See also:hydrocarbon found to the extent of I to 4% in storax; it also occurs with crude xylene in
See also:tar fractions . It may be obtained from storax by
See also:distillation with
See also:water, and synthetically by
See also:heating cinnamic acid with lime, by the
See also:action of aluminium chloride on a mixture of vinyl bromide and
See also:benzene, by removing the elements of hydrobromic acid from bromethylbenzene by means of alcoholic potash, or, best, by treating f9-bromhydrocinnamic acid with soda, when it yields
See also:carbon dioxide and hydrobromic acid . It also results on condensing
See also:acetylene, and on reducing phenylacetylene by
See also:zinc dust and acetic acid . It is a clear, strongly refractive liquid, which has a pleasant odour; it boils at 144° and has a specific gravity of 0.925 at ()a . Styrolene is oxidized by nitric or chromic acids to benzoic acid; reduction gives ethylbenzene; hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids yield a-haloid ethylbenzenes, e.g . C6H5•CHC1'
See also:CH3; whilst chlorine and bromine give a$-dihaloid ethylbenzenes,, e.g . C6H5•CHC1-CH2CI . Tauern with the Hochgolling (9390 ft.), the Wolzer
See also:Alps with the Predigtstuhl (8349 ft.), the Rottenmanner Tauern with the Grosser Bosenstein (8032 ft.), and the Seckauer Alps or Zinken
See also:group, which culminates in the Zinkenkogel (7865 ft.) . The
See also:principal ramifications of the
See also:primitive Alps of
See also:Carinthia and Styria are: the Stang Alps with the Konigsstuhl (7646 ft.) and Eisenhut (8007 ft.), the Judenburger or Seethaler Alps with the Zirbitzkogel (7862 ft.), and the Koralpen which culminates in the Grosser Speikkogel (7023 ft.) . The Styrian Nieder Alps cover the
See also:north and east of the Mur, and contain the Fischbacher Alps with the Hochlantsch (5646 ft.), the Wechsel group (5700 ft.), and the small Semmering group with the Stuhleck or Spitaler Alpe (5847 ft.), and the Sonnenwendstein (4994 ft.) . In this group is the famous Semmering Pass, which leads from
See also:Austria into Styria and is crossed by the Semmering railway . This railway, which was completed in 1854, is the
See also:oldest of the
See also:railways, and is remarkable for its numerous and long tunnels, its viaducts and galleries .
It has a length of 35 m., beginning at Gloggnitz in Lower Austria and ending at Miirzzuschlag in Styria, and passes through some exceedingly beautiful scenery . The whole region is now a favourite summer resort .South of the Drave Styria is traversed by the following ramifications of the
See also:southern zone of the eastern Alps: the Bacher Gebirge with the Cerni Vrch or Schwarzer
See also:Berg (5078 ft.), and the Sannthaler or
See also:Steiner Alps with the Oistriza (7709 ft.) and the highest
See also:peak of the group, the Grintovc or Grintouz (8429 ft.), which is situated on the threefold boundary of Carinthia,
See also:Carniola and Styria . Here is also the mountain country of Cilli, with the highest peak, the Wachberg (3364 ft.) . The mountains decrease in height from west to east, and the south-east of Styria may be described as hilly rather than mountainous . This
See also:part is occupied by the eastern outliers of the Alps, known as the Styrian
See also:hill country, and by the Windisch Buheln, which is one of the most renowned
See also:vine districts in the whole of Austria . Styria belongs to the
See also:watershed of the
See also:Danube and its principal
See also:rivers are: the
See also:Enns with its affluent the
See also:Salza, the Raab with the Feistritz, the Mur with the Murz, the Drau or Drave, and the Sau or Save, which receives the Sann and the Sotla . Styria has numerous small Alpine lakes of which the most important are the Grundel-see, the Toplitz-see, and the Leopoldsteiner-see . There is a mean
See also:annual difference of about 9° F. between the north-west and the south-east . The best known
See also:mineral springs are the alkaline springs of Rohitsch and Gleichenberg, the brine springs of Aussee, and the thermal springs of Tuffer, Neuhaus and Tobelbad . In spite of the irregular nature of the
See also:surface, but little of the
See also:soil can be called unproductive . Of its
See also:area 47—49% is covered with
See also:fine forests .
About 19% is arable
See also:land, 12% pastures, 5.6o% meadows, while 1•o6% is occupied by gardens and 1.4% by vineyards which produce
See also:wine of a
See also:good quality .
See also:Cattle-rearing has taken a great development and also
See also:dairy-farming in the Alpine fashion . A good
See also:race of horses is bred in the valley of the Enns, while poultry-rearing and bee-keeping are carried on in the south .
See also:Fish and
See also:game are also plentiful . The great
See also:wealth of Styria, however, lies underground . Its extensive iron mines, mostly at Erzberg, which were worked during the
See also:period, yield nearly
See also:half of the total production of iron in Austria . The principal foundries are at
See also:Eisenerz, Vordernberg, Trofaiach, Hieflau, Zeltweg and Neuberg . Next in importance comes the
See also:mining of
See also:brown coal, which has also been carried on for a long
See also:time . The richest coalfields are situated near
See also:Leoben, near Voitsberg and Koflach, near Eibiswald and Wies, and
See also:round Trifail, Tuffer and Hrastnig . Its other mineral resources include
See also:graphite, copper, zinc, lead,
See also:clay, marble and good
See also:mill and
See also:building stones . Iron-foundries, machine-shops and manufactures of various kinds of iron and
See also:steel goods are very numerous . A
See also:special Styrolene gives origin to three series of derivatives, two of which contain the substituents in the side chain, e.g .
C6H6•CCI:CH1 or a-compounds, and C6H6•CH:CHCI, or w-compounds, whilst in the third the benzenenucleus is substituted . The a-halogen compounds are obtained by heating styrolene chloride (or bromide) with lime or alcoholic potash; they are liquids which have a penetrating odour, and yield
See also:acetophenone when heated with water to 180° . The w-chlor compound results when 14-phenyl-a-chlorlactic acid (from hypochiorous acid and cinnamic acid) is heated with water; it has a hyacinthine odour and yields phenylacetaldehyde when heated with water . Nitrostyrolene results when styrolene is treated with fuming nitric acid . Related to styrolene is phenylacetylene,
See also:C6H5.CCH, which results when a-bromstyrolene or acetophenone chloride are heated to 130° with alcoholic potash, or phenylpropiolic acid with water to 120° . It is a liquid, boiling at 139° and having a pleasant odour . It resembles acetylene in yielding metallic derivatives with ammoniacal copper and
See also:silver solutions . On solution in sulphuric acid, followed by dilution with water, it yields acetophenone . Stilbene or toluylene,
See also:C6H6'CH : CH•CsH5, is symmetrical diphenylethylene . It may be obtained by distilling benzyl sulphide or disulphide, by the action of sodium on benzaldehyde or benzal chloride, by distilling fumaric and cinnamic phenyl
See also:esters: C6H5O.00•CH:CH•CO.006H6–3CO2+C6H6•CH:CH•CO-OC6H5– 2CO2 +C6H6•CH : CH•C6H6 (Ber.,18, p.1945), and fromchlorasymmetrical diphenylethane derivatives which undergo a rearrangement when heated (Ber., 7. p . 1409) . Stilbene (from Gr. vrt su^, to glisten) crystallizes in large, colourless, glistening
See also:monoclinic plates, which melt at 124° and
See also:boil at 306° .
On passing the vapour through red-hot tubes it yieldsanthracene and
See also:toluene . Reduction with hydriodic acid gives dibenzyl, and heating with
See also:sulphur gives tetraphenylthiophene or thionessal . Many derivatives are known, some of which exist in two structural forms, exhibiting geometrical
See also:isomerism after the mode of fumaric and maleic acids . Those substituted in the benzene nucleus are obtained by condensing two molecules of a substituted benzyl and benzal chlorides . The diortho and dipara dinitro compounds result from the action of alcoholic potash on ortho- and para-nitrobenzyl chlorides . The latter on reduction yields a diamino compound, the disuiphonic acid of which on diazotization and coupling with a phenol, &c., gives valuable substantive
See also:cotton dyes after the type yielded by Benzidine . Stilbene bromide when treated with alcoholic potash gives
See also:diphenyl acetylene or tolane, C6H5.0 C C6H6 .
STYRIA (German, Steiermark or Steyermark)
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