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SURABAYA (Dutch Soerabaja)

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Originally appearing in Volume V26, Page 117 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SURABAYA (Dutch Soerabaja), a seaport of Java, in the eastern division of the island, on the narrow Surabaya strait, which separates the island of Madura from Java, and at the mouth of the Kali Mas River. Pop. (Igloo), 146,944 (Europeans 8go6; Chinese 13,035). Surabaya is the principal mercanti'_e town in Java. Its roadstead is sheltered by Madura, and it has important dockyards. It is also the headquarters of the military authorities for East Java, and has artillery workshops. Railways running north-west, south-west and south give it connexions throughout the island. In the old town, with its partly demolished fortifications, houses, shops and warehouses are more closely packed and the streets are narrower than in most East Indian towns, and, although a considerable number of Europeans live in this quarter, the outlying quarters, such as Simpang (where is the government house) and Tuntungan, are preferable for residence. SURAJ-UD-DOWLAH (d. 17J7), ruler of Bengal. The date of his birth is uncertain, but is generally placed between 1729 and 1736. His name was Mirza Mahommed, and he succeeded his grandfather Aliverdi Khan as nawab of Bengal on the 9th of April 1756. He was a cruel and profligate fanatic. Being offended with the English for giving protection to a native official who had escaped with treasure from Dacca, he attacked and took Calcutta on the loth of June 1756. He then permitted the massacre known in history as " The Black Hole of Calcutta " (see CALCUTTA). This atrocious act was soon avenged. Calcutta was retaken by Clive and Admiral Watson on the 2nd of January 1757, and on the 23rd of June, Suraj-ud-Dowlah, routed at Plassey, fled to Rajmahal, where he was captured. He was put to death on the 4th of July 1757 at Murshidabad, by order of Miran, son of Mir Jafar, who had conspired against Suraj-ud-Dowlah and had been present at Plassey without taking part in the battle.
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