SUNDERLAND , a seaport and municipal,
See also:county and
See also:borough of Durham, England, at the mouth of the
See also:Wear, on the
See also:North-Eastern railway, 261 m . N. by W. from
See also:London . Pop . (1891), 131,686; (Igo') 146,077 . The borough includes the township of Bishopwearmouth, to the south of Sunderland proper, which lies on the south
See also:bank of the river; and that of Monkwearmouth, on the north bank . Adjacent to Monkwearmouth on the north-west is the extensive urban
See also:district of Southwick, within the parliamentary borough . A
See also:bridge crosses the river with a single span of 236 ft. and a height of too ft. above low
See also:water . It was designed by
See also:Rowland Burdon, opened in 1796, and widened under the direction of Robert Stephenson in 1858 . The only
See also:building,of antiquarian
See also:interest is the
See also:church of St
See also:Peter, Monkwearmouth, in which
See also:part of the tower and other portions belong to the Saxon building attached to the monastery founded by Benedict Biscop in 674 . The church of St Michael, Bishopwearmouth, is on an
See also:ancient site, but is a rebuilding of the 19th century . There is a large
See also:park at Roker on the north-east of the
See also:town, a favourite seaside resort, and (among other parks) that at Bishopwearmouth contains a
See also:bronze statue of
See also:Havelock, who was
See also:born (1795) at
See also:Hall in the neighbourhood . The prosperity of Sunderland rests on the coalfields of the neigh-bourhood, the existence of which gave rise to an export
See also:trade in the reign of Henry VII., which has grown to great importance .
See also:industries include
See also:shipbuilding, iron and
See also:engineering, anchor and chain
See also:glass and bottle and chemical works and paper mills .
See also:Limestone is largely worked . For 5 m. above its mouth the Wear resembles on a reduced scale the
See also:Tyne in its
See also:lower course . The
See also:harbour is constantly undergoing improvement . The docks cover an
See also:area of upwards of 200 acres, and there are several graving docks up to 441 ft. in length . The parliamentary borough returns two members . The municipal borough is under a mayor, 16 aldermen and 42 councillors, and has an area of 3357 acres . The
See also:history of Sunderland is complicated by the name Wear-mouth (Wiramuth, Wermuth) being applied impartially to the
See also:Monk's town on the north bank of the Wear; the
See also:Bishop's town on the south and the neighbouring
See also:port now known as Sunderland . In both Monk's and Bishop's Wearmouth the settlement was connected with the church . Benedict Biscop in 674 obtained from
See also:king of Northumbria seventy hides of
See also:land on the north bank of the river, on which he founded the
See also:Benedictine monastery of St Peter . Not more than a
See also:year after the foundation Benedict brought over skilled masons and glass-workers from Gaul who wrought his church in the
See also:Roman fashion, the
See also:work being so speedily done that Mass was celebrated there within the year . A subsequent visit to Rome resulted in a
See also:letter from
See also:Agatho exempting his monastery from all
See also:control .
Later Benedict acquired three hides on the southside of the river . The abbey, where Bede was educated, was destroyed by the Danes and probably not rebuilt until Bishop Walcher (1071—1o8i) settled Aldwin and his companions there . They found the walls in ruins from the neglect of 208 years, but the church was soon rebuilt . Bishop
See also:William of St Carileph (1081—1099), desiring to acquire the possessions of the
See also:house for his new foundation of Durham, transferred the monks there, Wearmouth becoming henceforward a
See also:cell of the larger house . Meanwhile Bishop's Wearmouth was becoming important, having been granted to the bishops by tEthelstan in 930 . As a possession of the see it is mentioned in Boldon
See also:Book in conjunction with Tunstall as an ordinary rural
See also:vill rendering one milch cow to the bishop, while the demesne and. its
See also:mill rendered £20, the
See also:fisheries £6 and the borough of Wearmouth 20S . There seems no doubt but that the borough, identical with that to which Bishop Robert de Pinset granted his
See also:charter, was in reality Sunderland, the name Wearmouth being used to cover Bishop's and Monk's Wearmouth and the
See also:modern Sunderland . It was from Wearmouth that Edgar )Etheling set
See also:sail for Scotland, the account implying that this was ,a frequented port . In 1197 the town of Wearmouth rendered 37s . 4d.
See also:tallage during the vacancy of the see, and in 1306—1307 the assessment of a tenth for Bishop's Wearmouth was £s, 5s . 4d., while that of Monk's Wearmouth was £1, 6s . 8d .
See also:northern town remained entirely agricultural, while the
See also:shipping trade of Bishop's Wearmouth was steadily increasing . In 1382 what was probably a
See also:dock there rendered 2S., and in 1385 the issues of the town were worth £45, 9S . 2d. annually . In 1431 the
See also:rent of
See also:assize from the demesne lands of Monk's Wearmouth was £5, Is. od . A further contrast is shown by the number of houseling persons, or those who received the
See also:sacrament, returned in 1548: Bishop's Wearmouth had 700 and Monk's Wearmouth 300 . From this
See also:time, at least, Bishop's Wearmouth seems to have been completely identified with Sunderland: in 1567 Wearmouth was one of the three ports in Durham where pre-cautions were to be taken against pirates, while no mention is made of Sunderland . Monk's Wearmouth remained purely agricultural until 1775, when a shipbuilding yard was established and prospered to such an extent that by 1795 five similar yards were at work . The Boldon Book states that Sunderland was at
See also:farm in 1183 and rendered too shillings and the town of Sunderland rendered 58 shillings tallage in 1197 during the vacancy of the see . In 1382
See also:Thomas Menvill held the borough, which with its yearly
See also:free rent, courts and tolls was worth £1, 12s . 8d .
See also:Edward IV. in 1464, sede vacante, granted a lease of the borough, and in 1507, 1
See also:Cardinal Bainbridge granted it by
See also:copyhold at a rent of £6, which dropped to £4 in 159o . Bishop
See also:Morton incorporated Sunderland in 1634, stating that it had been a borough from time immemorial under the name of the New Borough of Wear-mouth .
This charter lapsed during the
See also:Wars, when the borough was sold with the
See also:manor of Houghton-le-
See also:Spring for X2851, 9S . 6d . Nevertheless the inhabitants retained their rights . Sunderland became a parliamentary borough returning two members in 1834 . The charter of 1634 granted a market and
See also:fair which are still held . The charter of Bishop Hugh provided for pleas between burgesses and
See also:foreign merchants, and directed that merchandise brought by
See also:sea should be landed before sale, except in the case of
See also:salt and
See also:herrings Bishop
See also:Hatfield gave a lease of the fisheries in 1358 . In the 15th century commissions were held touching salmon-fisheries and obstructions in the Wear, while Bishop
See also:Barnes (1577-1587) appointed a water-
See also:bailiff for the port, and licensed the building of wharves for the sale of
See also:coal . During the 17th century Sunderland was the seat of a
See also:court for the county palatine and in 1669 letters patent permitted the erection of a
See also:pier and lighthouse as the harbour was " very commodiously situate for the shipping of vast quantities of sea-toles plentifully gotten and wrought there." See William
See also:Hutchinson, History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham (Newcastle, 1785–1794) ; J . W . Summers, History and Antiquities of Sunderland (Sunderland, 1858);
See also:Victoria County History: Durham .
3RD EARL OF CHARLES SPENCER SUNDERLAND (c. 1674-172...
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