See also:formula are known—namely
See also:ethylene suecinic acid, HO2C•CH2-CH2-CO2II and ethylidene succinic acid CH2.CH(
See also:CO2H)2 . Ethylene succinic acid occurs in
See also:amber, in various resins and lignites, in fossilized
See also:wood, in many members of the natural orders of Papaveraceae and
See also:Compositae, in unripe grapes, urine and
See also:blood . It is also found in the thymus gland of calves and in the
See also:spleen of
See also:cattle . It may be prepared by the oxidation of fats and of fatty acids by nitric acid, and is also a product of the
See also:fermentation of malic and tartaric acids . It is usually obtained by the
See also:distillation of amber, or by the fermentation of calcium malate or ammonium tartrate . Synthetically it may be obtained by reducing malic or tartaric acids with hydriodic acid (R . Schmitt,
See also:Ann., 186o, 114, p. ro6; V . Dessaignes; ibid., 186o, 115, p . 12o; by reducing fumaric and maleic acids with sodium
See also:amalgam; by
See also:heating bromacetic acid with
See also:silver to 13o° C.; in small quantity by the oxidation of acetic acid with potassium persulphate (C .
See also:Moritz and R . Wolffenstein, Ber., 1899, 32, p .
2534); by thehydrolysis of succinonitrile (from ethylene dibromide) C2H4--->C2H4Br2-.sC2H4(CN)2---C2H4(CO2H)2; by the hydrolysis of 0-cyanpropionic ester; and by the condensation of sodiomalonic ester with monochloracetic ester and hydrolysis of the resulting ethane tricarboxylic ester (
See also:R02C)2CH . CH2• CO2R; this method is applicable to the preparation of substituted succinic acids . It is also produced by the electrolysis of a concentrated solution of potassium
See also:ethyl malonate . It crystallizes in prisms or plates which melt at 185° C. and
See also:boil at 235° C. with partial conversion into the anhydride . It is readily soluble in
See also:water . Aqueous solutions of the acid are decomposed in sunlight by uranium salts, with
See also:evolution of
See also:carbon dioxide and the formation of propionic acid . Potassium permanganate, in acid solution, oxidizes it to carbon dioxide and water . The sodium
See also:salt on distillation with phosphorus trisulphide gives thiophene . The
See also:esters of the acid condense readily with aromatic
See also:aldehydes and
See also:ketones to
See also:form 7-disubstituted itaconic acids and y-alkylen pyrotartaric acids (H . Stobbe, Ann., 1899, 308, p . 71). ry-Oxyacids are formed when aldehydes are heated with sodium succinate and sodium acetate . Numerous salts of the acid are known, the basic ferric salt being occasionally used in quantitative analysis for the separation of iron from aluminium .
Succinyl chloride, obtained by the
See also:action of phosphorus pentachloride on succinic acid, is a colourless liquid which boils at 19o° C . In many respects it behaves as though it were dichlorbutyro-lactone, CiH` 0; e.g. on reduction it yields butyro-lactone, and when condensed with
See also:benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride it yields chiefly y-diphenylbutyro-lactone. succinic anhydride, C2H4(CO)2O, is obtained by heating the acid or its sodium salt with acetic anhydride; by the action of acetyl chloride on the barium salt; by distilling a mixture of succinic acid and succinyl chloride, or by heating succinyl chloride with anhydrous oxalic acid . It crystallizes in plates which melt at 12o° C., and distils without decomposition . It is slowly dissolved by water with the formation of the acid . It combines readily with the
See also:meta-aminophenols to form rhodamines, which are valuable dyestuffs . Heated in a current of
See also:ammonia it gives succinimide, which is also obtained on heating acid ammonium succinate . It crystallizes in colourless octahedra which melt at 125–126° C., and is easily soluble in water . When warmed with baryta water it yields succinamic acid, HO2C•CH2•CH2•CONH2; and with alcoholic ammonia at 10o° C. it gives succinamide . The imino hydrogen atom is easily replaced by metals . Distillation with
See also:zinc dust gives
See also:pyrrol (q.v.) . By the action of bromine in alkaline solution it is converted into /-aminopropionic acid . Succinamide, C2H4(CONH2)2, best obtained by the action of ammonia on diethyl succinate, crystallizes in needles which melt at 242–243° C., and is soluble in hot water .
Succinonitrile, C2H4(CN)2, is obtained by the action of potassium
See also:cyanide on ethylene dibromide or by the electrolysis of a solution of potassium cyan-acetate . It is an amorphous solid which melts at 54–550 C . On reduction with sodium in alcoholic solution it yields tetraethylene diamine (putrescein) and pyroilidine . Methyl succinic acid (pyrotartaric acid), H02C•CH2•CH(CH2).0O2H, is formed by the dry distillation of tartaric acid; by heating pyruvic acid with concentrated hydrochloric acid to 18o° C.; by the reduction of eitraconic and mesaconic acids with sodium amalgam; and by the hydrolysis of 0-cyanbutyric acid . It crystallizes in small prisms which melt at 112° C. and are soluble in water . It forms an anhydride when heated . The sodium salt on heating with phosphorus trisulphide yields methylthiophen . Ethylidene succinic acid or isosuccinic acid,
See also:CH3.CH(CO2H)2, is produced by the hydrolysis of a-cyanpropionic acid and by the action of methyl iodide on sodio-malonic ester . It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 12o° C . (T . Salzer, Journ. prak . Chem., 1898 12], 57, p .
497), and dissolve in water . It does not yield an anhydride, but when heated loses carbon dioxide and leaves a
See also:residue of propionic acid . It may be distinguished from the isomeric ethylene succinic acid by the fact that its sodium salt does not give a precipitate with ferric chloride .
ROSA SUCHER (1849– )
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.