See also:Roman general, politician and dictator, belonged to a minor and impoverished branch of the famous patrician Cornelian gens . He received a careful
See also:education, and was a devoted student of literature and
See also:art . His
See also:advancement was slow, and he did not obtain the quaestorship until 107, when he served in the Jugurthine_war under
See also:Marius in Africa . In this he greatly distinguished himself, and claimed the
See also:credit of having terminated the war by capturing Jugurtha himself . In these
See also:campaigns Sulla showed that he knew how to win the confidence of his soldiers, and throughout his career the secret of his success seems to have been the enthusiastic devotion of his troops, whom he continued to hold well in
See also:hand, while allowing them to indulge in plundering and all kinds of excess . From 104 to 101 he served again under Marius in the war with the
See also:Cimbri and Teutones and fought in the last
See also:battle in the Raudian plains near Verona . It was at this
See also:time that Marius's
See also:jealousy of his
See also:legate laid the
See also:foundations of their future rivalry and mutual hatred . When the war was over, Sulla, on his return to Rome, lived quietly for some years and took no
See also:part in politics . In 93 he was elected praetor after a lavish squandering of
See also:money, and he delighted the populace with an
See also:exhibition of a
See also:hundred lions from Africa . Next
See also:year (92) he went as propraetor of
See also:Cilicia with
See also:special authority from the
See also:senate to make
See also:Mithradates VI. of
See also:Pontus restore
See also:Cappadocia to
See also:Ariobarzanes, one of Rome's dependants in
See also:Asia . Sulla with a small army soon won a victory over the general of Mithradates, and Rome's client-
See also:king was restored . An
See also:embassy from the Parthians now came to solicit
See also:alliance with Rome, and Sulla was the first Roman who held
See also:diplomatic intercourse with that remote
See also:people .
In the year 91, which brought with it the imminent prospect of sweeping political
See also:change, with the enfranchisement of the
See also:Italian peoples, Sulla returned to Rome, and it was generally
See also:felt that he was the man to lead the conservative and aristocratic party . Meanwhile Mithradates and the East were forgotten in the crisis of the Social or
See also:Italic War, which broke out in 91 and threatened Rome's very existence . The services of both Marius and Sulla were given; but Sulla was the more successful, or, at any
See also:rate, the more fortunate . Of the Italian peoples Rome's old foes the
See also:Samnites were the most formidable; these Sulla vanquished, and took their chief
See also:Bovianum . In recognition of this and other brilliant services, he was elected
See also:consul in 88, and brought the revolt to an end by the capture of
See also:Nola in
See also:Campania . The question of the command of the army against Mithradates again came to the front . The senate had already chosen Sulla; but the tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus moved that Marius should have the command . Rioting took place at Rome at the prompting of the popular leaders, Sulla narrowly escaping to his legions in Campania, whence he marched on Rome, being the first Roman who entered the city at the
See also:head of a Roman army . Sulpicius was put to
See also:death, and Marius fled; and he and his party were crushed for the time . Sulla, leaving things quiet at Rome, quitted Italy in 87, and for the next four years he was winning victory after victory against the armies of Mithradates and accumulating boundless
See also:plunder . Athens, the headquarters of the Mithradatic cause, was taken and sacked in 86; and in the same year, at
See also:Chaeroneia, the scene of
See also:Philip II. of Macedon's victory more than two and a
See also:half centuries before, and in the year following, at the neighbouring Orchomenus, he scattered immense hosts of the enemy with trifling loss to himself .
See also:Crossing the
See also:Hellespont in 84 into Asia, he was joined by the troops of C .
See also:Fimbria, who soon deserted their general, a man sent out by the Marian party, now again in the ascendant at Rome . The same year peace was concluded with Mithradates on
See also:condition that he should be put back to the position he held before the war; but, as he raised objections, he had in the end to content himself with being simply a vassal of Rome . Sulla returned to Italy in 83, landing at Brundisium, having previously informed the senate of the result of his campaigns in
See also:Greece and Asia, and announced his presence on Italian ground . He further complained of the
See also:ill-treatment to which his friends and partisans had been subjected during his
See also:absence . Marius had died in 86, and the revolutionary party, specially represented by L . Cornelius Cinna, Cn . Papirius
See also:Carbo and the younger Marius, had massacred Sulla's supporters wholesale, confiscated his
See also:property, and declared him a public enemy . They felt they must resist him to the death, and with the troops scattered throughout Italy, and the newly enfranchised Italians, to whom it was understood that Sulla was bitterly hostile, they counted confidently on success . But on Sulla's advance at the head of bis 40,000 veterans many of them lost heart and deserted their leaders, while the Italians themselves, whom he confirmed in their new privileges, were won over to his side . Only the Samnites, who were as yet without the Roman franchise, remained his enemies, and it seemed as if the old war between Rome and Samnium had to be fought once again . Several Roman nobles . among them Gnaeus Pompeius (
See also:Pompey the Great), Q .
See also:Licinius Crassus, Marcus Licinius
See also:Lucullus, joined Sulla, and in the following year (82) he won a decisive victory over the younger Marius near
See also:Praeneste (mod . Palestrina) and then marched upon Rome, where again, just before his defeat of Marius, there had been a great
See also:massacre of his adherents, in which the learned jurist Q . Mucius
See also:Scaevola perished . Rome was at the same time in extreme peril from the advance of a Samnite army, and was barely saved by Sulla, who, after a hard-fought battle, routed the enemy under Pontius Telesinus at the Colline
See also:gate of Rome . With the death of the younger Marius, who killed himself after the surrender of Praeneste, the
See also:civil war was at an end, and Sulla was
See also:master of Rome and of the Roman
See also:world . Then came the memorable " proscription," when for the first time in Roman
See also:history a
See also:list of men declared to be outlaws and public enemies was exhibited in the forum, and a reign of terror began throughout Rome and Italy . The title of " dictator " was revived and Sulla was in fact emperor of Rome . After celebrating a splendid
See also:triumph for the Mithradatic War, and assuming the surname of " Felix " (" Epaphroditus," "
See also:Venus's favourite," 1 he styled himself in addressing Greeks), he carried in 8o and 79 his great political reforms (see RoME: History, II . " The Republic") . The
See also:object of these was to invest the senate, which he recruited with a number of his own party, with full
See also:control over the state, over every
See also:magistrate and every province; and the mainstay of his political
See also:system was to be the military colonies which he had established with grants of
See also:land throughout every part of Italy, to the ruin of the old Italian freeholders and farmers, who from this time dwindled away, leaving whole districts waste and desolate . In 79 Sulla resigned his dictatorship and retired to
See also:Puteoli (mod .
See also:Pozzuoli), where he died in the following year, probably from the bursting of a
See also:blood-vessel .
See also:story that he fell a victim to a disease similar to that which cut off one of the Herods (Acts xii . 23) is probably an invention of his enemies . The " half lion, half
See also:fox," as his enemies called him, the " Don Juan of politics " (
See also:Mommsen), the man who carried out a policy of " blood and iron " with a grim
See also:humour, amused himself in his last days with actors and actresses, with dabbling in
See also:poetry, and completing the
See also:Memoirs (
See also:commentarii, inroµvhisara) of his eventful
See also:life (see H .
See also:Peter, Historicorum romanorum reliquiae, 1870) . Even then he did not give up his
See also:interest in state and
See also:local affairs, and his end is said to have been hastened by a
See also:fit of passion brought on by a remark of the quaestor Granius, who openly asserted that he would
See also:escape payment of a sum of money due to the Romans, since Sulla was on his death-
See also:bed . Sulla sent for him and had him strangled in his presence; in his excitement he broke a blood-vessel and died on the following
See also:day . He was accorded a magnificent public funeral, his
See also:body being removed to Rome and buried in the Campus Martius . His
See also:bore an inscription written by himself, to the effect that he had always fully repaid the kindnesses of his friends and the wrongs done him by his enemies. l;Iis military
See also:genius was displayed in the Social War and the campaigns against Mithradates; while his constitutional reforms, although doomed to failure from the lack of successors to carry them out, were a triumph of organization . But he massacred his enemies in
See also:cold blood, and exacted vengeance with pitiless and calculated cruelty; he sacrificed everything to his own ambition and the triumph of his party . The
See also:ancient authorities for Sulla and his time are his Life by Plutarch (who made use of the Memoirs);
See also:Bell. civ.; for the references in
See also:Cicero see Orelli's Onomasticon Tullianum .
See also:treatises by C . S .
Zacharia, L . Cornelius S. als Ordner
See also:des romischen Freystaates (1834); T . Lau,
See also:Lucius Cornelius Sulla (1855); E .
See also:Linden, De
See also:bello civili Sullano (1896) ; P . Cantalupi, La Guerra civile Sullana in Italia (1892) ; C . W .
See also:Oman, Seven Roman Statesmen (1902); F . D . Gerlach, Marius and Sulla (1856); J . M . Sunden, " De tribunicia potestate a Lucio Sulla imminuta" in Skrifter utgifna of k. humanistika Vetenskapssamfundet i
See also:Upsala, v., 1897, in which it is argued against Mommsen that Sulla did not deprive the tribunes of the right of proposing rogations . See also Mommsen's History of Rome, vol. iii., bk. iv., ch., 8, 9; Drumann, Geschichte Roms, A
See also:epigram on
See also:Aphrodite in the Greek
See also:Anthology (Anth .
See also:Pal., Appendix, 1 . 153) is ascribed to him.2nd ed. by Groebe, ii . 364-432; Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, iv . 1522—1566 (Frohlich) . His
See also:nephew (as some say, though the degree of relationship cannot be clearly established), PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SULLA was consul in 66 B.C. with P . Autronius Paetus . Both were convicted of
See also:bribery, and Paetus subsequently joined Catiline in his first
See also:conspiracy . There is little doubt that Sulla also was implicated; Sallust does not mention it, but other authorities definitely assert his
See also:guilt . After the second conspiracy he was accused of having taken part in both conspiracies . Sulla was defended by Cicero and Hortensius, and acquitted . There is no doubt that, after his first conviction, Sulla remained very quiet, and, whatever his sympathies may have been, took no active part in the conspiracy . When the civil war broke out, Sulla took the side of Caesar, and commanded the right wing at the battle of Pharsalus .
He died in 45 . See Cicero,
See also:Pro Sulla, passim (ed . J . S .
See also:Reid, 1882) ; Ad Pam. ix . 10, xv . 17; Dio Cassius
See also:xxxvi . 44,
See also:xxxvii . 25; Suetonius, Caesar, 9; Caesar, Bell. civ., 51, 89; Appian, Bell. civ. ii . 76 .
JOHN SULLIVAN (1740–1795)
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