Online Encyclopedia

SUBCLASS 2

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 674 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SUBCLASS 2, NoTosTIGMA.—Chilopods with a series of median it bearing first pair of legs (d). Tip of palpognath. Antenna. Toxicognath. Last pair of append-ages, enlarged and directed back-wards. c, f. g, A D After Pocock. Q.J.M.S. vol. 45, pl. 23, 1902. A, Anterior end of Craterostigmus f rom above. a, Basal segments of antennae. c, Cephalic plate with eyes (o). t.tox, Tergal plate of somite bearing toxicognaths (tox). t.lg.r, Tergal plate of somite bearing legs of first pair. B, Maxillae. C, Palpognath. D, Toxicognath. E, Last segment with genital capsule(g.c),and basal segments of legs of 14th and 15th pairs (lg. 14, lg. 15). married Joseph Centlivre, chief cook to Queen Anne, *hp survived her. Her first play was a tragedy, The Perjured Husband (1700), and she herself appeared for the first time at Bath in her comedy Love at a Venture (1706). Among her most successful comedies are—The Gamester (1705); The Busy Body (17o9).; A Bold Stroke for a Wife (1718); The Basset-table (1706); and The Wonder! a Woman keeps a Secret (1714), ill which, as the jealous husband, Garrick found one of his best parts. Her plots, verging on the farcical, were always ingenious and amusing, though coarse after the fashion of the time, and the dialogue fluent. She never seems to have acted in London, but she was a friend of Rowe, Farquhar and Steele. Mrs Centlivre died on the 1st of December 1723. Her dramatic works were published, dorsal tracheal sacs furnished with tubes dipping into the pericardial blood space, and opening each by an unpaired spiracle upon the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 8th, loth, lath and 14th leg- B Fro. 9.—A, Scutigera rubrolineata (after Buffon). B, Tergum and part of a second of the same enlarged to show the position of the stigmata o, o; p, hinder margin of tergum. bearing somites. This characteristic is accompanied by the complete disappearance of the tergum of the 7th, either by fusion with that of the 8th or by excalation, and by the evanescence of the terga of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, gth, nth and 13th pedigerous somites. The preantennal area of the head is not strongly reflexed inferiorly, and the eyes are large and compound. The maxillae are long and have a sensory organ; the palpognaths are long, spiny and composed of five segments, like the primitive Chilopod leg, and the toxicognaths have their basal segments disunited and independently movable. Gonopods duplicated in the male. This subclass contains the single order Scutigeromorpha and the family Scutigeridae. As in the Lithobiomorpha there are fifteen pairs of legs, the gonopods are well developed in both sexes and the young is hatched with only seven pairs of legs. The legs and antennae in the adult are extremely long and many pointed. In habits as well as in structure the Scutigeridae, of which Scutigera is the best-known genus, differ greatly from other centipedes. Although they hide under stones and logs of wood like Lithobius, they are not lucifugous but diurnal, and may be seen chasing their foes in the blazing sun. They run with astonishing speed and have the power of dropping their legs when seized. South of about the 40th parallel of north latitude they are universally distributed in suit-able localities. In most species the body only reaches a length of about I in.; but twice that size or more is reached by examples of the Indian species Scutigera longicornis. Some fossils of Carboniferous age have been described as Chilopoda by Scudder, who refers them to two families, Gerascutigeridae and Eoscolopendridae. But until the specimens have been examined by zoologists the genera they are alleged to represent cannot be taken seriously into consideration. Remains of centipedes closely related to existing forms have been recorded from Oligocene beds. (R. I. P.)
End of Article: SUBCLASS 2
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FRANCISCO SUAREZ (1548-1617)
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