1344 the mayor and bailiffs entered into an agreement with the mayor and bailiffs of New-castle for the regulation of trade between the two places. Bishop Hatfield's survey (1377-1382) gives a list of tenants within the borough: 22 burgages and 15 half-burgages are mentioned, the rent of which varies from twenty-two pence to a penny half-penny. In 1644 the parliamentary troops besieged and captured the castle, which was dismantled in 1652. In 1666 the population was only J44, for Stockton was an isolated place with little trade. It became a parliamentary borough, returning one member, in 1867. In 1310 the bishop gave the town a market and a fair during the octave of the Translation of St Thomas the Martyr, reserving to himself the tolls; Bishop Morton revived the market, which had lapsed at the beginning of the 17th century. Camden speaks of Stockton as a neat, well-built corporation town and especially commends the ale brewed there and sent to various parts of the country. The importance of Stockton as a port dates from the end of the 18th century, when there was a considerable trade in lead, dairy- produce and timber.
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FRANCIS RICHARD STOCKTON (1834–1902)

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