Michael de la
See also:Pole, second
See also:earl of
See also:Suffolk, was
See also:born on the 16th of
See also:October 1396 . His
See also:father died at the
See also:siege of
See also:Harfleur, and his elder
See also:brother was killed at
See also:Agincourt on the 25th of October 1415 . Suffolk served in all the later French
See also:campaigns of the reign of
See also:Henry V., and in spite of his youth held high command on the
See also:marches of
See also:Normandy in 1421–22 . In 1423 he joined the earl of
See also:Salisbury in
See also:Champagne, and shared his victory at Crevant . He fought under
See also:John, duke of
See also:Bedford, at Verneuil on the 17th of
See also:August 1424, and throughout the next four years was Salisbury's chief
See also:lieutenant in the direction of the war . When Salisbury was killed before
See also:Orleans on the 3rd of
See also:November 1428, Suffolk succeeded to the command . After the siege was raised, Suffolk was defeated and taken prisoner by Jeanne d'Arc at Jargeau on the 12th of
See also:June 1429 . He was soon ransomed, and during the next two years was again in command on the Norman frontier . He returned to England in November 1431, after over fourteen Years' continuous service in the
See also:field . Suffolk had already been employed on
See also:missions by John of Bedford, and from this
See also:time forward he had an important
See also:share in the
See also:work of administration . He attached himself naturally to
See also:Beaufort, and even thus early seems to have been striving for a general peace . But public opinion in England was not yet ripe, and the unsuccessful
See also:conference at
See also:Arras, with the consequent defection of
See also:Burgundy, strengthened the war party .
Nevertheless the cardinal's authority remained supreme in thecouncil, and . Suffolk, as his chief supporter, gained increasing influence . The question of Henry VI.'s
See also:marriage brought him to the front . Humphrey of
See also:Gloucester favoured an
See also:alliance . Suffolk brought about the match with
See also:Margaret of
See also:Anjou .
See also:Report already represented Suffolk as too friendly with French leaders like
See also:Charles of Orleans, and it was with reluctance that he undertook the responsibility of an
See also:embassy to France . However, when he. returned to England in June 1444, after negotiating the marriage and a two years' truce, he received a triumphant reception . He was made a
See also:marquess; and in the autumn sent again to France to bring Margaret home . The French contrived to find occasion for extorting a promise to surrender all the
See also:English possessions in Anjou and Maine, a concession that was to prove fatal to Suffolk and his policy . Still for the time his success was
See also:complete, and his position as the
See also:personal friend of the
See also:king and
See also:queen seemed secure . Humphrey of Gloucester died. in
See also:February 1447, within a few days of his arrest, and six
See also:weeks later Cardinal Beaufort died also . Suffolk was
See also:left without an obvious
See also:rival, but his difficulties were
See also:great .
Rumour, though without sufficientreason, made him responsible for Humphrey's
See also:death, while the peace and its consequent concessions rendered him unpopular . So also did the supersession of
See also:Richard of
See also:York by Edmund Beaufort, duke of
See also:Somerset, in the French command . Suffolk's promotion to a dukedom in
See also:July 1448, marked the height of his power . The difficulties of his position may have led him to give some countenance to a treacherous attack on
See also:Fougeres during the time of truce (
See also:March 1449) . The renewal of the war and the loss of all Normandy were its
See also:direct consequences . When parliament met in November 1449, the opposition showed its strength by forcing the treasurer,
See also:Molyneux, to resign . Molyneux was murdered by the sailors at Portsmouth on the 9th of
See also:January 1450 . Suffolk, realizing that an attack on himself was inevitable, boldly challenged his enemies in parliament, appealing to the long and honourable record of his public services . On the 7th of February and again on the 9th of March the
See also:Commons presented articles of accusation dealing chiefly with alleged maladministration and the
See also:ill success of the French policy; there was a
See also:charge of aiming at the
See also:throne by the
See also:betrothal of his son to the little Margaret Beaufort, but no
See also:suggestion of
See also:guilt concerning the death of Gloucester . The articles were in great
See also:part baseless, if not absurd . Suffolk, in his defence on the 13th of March, denied them as false, untrue and too horrible to speak more of . Ultimately, as a sort of compromise, the king sentenced him to banishment for five years .
Suffolk left England on the 1st of May, He was intercepted in the Channel by the
See also:ship "
See also:Nicholas of the Tower, and next
See also:morning was beheaded in a little
See also:boat alongside . The " Nicholas " was a royal ship, and Suffolk's
See also:murder was probably instigated by his
See also:political opponents . Popular opinion at the time judged Suffolk as a traitor . This view was accepted by Yorkist chroniclers and Tudor historians, who had no reason to speak well of a Pole . Later
See also:legend made him the paramour of Margaret of Anjou . Though utterly baseless, the
See also:story gained currency in the Mirrour for ifagistraces, and was adopted in
See also:Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI . (
See also:act III. sc. ii.) . Suffolk's best defence is contained in the touching
See also:letter of farewell to his son, written on the
See also:eve of his departure (
See also:Easton Letters, i . 142), and in his
See also:noble speeches before parliament (Rolls of Parliament, v . 176, 182) . Of the former
See also:Lingard said well that it is " difficult to believe. that the writer could have been either a false subject or a
See also:bad man . " The policy of peace which Suffolk pursued was just and wise; he foresaw from the first the personal
See also:risk to which its advocacy exposed him .
This alone should acquit him of any
See also:motive; his conduct was " throughout open and straightforward " (Stubbs) . What-ever his defects as a statesman, he was a gallant soldier, a man of culture and a loyal servant . Suffolk's wife, Alice, was widow of
See also:Thomas, earl of Salisbury, and granddaughter of Geoffrey
See also:Chaucer . By her he had an only son John, second duke of Suffolk . France) . For
See also:modern accounts see especially W . Stubbs, Constitutional
See also:History (favourable), The Political History of England (1906), vol. iv., by C .
See also:Oman (unfavourable), and G. du Fresne de Beau-
See also:court's Histoire de Charles VII . See also H . A .
See also:Historical Notices of Swincombe and Ewelme (1858) . (C .
1ST EARL OF THOMAS HOWARD SUFFOLK (1561-1626)
SUFFRAGAN (Med. Lat. suffraganeus suffragator, one ...
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