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SWEDEN [Sverige]

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Originally appearing in Volume V26, Page 193 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SWEDEN [Sverige], a kingdom of northern Europe, occupying the eastern and larger part of the Scandinavian peninsula. It is bounded N.E. by Finland (Russian Empire), E. by the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Sea, S.W. by the Cattegat and Skagerrack, and W. by Norway. It extends from 69° 3' 21" to 550 20' 18" N., and from I° 6' 19" E. on the south-west coast to 24° 9' II" E. on the Finnish frontier, the extreme length being about 990 m., the extreme breadth (mainland) about 250 m., and the. total area estimated at 173,547 sq. m. Out of a detailed total estimate of the boundary line at 610o m., 4737 M. are coastal, the Norwegian frontier is 1030 m., and the Finnish 333 m. Physical Features.—The backbone of the Scandinavian peninsula is a range, or series of masses, of mountains (in Swedish Kolen,' the keel) extending through nearly the whole length of the peninsula towards the western side. The eastern or Swedish, flank has, there-fore, the slighter slope. This range forms, in a measure, a natural boundary between Sweden and Norway from the extreme north to the north of Svealand, the central of the three main territorial divisions of Sweden (Norrland, Svealand and Gotaland) ; though this boundary is not so well markd that the political frontier may follow it throughout. Sweden itself may be considered in four main physical divisions—the mountains and highland district, covering all Norrland and the western part of Svealand; the lowlands of central Sweden; the so-called Smaland highlands, in the south and south-east; and the plains of Skane, occupying the extreme southward projection of the peninsula. The first district, thus defined, is much the largest, and includes the greatest elevations in the country and the finest scenery. The highest mountains are found in the north, the bold Northern peak of Kebnekaise reaching 7005 ft., Sarjektjacko, Notthands. 6972 ft., being the loftiest point of a magnificent group including the Sarjeksfjall, Alkasfjall and Partefjall, which range from 6500 ft. upwards; and, farther south, Sulitelma, 6158 ft., long considered the highest point in Scandinavia. Elevation then decreases slightly, through Stuorevarre (5787 ft.) and Areskutan (4656 ft.), to the south of which the railway from Trondhjem in Norway into Sweden crosses the fine pass at Storlien. South of this again, before the main chain passes into Norway, are such heights as Helagsfjall (5896 ft.) and Storsylen (5781 ft.) ; and a group of mountains in the northern part of the province of Dalecarlia (Dalarne) ranges from 3600 to 4500 ft. in height. The neighbour-hood of Areskutan and the Dalarne highlands, owing to the railway and the development of communications by steamer on the numerous lakes, are visited by considerable numbers of travellers, both Swedish and foreign, in summer; but the northern heights, crossed only by a few unfrequented tracks, are known to few, and to a considerable extent, indeed, have not been closely explored. From the scenic standpoint the relatively small elevation of these mountains finds compensation in the low snow-line, which ranges from about 3000 ft. in the north to 5500 ft. in the south of the region. All the higher parts are thus snow-clad ; and glaciers, numerous in the north, occur as far south as the Helagsfjall. The outline of the mountains is generally rounded, the rocks having been subjected to erosion from a very early geological age, but hard formations cause bold peaks at several points, as in Kebnekaise and the Sarjeksfjall. I In Swedish the definite article (masc. and fem. en, neut, et) is added as a suffix to the substantive (when there is no epithet). Geographical terms are similarly suffixed to names, thus Dalelfven, the river Dal. The commonest geographical terms are : e1~, strum, river; sjo, lake; o, island; holm, small island; flail, mountain,group or range; dal, valley; vik, bay. In Norrland the following terms are common: a, river, often attached to the names of the large rivers, as Tornea, Luleh (although properly it means a smaller river than elf); the names of towns at their mouths always following this form; trdsk (local, properly meaning marsh), jaur (Lapp), afva, lake (provincial Swedish, properly a kind of creek opening from a river). A is pronounced o. From the spinal mountain range a series of large rivers run in a south-easterly direction to the Gulf of Bothnia. In their upper Rivers of parts they drain great lakes which have resulted from the ,north. the formation of morainic dams, and in some cases perhaps from the incidence of erratic upheaval of the land. All lie at elevations between 900 and 1300 ft. All are narrow in comparison with their length, which is not infrequently magnified to view when two lakes are connected by a very short stretch of running water with a navigable fall of a few feet, such as those between Hornafvan, Uddjaur and Storafvan on the Skellefte river. The following are the principal rivers from north to south: The Tome, which with its tributary the Muonio, forms the boundary with Finland, has a length of 227 m., and drains lake Torne (Tornetrask), the area of which is 126 sq. m. The Kalix is 208 m. in length. The Lule is formed of two branches, Stora and Lilla (Great and Little) Lule; the length of the main stream is 193 m. The Stora Lule branch drains the Langas and Stora Lule lakes (Langasjaur, Luletrask), which have a length together exceeding 50 m., a fall between them of some 16 ft. and a total area of only 87 sq. m., as they are very narrow. Below Stora Lule lake the river forms the Harsprang (hare's leap; Njuommelsaska of the Lapps), the largest and one of the finest cataracts in Europe. The sheer fall is about loo ft., and there is a further fall of 150 ft. in a series of tremendous rapids extending for It m. Farther up, at the head of Langasjaur, is the Stora Sjofall (great lake fall; Lapp, Atna Muorki Kartje), a fall of 130 ft. only less grand than the Harsprang. Both are situated in an almost uninhabited country and are rarely visited. Following the Pite river (191 M.), the Skellefte (205 m.) drains Hornafvan and Storafvan, with a fall of 20 ft., and an area together of 275 sq. m. Hornafvan is a straight and sombre trough, flanked by high hills of unbroken slope, but Storafvan and the intervening Uddjaur are broad, throwing off deep irregular inlets, and picturesquely studded with numerous islets. The Ume (237 m.) receives a tributary, the Vindel, of almost equal length, on the north bank some 20 m. from its mouth, and among several lakes drains Stor Uman (64 sq. m.). The further principal rivers of this region are the Angerman (242 m.), Indal (196 m.), draining the large lakes Kallsjo and Storsjo, Ljusnan (230 m.), Dal and Klar. Of these the two last rise in the southernmost part of the mountain region described, but do not as a whole belong to the region under consideration. The Angerman receives the waters of a wider system of streams and lakes than the rivers north of it, and has thus a drain-age area of 12,591 sq. m., which is exceeded only by that of the Torne (16,690 sq. m.), the average of the remaining rivers named being about 7700 sq. m. Beyond the Harsprang and the Stora Sjofall the northern rivers do not generally form great falls, though many of the rapids are grand. The Indal, by changing its course in 1796 near Bispgarden on the northern railway, has left bare the remarkable bed of a fall called Doda (dead) Fall, in which many " giant's caldrons " are exposed. In the uplands above the chain of lakes called Stromsvattudal, which are within the drainage area on the Angerman, the Hailing stream forms the magnificent Hallingsa Fall. In the southern mountain valleys of the region there are several beautiful falls, such as the Tannfors, not far from Areskutan, the Storbo, Handol and Rista. Eastward from the main mountain range the highland region is divided into two belts: a middle belt of morainic deposits and marshes, and a coastal belt. The middle belt is gently undulating; viewed from rare eminences the landscape over the boundless forests resembles a dark green sea, through which the great rivers flow straight between steep, flat-topped banks, with long quiet reaches broken by occasional rapids. The few lakes they form in this belt are rather mere widenings in their courses; but the tributary streams drain numerous small lakes and peat-mosses. In the extreme north this belt is almost flat, a few low hills standing isolated and conspicuous; and the rivers have serpentine courses, while steep banks are absent. The middle belt merges into the coastal belt, covered by geologically recent marine deposits, reaching an extreme height of 700 to Boo ft., and extending Inland some 6o to 8o m. in the north and 40 m. in the south. Small fertile plains are characteristic, and the rivers have cut deep into the soft deposits of sand and clay, leaving lofty and picturesque bluffs (nipor). The orographical division of the central lowlands bears comparison in formation with the coastal belt of marine deposits to Central the north. Here are flat fertile plains of clay, well Lowlands. wooded, with innumerable lakes, including the four great lakes, Vener, Vetter, Millar and Hjelmar. These, except the last, far exceed in area any of the northern lakes, and even Hjelmar (185 sq. m.) is only exceeded by Hornafvan-Storafvan. The areas of the other three lakes are respectively 2149, 733 and 449 sq. m. Vener, Vetter and Hjelmar are broad and open; Millar is very irregular in form, and of great length. Millar, Vener and Hjelmar contain many islands; in Vetter there are comparatively few. None of the lakes is of very great depth, the deepest sounding occurring in Vetter, 390 ft. In Hjelmar, which measures 38 m. from east to west, and is 12 m. in extreme width, the greatest depth is only 59 ft., but as its flat shores were formerly subject to inundation its level was sunk 6 ft. by deepening the navigable channel through it and clearing out various waterways (the Eskilstuna river, Hjelmar canal, &c.) in 1878-'887. The scenery of these lakes, though never grand, is always quietly beautiful, especially in the case of Millar, the wooded shores and islands of which form a notable feature in the pleasant environs of the city of Stock-holm. The elevation of the central lowlands seldom exceeds 300 ft., but a few isolated heights of Silurian rock appear, such as Kinnekulle, rising 988 ft. above sea-level on the south-eastern shore of Vener, Billingen (978 ft.) between that lake and Vetter, and Omberg (863 ft.) on the eastern shore of Vetter. Noteworthy local features in the landscape of the central lowlands are the eskers or gravel-ridges ((Isar), traversing the land in a direction from N.N.W. to S.S.E., from Too to 200 ft. in height above the surrounding surface. Typical instances occur in the cities of Stockholm (Brunkebergsasen) and Upsala (U Sala-asen). South of the central lowlands the so-called Smaland highlands extend over the old province of Smaland in the south-east, and lie roughly south of Lake Vetter and of Gothenburg, Smaad where they reach the south-west coast. The general Hlghi~laads. elevation of this region exceeds 300 ft., and in the eastern part 600 ft.; the principal heights are Tomtabacken (1237 ft.) and Ekbacken (1175 ft.),about 25 m. respectively south-east and west of the town of JonkOping at the southern extremity of Lake Vetter. Gentle forest-clad undulations, many small lakes and peat-mosses, are characteristic of the region; which, in fact, closely resembles the middle belt of the northern highland region. The Smaland highlands abut southward upon the plains of Skane, the last of the main orographical divisions, which coincides roughly with the old province of Skane (Scania). Level plains, with rich open meadows and cultivated lands, the monotony of which is in some parts relieved by beech woods, are separated by slight ridges with 'a general direction from N.W. to S.E., such as Hallandsasen in the north-west, with an extreme elevation of 741 ft. The hydrographical survey may now be completed. The Dal river, which enters the Gulf of Bothnia near Gefle, is formed of the union of eastern and western branches Oster Dal, Rivers of Vester Dal) not far from the town of Falun. The eastern the South. branch drains various small lakes on the Norwegian frontier, and in its lower course passes through the beautiful Lake Siljan. The length of the whole river including the eastern as the main branch is 283 m. The Klar river (228 m.) rises as the Faemund river in Faemundsjo, a large lake in Norway close west of the sources of the Dal. The Klar flows south into Lake Vener, which is drained to the Cattegat by the short Gota river, on which, not far below the lake, are the celebrated falls of Trollhattan. Lake Vetter drains eastward by the Motala to the Baltic, Lake Millar drains in the same direction by a short channel at Stockholm, the normal fall of which is so slight that the stream is sometimes reversed. The Smaland highlands are drained to the Baltic and Cattegat by numerous rivers of less importance. Excepting Finland no country is so full of lakes as Sweden. About 14,000 sq. m., nearly one-twelfth of the total area, are under water. The coast of Sweden is not indented with so many or so deep fjords as that of Norway, nor do the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic and the Cattegat share in the peculiar grandeur of the North Sea coast. All, however, have Coast. a common feature in the fringe of islands which, throughout nearly the entire length, shelters the coast of the mainland from the open sea. This " skerry-fence " (in Swedish, skargard) is only interrupted for any considerable distance (in the case of Sweden) round the southern shore off the flat coast of Skane, between the towns of Varberg on the west and Ahus on the east. Between it and the mainland lies a connected series of navigable sounds of the greatest advantage to coastwise traffic, and also of no little importance as a natural defence. The skargard of the Cattegat, north of Varberg, is bald and rugged.' The two largest islands are Orust and Tjorn, north of Gothenburg. Off the south-east coast the place of the skargard is in a measure taken by the long narrow island of Oland, but north of this the skargard begins to widen, and the most considerable fjords are found, such as Bravik, which penetrates the land for 35 m. nearly up to the town of Norrkoping. The island belt is widest (some 45 m.) off the city of Stockholm, the approach to which from the sea is famous for its beauty. Farther north, a narrow sound (Glands Haf) intervening on the Swedish side, the vast Aland archipelago, belonging to Russia, extends across to the Finnish coast. The skargard of the Gulf of Bothnia is less fully developed than that of either the Baltic or the Cattegat. The islands of the skargard as a whole are rugged and picturesque, though never lofty like many of those off the Norwegian coast. In the Baltic many are well wooded, but the majority are bare or heath-clad, as arc those of the Gulf of ,Bothnia. Of the large islands in the Baltic and Cattegat, besides Oland, only Gotland is Swedish. Geology.—The fundamental rocks of Sweden belong to the Azoic or pre-Cambrian formation, and consist of crystalline rocks. Three divisions are distinguished by some authors—the grey gneiss, the red iron gneiss and the granulite. The grey gneiss predominates in the northern and eastern parts of the country, from Vesternorrland down to the province of Kalmar. The rock has a prevalent grey colour, and contains as characteristic minerals garnet and in some parts graphite. The red iron gneiss prevails in western Sweden in the provinces of Vermland, Skaraborg, Elfsborg, and down to the province of Kristianstad. The formation is very uniform in its character, the gneiss having a red colour and containing small granules of magnetite, but, nevertheless, not a single iron mine belongs to this region. The red gneiss contains in many places beds or masses of hyperite. The granulite, also called eurite and halleflinta, is the most important of the Pre-Cambrian formation, as it contains all the metalliferous deposits of Sweden. It prevails in the middle part of the country, in Kopparberg,,.Vestmanland, Upsala and parts of Vermland. It occurs also in Ostergotland, Kalmar and Kronoberg. The rock is a very compact and fine-grained mixture of felspar, quartz and mica, often graduating to mica schist, quartzite and gneiss. With these are often associated limestones, dolomites and marbles containing serpentine (Kolmarden). The metalliferous deposits have generally the form of beds or layers between the strata of granulite and limestone. They are often highly contorted and dislocated. The iron deposits occur in more or less fine-grained gneiss or. granulite (Gellivara, Grangesberg, Norberg, Striberg), or separated from the granulite by masses of augitic and amphibolous minerals (gronskarn), as in Persberg and Nordmark. Sometimes they are surrounded by halleflinta and limestone, as at Dannemora, Langban, Pajsberg, and then carry manganiferous minerals. Argentiferous galena occurs at Sala in limestone, surrounded by granulite, and at Guldsmedshytta (province of Orebro) in dark halleflinta. Copper pyrites occur at Falun in mica-schists, surrounded by halleflinta. Zinc-blende occurs in large masses at Ammeberg, near the northern end of Lake Vetter. The cobalt ore consists of cobalt-glance (Tunaberg in the province of Sodermanland) and of linneite (at Gladhammar, near Vestervik). The nickel ore of Sweden is magnetic pyrites, containing only a very small percentage of nickel, and generally occurs in diorite and greenstones. Besides the crystalline gneiss and halleflinta there are also sedimentary deposits which are believed to be of pre-Cambrian age. The most important of these are the Dala Sandstone (chiefly developed in Dalarne), the Almasakra and Visingso series (around Lake Vetter) and the Dalsland formation (near Lake Vener). Large masses of granite are found in many parts of Sweden, in Kronoberg, Orebro, Goteborg, Stockholm, &c. Sometimes the granite graduates into gneiss; sometimes (as north of Stockholm) it encloses large angular pieces of gneiss. Intrusions of hyperite, gabbro (anorthite-gabbro at Radmanso in the province of Stock-holm) and diorite are also abundant. The Cambrian formation generally occurs along with the Ordovician, and consists of many divisions. The oldest is a sandstone, in which are found traces of worms, impressions of Medusae, and shells of Mickwitzia. The upper divisions consist of ':bituminous limestones, clay-slates, alum-slate, and contain numerous species of trilobites of the genera Paradoxides, Conocoryphe, Agnostus, Sphaerophthalmus, Peltura, &c. The Ordovician formation occurs in two distinct facies—the one shaley and containing graptolites; the other calcareous, with brachiopods, trilobites, &c. The most constant of the calcareous divisions is the Orthoceras limestone, a red or grey limestone with Megalaspis and Orthoceras. The sub-divisions of the system may be grouped as follows: (I) Ceratopyge Limestone; (2) Lower Graptolite Shales and Orthoceras Limestone; (3) Middle Graptolite Shales, Chasmops and other Limestones, Trinucleus beds. The Cambrian and Ordovician strata occur in isolated patches in Vesterbotten, Jemtland (around Storsjo), Skaraborg, Elfsborg, Orebro, Ostergotland and Kristianstad. The whole of the island of Oland consists of these strata. The deposits are in most places very little disturbed and form horizontal or slightly inclined layers. South of Lake Vener they are capped by thick beds of eruptive diabase (called trapp). North of Lake Siljan (province of Kopparberg), however, they have been very much dislocated. The Silurian has in Sweden almost the same character as the Wenlock and Ludlow formation of England and consists partly of graptolite shales, partly of limestones and sandstones. The island of Gotland consists entirely of this formation, which occurs also in some parts of the province of Kristianstad. In the western and northern alpine part of Sweden, near the boundaries of Norway, the Silurian strata are covered by crystalline rocks, mica schists, quartzites, &c., of an enormous thickness, which have been brought into their present positions upon a thrust-plane. These rocks form the mass of the high mountain of Areskutan, &c. The Triassic formation (Rhaetic division) occurs in the northern part of Malmohus. It consists partly of sandstones with impressions of plants (cycads, ferns, &c.), and partly of clay-beds with coal. The Cretaceous formation occurs in the provinces of Malmohus and Kristianstad and a few small patches are found in the province of Blekinge. Only the higher divisions (Senonian and Danian) of the system are represented. The deposits are marls, sandstones and limestones, and were evidently formed near the shore-line. The most recent deposits of Sweden date from the Glacial and Post-Glacial periods. At the beginning of the Glacial period the height of Scandinavia above the level of the sea was greater than at present, Sweden being then connected with Denmark and Germany and also across the middle of the Baltic with Russia. On the west the North Sea and Cattegat were also dry land. On the elevated pans of this large continent glaciers were formed, which, proceedingdownwards to the lower levels, gave origin to large streams and rivers, the abundant deposits of which formed the diluvial sand and the diluvial clay. In most parts of Sweden these deposits were swept away when the ice advanced, but in Skane they often form still, as in northern Germany, very thick beds. At its maximum the inland ice not only covered Scandinavia but also passed over the present boundaries of Russia and Germany. When the climate became less severe the ice slowly receded, leaving its moraines, called in Sweden krosstenslera and krosstensgrus. Swedish geologists distinguish between bottengrus (bottom gravel, bottom moraine) and ordinary krossgrus (terminal and side moraine). The former generally consists of a hard and compact mass of rounded, scratched and sometimes polished stones firmly embedded in a powder of crushed rock. The latter is less compact and contains angular boulders, often of a considerable size, but no powder. Of later origin than the krosstensgrus is the rullstensgrus (gravel of rolled stones), which often forms narrow ranges of hills, many miles in length, called dsar. During the disappearance of the great inland ice large masses of mud and sand were carried by the rivers and deposited in the sea. These deposits, known as glacial sand and glacial clay, cover most parts of Sweden south of the provinces of Kopparberg and Vermland, the more elevated portions of the provinces of Elfsborg and Kronoberg excepted. In the glacial clay shells of Yoldia arctica have been met with in many places (e.g. near Stockholm). At this epoch the North Sea and the Baltic were connected along the line of Vener, Vetter, Hjelmar and Malar. On the other side the White Sea was connected by Lakes Onega and Ladoga with the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic. In the depths of the Baltic and of Lakes Vener and Vetter there actually exist animals which belong to the arctic fauna and are remnants of the ancient ice-sea. The glacial clay consists generally of alternate darker and lighter coloured layers, which give it a striped appearance, for which reason it has often been called hvarfvig lera (striped clay). The glacial clay of the Silurian regions is generally rich in lime and is thus a marl of great fertility. The deposits of glacial sand and clay are found in the southern part of Sweden at a height ranging from 70 to 150 ft. above the level of the sea, but in the interior of the country at a height of 400 ft. above the sea. On the coasts of the ancient ice-sea, in which the glacial clay was deposited, there were heaped-up masses of shells which belong to species still extant around Spitzbergen and Greenland. Most renowned among these shell-deposits are the Kap'ellbackarne near Uddevalla. With the melting of the great ice-sheet the climate became milder, and the southern part of Sweden was covered with shrubs and plants now found only in the northern and alpine parts of the country (Salix polaris, Dryas octopetala, Betula nand, &c.). The sea fauna also gradually changed, the arctic species migrating northward and being succeeded by the species existing on the coasts of Sweden. The Post-Glacial period now began. Sands (mosand) and clays (dkerlera and fucuslera) continued to be deposited on the lower parts of the country. They are generally of insignificant thickness. In the shallow lakes and enclosed bays of the sea there began to be formed and still is in course of formation a deposit known by the name gyttja, characterized by the diatomaceous shells it contains. Sometimes the gyttja consists mainly of diatoms, and is then called bergmjol. The gyttja of the lakes is generally covered over by peat of a later date. In many of the lakes of Sweden there is still in progress the formation of an iron ore, called sjomalm, ferric hydroxide, deposited in forms resembling peas, coins, &c., and used for the manufacture of iron. (P. LA.) Climate.—The climate of the Scandinavian peninsula as a whole is so far tempered by the warm Atlantic drift from the south-west as to be unique in comparison with other countries of so high a latitude. The mountains of the Keel are not so high as wholly to destroy this effect over Sweden, and the maritime influence of the Baltic system has also to be considered. Sweden thus occupies a climatic position between the purely coastal conditions of Norway and the purely continental conditions of Russia; and in some years the climate inclines to the one character, in others to the other. As a result of the wide latitudinal extent of the country there are also marked local variations to be contrasted. About one-seventh of the whole country is north of the Arctic Circle. The mean annual temperature ranges from 26.6° F. at Karesuando on the northern frontier to 44.8° at Gothenburg and 44.6° at Lund in the south (or 29.5° to 45° reduced to sea-level). Between these extremes the following actual average temperatures have been observed at certain stations from north' to south which are appropriately grouped for the purpose of comparison (heights above sea-level following each name) : Jockmock (85o ft.), at the foot of the lake-chain,on the Little Lule River—29.7°; and Haparanda (30 ft.), at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia—32.4°. Stensele (1076 ft.), at the foot of the lake-chain on the Ume—31;8° ; and Lima. (39 ft.) at its mouth on the Gulf of Bothnia—34.9°. Ostersund (1o56 ft.) on Storsj6—35.2°; and Hernosand (49 ft.) on the Gulf of Bothnia—37.8°. Karlstad (18o ft.) at the head of Lake Vener—42.3°; Orebro (102 ft.) at the west of Lake Hjelmar—41.4°; and Stockholm (144 ft.) -42 1 °. Gothenburg (26 ft.) on the Cattegat—44.8°; Jonkoping (312 ft.) at the south of lake Vetter—42.4°; and Vestervik (43 ft.) on the Baltic—43.2 ° But the local variations thus indicated are brought out more fully by a consideration of seasonal, and especially winter, temperatures. In Sweden July is generally the hottest month, the average temperature ranging from about 51° to 62°. In January, however, it ranges from 4° to 32° (February is generally a little colder). Moreover, there are two well-marked centres of very low winter temperature in the inland parts. The one is in the mountainous region of the south of Jemtland and the north of Dalarne, extending into Norway and thus lying in the middle of the peninsula about 62°N. Here the average temperature in January is 8.5', whereas at Ostersund it is over 15°. The other and more strongly marked centre is in the far north, extending into Norway and Finland, where the average is 3.8°. The effect of the spinal mountain range in modifying oceanic conditions is thus illustrated. The same effect is well shown by the linguiform isotherms. In January, for example, the isotherm of 14°, after skirting the north coast of the Scandinavian peninsula, turns southward along the Keel, crossing the upper part of the district of the great northern lakes. It continues in this direction as far as the northern end of Lake Mjosen in Norway (61° N.), then turns sharply north-north-eastward, runs west of Lake Siljan and bends north-east to strike the Bothnian coast near Skelleftea. In July, on the other hand, the isotherms show an almost constant temperature all over the country, and the linguiform curves are wanting. The relative length of the seasons shows contrasts similar to those of temperature. In the north spring begins in May, summer in the middle of June and autumn in the middle of August. In the south and south-west spring begins in March, summer in the middle of May and autumn in October. At Karesuando the last frost of spring occurs on an average on the 15th of June, and the first of autumn on the 27th of August, though night frosts may occur earlier; while at Stockholm 42 months are free of frost. Ice forms about October in the north, in November or December in the midlands and south, and breaks up in May or June and in April respectively. Ice covers the lakes for 10o to 115 days annually in the south, 15o in the midlands and 200 to 220 in the north. A local increase of the ice period naturally takes place in the upper parts of the Smaland highlands; and in the case of the great lakes of Norrland, the western have a rather shorter ice period than the eastern. As to the seas, the formation of ice on the west and south coasts is rare, but in the central and northern parts of the Baltic drift-ice and a fringe of solid ice along the coast arrests navigation from the end of December to the beginning of April. Navigation in the southern part of the Gulf of Bothnia is impeded from the end of November to the beginning of May, and in the north the gulf is covered with ice from November to the last half of May. Snow lies 47 days on an average on the plains of Skane, while in the north it lies from 140 to 190 days. The northern summers find compensation for brevity in duration of sunshine and light. At Karesuando in 68° 26' N. and 1093 ft. above sea-level the sun is seen continuously above the horizon from the 26th of May to the 18th of July; at Haparanda for 23 hours, at Stockholm for 182 hours and at Lund for 171 hours at the summer solstice. Atmospheric refraction causes the sun to be visible for periods varying from south to north for a quarter to half an hour after it has actually sunk below the horizon. With the long twilight, perhaps the most exquisite period of a season which provides a succession of beautiful atmospheric effects, daylight lasts without interruption from the 16th to the 27th of June as far south as Hernosand (62° 38' N.). The average annual rainfall for Sweden is 1972 in., locally in-creasing on the whole from north to south, and reaching a maximum towards the south-west, precipitation on this coast greatly exceeding that on the south-east. Thus the average in the north of Norrland is 16.53 in., in the south of Norrland 22.6 in. At Boras, midway between the south end of Lake Vetter and the Cattegat, the average is 35.08 in., and 45.82 in. were registered in 1898. At Kalmar, however, on the Baltic opposite Oland, the average is 14.6 in. This is an extreme instance for the locality, but the minimum for all Sweden is found at Karesuando, with 12.32 in. The period of maximum is generally the latter half of summer, and the minimum in February and March; but the maximum occurs in October at coast stations in Skane and in the island of Gotland. The proportion of total precipitation which falls as snow ranges from 36% in the north to 9 % in the south. Flora.—In the preceding physical description indications are given of the vast extent of forest in Sweden. The alpine treeless region occupies only the upper flanks of the spinal mountain-range above an elevation varying from 1800 ft. in the north to 3000 ft. in the south. It is belted by a zone of birch woods, with occasional mountain-ash and aspen, varying in width from about 20 M. in the north to a fraction of a mile in the south. Below this extends a great region of firwood covering the whole country north-east of Lake Vener and north of the Dal River. The fir (Pinus sylvestris) and pine (Pines abies) are the predominating trees Spruce is common, and even predominates in the higher parts (between the great valleys and immediately below the birch-belt) in the north of Norrland. South of the southern limit indicated in the midlanddistrict of the great lakes, the oak (Quercus pedunculata) appears as well as pine and fir; and, as much of this area is under cultivation, many other trees have been introduced, as the ash, maple, elm and lime. South of a line running, roughly, from the foot of Lake Vener to Kalmar on the Baltic coast the beech begins to appear, and in Skane and the southern part of the Cattegat seaboard becomes predominant in the woods which break the wide cultivated places. Of wild flowering plants only a very few are endemic species (though more are endemic varieties) ; the bulk are immigrants after the last glacial epoch. Of these most are common to arctic lands, or occur as alpine plants in lower latitudes. The number of species decreases according to geographical distribution from south to north; thus while upwardsof moo are found in Skane, there are only about 700 in the midlands, 500 in the lower parts of southern Norrland and less than 200 in the extreme north. Fauna.—The effects of the great latitudinal range of Sweden on its climate and flora has its parallel to a modified extent in the case of fauna. Only a few animals are common to the entire country, such as the hare (Le us timidus) and the weasel ; although certain others may be added if the high mountain region be left out of consideration such as the squirrel, fox and various shrews. Among large animals, the common bear and the wolf have been greatly reduced in numbers even within later historic times. These and the lynx are now restricted to the solitary depths of the northern forests. Characteristic of the high mountainous region are the arctic fox, the glutton and the lemming, whose singular intermittent migrations to the lowlands have a considerable temporary influence on the distribution of beasts and birds of prey. There may also be mentioned the wild reindeer, which is rare, though large domesticated herds are kept by the Lapps. The elk, carefully preserved, haunts the lonely forests from the Arctic Circle even to the Smaland high-lands. The roe-deer and red-deer are confined to the southern parts; though the first is found in the south of the midland plains. In these plains the fox is most abundant, and the badger and hedgehog are found. Martens and otters are to some extent hunted for their skins. A white winter fur is characteristic of several of the smaller animals, such as the hare, fox and weasel. The common and grey seals are met with in the neighbouring seas, and Phoca foetida is confined to the Baltic. Among birds by far the greater proportion is migrant. Characteristic types common to the whole country are the teal, snipe, golden plover and wagtail. In the northern mountains the ptarmigan is common, and like other creatures assumes a white winter dress; ducks and other water-fowl frequent the lakes; the golden eagle, certain buzzards and owls are found, and among smaller birds the Lappland bunting (Plectrophanes laponicus) may be mentioned. In the coniferous forests the black grouse, hazel grouse and willow grouse, capercailzie and woodcock are the principal game birds; the crane is found in marshy clearings, birds of prey are numerous, and the Siberian jay in the north and the common jay in the south are often heard. But in the northern forests small birds are few, and even in summer these wilds give a strong general impression of lifelessness. In the midlands the partridge is fairly common, though not readily enduring the harder winters; and ring-doves and stock-doves occur. The lakes are the homes of a variety of aquatic birds. On the coasts a number of gulls and terns are found, also the eider-duck and the sea-eagle, which, however, is also distributed far over the land. The species of reptiles and amphibians are few and chiefly confined to the southern parts. There are three species of snake, including the viper; three of lizard; and eleven of batrachians. The rivers and lakes are generally well stocked with fish, such as salmon, trout of various species, gwyniad and vendace (especially in the north), pike, eels, perch of various species, turbot, bream and roach. The few sportsmen who have visited the higher parts of the great northern rivers have found excellent trout-fishing, with pike, perch, char and grayling, the char occurring in the uppermost parts of the rivers, and the grayling below them. The fisheries, both fresh-water and sea, are important, and fall for consideration as an industry. The herring, cod, flatfish, mackerel and sprat are taken in the seas, and also great numbers of a small herring called strumming. In the brackish waters of the east coast sea fish are found, together with pike, perch and other fresh-water forms. The crayfish is common in many places in central and southern Sweden. Pearls are some-times found in the fresh-water mussel (Margaritana margaritifera) ; thus a tributary of the Lilla Lule River takes its name, Perle River, from the pearls found in it. Among the lower marine animals a few types of arctic origin are found, not only in the Baltic but even in Lakes Vener and Vetter, having remained, and in the case of the lakes survived the change to fresh water, after the disappearance of the connexion with the Arctic seas across the region of the great lakes, the Baltic, and north-east thereof. The molluscan fauna is fairly rich, and insect fauna much more so, even in the north. In summer in the uplands and the north the mosquito is sufficiently common to cause some little annoyance. People.—The population of Sweden in 1900 was 5,136,441. The census is taken in an unusual manner, being drawn up from the registries of the clergy according to parishes every ten years. Approximate returns are made by the clergy annually. The during the second half of the nineteenth century) ; one cause of this may be found in the fact that the percentage of married persons is lower than in most European countries. As regards social evils generally, however, the low, though undoubtedly improving, standard of Sweden has had one of its chief reasons in the national intemperance. In 1775 Gustavus III. made the sale of spirits (brannvin) a government monopoly, and the drinking, habit was actually fostered. About 183o this evil reached its highest development, and it is estimated that nine gallons of spirits were then consumed annually per head of the population. Mainly through the efforts of Peter Wieselgren, dean of Gothenburg (1800-1877), a strong temperance reform movement set in, and in 1855 important liquor laws were passed to restrict both production and sale of intoxicating liquors. The so-called Gothenburg System, providing for municipal control of the sale of intoxicants (see LIQUOR LAWS), came into full operation in Gothenburg in 1865. The temperance movement has had its reward; the average of consumption of beer and spirits in Sweden is considerably lower than in Europe as a whole, though the effect of intoxicants is sometimes very apparent. A marked difference of temperament is noticeable between the Swedes and Norwegians, the Swedes being the more light-hearted and vivacious. In some of the more remote. parts of the country old customs are maintained and picturesque local costumes still worn, as in Dalecarlia (q.v.). The Lapps moreover retain their distinctive dress. In other cases early costumes are preserved only as a historical reminiscence at festivities. following table shows the distribution of population in that year through the Lan or administrative districts. The first column shows the older divisions of the county into provinces, the names and boundaries of which differ in many cases from the kin. These names, as appears elsewhere in this article, remain in common use. The distribution of provinces and kin between the three main territorial divisions, Norrland (northern), Svealand (central) and Gotaland (southern) is also indicated. Old Provinces. Lan. Area Pop. sq. m. 1900. Norrland- . Norrbotten . 40,867 134,769 Lappland, Norrbotten Lappland, Vesterbotten . Vesterbotten . 22,771 143,735 Angermanland, Medel- . Vesternorrland i 9,855 232,311 pad . . . Jemtland, Herjedal . . Jemtland . . I 19,675 III,391 Helsingland, Gestrik- . Gefleborg . . 7,615 238,048 land Svealand- . Kopparberg 11,524 217,708 Dalarne (Dalecarlia) . Vermland . . . . . Vermland . . 7,459 254,284 Orebro . 3,511 194,924 Vestmanland Vestmanland 2,612 148,271 Nerike Sodermanland . 2,631 167,428 Sodermanland Upsala . . . 2,051 123,863 Uppland Stockholm dist. 3,015 172,852 Stockholm, city 13 300,624 Gotaland- . 4,264 279,449 Ostergotland Ostergotland Vestergotland Skaraborg . . 3 ,273 241,069 Dal Elfsborg 4,912 279,514 Bohuslan Goteborg och 1,948 337,175 Halland Bohus 1,900 141,688 Halland . . Smaland Jonkoping . . 4,447 203,036 Kronoberg . . 3,825 159,124 Kalmar . . 4,456 227,625 Blekinge . . . . . Blekinge 1,164 146,302 Skane . . , Kristianstad 2,488 219,166 . . Malmohus . 1,864 409,304 Gotland . . . . . Gotland' . . 1,219 52,781 Oland 2 - - - Total . . 172,8753 5,136,441 The population in 19o8 was about 5,429,600. In 1751 it was 1,802,373, and in 1865, 4,114,141. The average annual increase was 7.86 per thousand in the 19th century, reaching a maximum of 10.39 in 1841-186o, before the period of extensive emigration set in. Emigrants numbered 584,259 men and 424,566 women between 1851 and 1900, these figures helping to account for the considerable excess of women over men in the resident population, which in Iwo was as 1049 to 1000. The periods of greatest emigration were 1868-1873 and 1879-1893; the decline in later years is regarded as a favourable sign. The United States of America receive a large majority of the emigrants, and only a very small percentage returns. The Swedish people belong to the Scandinavian branch, but the population includes in the north about 20,000 Finns and 7000 Lapps. Other foreigners, however, are few, and the population is as a whole homogeneous. Immigrants in the period 1851-1900 numbered only 165,357. Population is naturally denser in the south than in the north, and densest of all in the districts along the southern coasts; thus Malmohus Lan has about 220 persons per sq. m., Goteborg och Bohus Lan 174 and Blekinge 127. In Norrland as a whole, however, there are less than 9 persons per sq. m., in Norrbottens Lan less than 4, and in the uplands of this division and Vesterbottens Lan much less than this. However, the annual increase per thousand has been greater in Norrland than elsewhere. The annual excess of births over deaths is high, the proportion being as 1.68 to 1. The birth-rate between 1876 and 1900 averaged 28.51 per thousand ; the death-rate between 1891 and 1900 was 16.36 per thousand, the lowest ever recorded over such a period for any European country. The lowest mortality is found in the districts about Lakes Vener and Vetter; the highest in Norbotten, the east midland districts, Slane, and Goteborg och Bohus Lan. The percentage of illegitimacy is rather high (though it decreased ' The island and adjacent islets. 2 Island included in Kalmar Lan. 3 Including the four great lakes, Vener, Vetter, Malar Hjelmar, 3516 sq. m. Although the characteristic celebrations at weddings or periodical festivals are, as elsewhere, decreasing in favour, there are certain occasions which are observed as holidays with much ceremony. Such are Christmas Day, and, not unnaturally in this northern land, Midsummer (June 23 and 24). The food of the people in the midlands and south is plentiful and good; in the remoter parts of the north an unfavourable summer is followed by a winter of scarcity or even famine; and in these parts meat is little used. Rye is extensively employed in the rural districts for the making of a hard bread in flat cakes (knackebrod). A prevalent custom among the better classes is that of beginning meals with a selection of such viands as anchovies, smoked salmon or slices of meat, of which a number of small dishes are provided (smorgasbord). These are taken with bread and butter and a glass of spirits. The more characteristic Swedish sports are naturally those of the winter. These include ski-running (skidlopning), skating and skate-sailing, tobogganing and sledging. The numerous inland waters and sheltered channels within the skargdrd have caused the high development of sailing as a summer sport, the Royal Swedish Yacht Club having its headquarters in Stockholm. Athletic sports are in high favour, especially such winter sports as snow-shoeing (ski), and, among ball games, lawn-tennis, and to some extent football, together with the game of park, peculiar to Gotland, are played. Towns.-In the first half of the 19th century the percentage of urban population remained nearly stationary at a little less than to. In 188o it was 15.12, and in 1900 21.49. The towns with a population exceeding 15,000 in 1900 are Stockholm (300,624), Gothenburg (130,609), Malmo (60,857), Norrkoping (41,o08), Gefle (29522) Helsingborg (24,670), Karlskrona (23,955), Jonkoping (23,143); Upsala (22,855), Orebro (22,013), Lund (16,621), Boras (15,837), Halmstad (15,362). Swedish towns, though rarely of quite modern foundation, generally appear so, for the use of brick in building is mainly of modern introduction, and is still by no means general, Arch,. so that the partial or total destruction of a town by tecture. fire is now only less common than formerly. The rectangular method of laying out streets is general, and legislation has been directed against narrow streets and buildings of excessive height. The common material of the characteristic domestic architecture in rural districts is wood, except in Skane, where stone is available and has been used from early times. Some of the old wooden farm-buildings, especially in Dalarne, such as are pre-served in Skansen Museum at Stockholm, are extremely picturesque. Another notable form in old wooden building is the belfry (klokstapel) of some village churches, examples of which are seen at Habo near Jonkoping and Hasjo in Jemtland on the northern railway. In the midlands and south fine castles and manor houses of the 16th and 17th centuries are fairly numerous, and there are a few remains of previous date. The fortified dwelling-house at Glimmingehus in the extreme south near Simrishamn is a good early example. Several of the southern ports have old citadels. That of Kalmar, on its island, is specially fine, while those at Vestervik (Stokeholm), Malrno, Falkenberg and Varberg may also be mentioned. Among country palaces or mansions that of Gripsholm ; notable, overlooking Lake Malar, the shores of which are specially -ich in historic sites and remains In ecclesiastical architecture Sweden possesses the noble cathedrals of Lund, Upsala and Linkoping; while that of Skara, near the southern shore of Lake Vence, dates originally from 115o, and that of Strengnas on Lake Malar was consecrated in 1291. There is a remarkably perfect Romanesque church, with aisles, eastern apse and ambulatory, at Varnhem in Skaraborg Lan, and there are a few village churches of the same period in this district and in Skane. The monastic church at Vadstena on Lake Vetter is a beautiful example of Gothic of the 14th and 15th centuries. But the richest locality as regards ancient ecclesiastical architecture is the island of Gotland (q.v.). Travel and CommunicationL—As a resort for foreign travellers and tourists Sweden lacks the eemarkable popularity of Norway. The Gota canal route, however, is used by many; the uplands of Dalecarlia (Dalarne) are frequented; and the railway through the Jemtland highlands to Trondhjem gives access to a beautiful region, where numerous sanatoria are in favour with the Swedes themselves. The northern railway offers a land route to the Arctic coast of Nor-way. Along the southern coasts there are many watering-places. Marstrand near Gothenburg is one of the most fashionable; Stromstad, Lysekil and Varberg on the same coast, Ronneby on the Baltic, with its chalybeate springs, Visby the capital of Gotland, and several villages in the neighbourhood of Stockholm may also be noted. The headquarters of the Swedish Touring Club (Svenska Turistforeningen) are in Stockholm, but its organization extends through-out the country, and is of special value to travellers in the far north. The first railway in Sweden was opened for traffic in 1856, and the system has developed extensively ; more so, in fact, in proportion Ratlways. to population, than in any other European country. About 8000 m. of railway are open, but extensions are constantly in progress. About two-thirds are private lines and one-third government lines. The central administration of the government lines is in the hands of a board of railway directors, and there are local administrative bodies for each of five districts. A railway council, created in 1902, acts as an advisory body on large economical questions and the like. Private railways are controlled by the regulations of the board, while a joint traffic union has as its object the provision of uniformity of administration, tariff, &c. The government has made grants towards the construction of some of the private lines, and has in a few cases taken over such lines. The railways form a network over the country as far north as Gefle and the district about Lake Siljan. The government works the trunk lines from Stockholm to Malmo, to Gothenburg and to Christiania as far as the Norwegian frontier, and other important through routes in the south. The great northern line is also worked by the government. It runs north from Stockholm roughly parallel with the east coast, throwing off,. branches to the chief seaports, and also a branch from Bracke to Ostersund and Storlien, where it joins a line from Trondhjem in Norway. At Boden the main line joins a line originally built to connect the iron-mines of Gellivara with the port of Lulea; the system is continued past Gellivara to Narvik on the Ofoten Fjord in Norway, this being far north of the Arctic Circle, and the line the most northerly in the world. The gauge of all the government lines and about 66% of the private lines is 1.435 metres (4 ft. 82 in.). Nearly all the lines are single. Passenger travelling is slow, but extremely comfortable. The principal connexions with the south are made across the sound from Malmo to Copenhagen, and from Trelleborg to Sassnitz in Germany. The extensive system of natural waterways, especially in central Sweden, has been utilized to the full in the development of internal Inland navigation, just as the calm waters within the skargard Navigation. afford opportunity for safe and economical coastwise traffic. The earliest construction of canals dates from the 15th century, the patriot Engelbrekt and King Gustavus Vasa both foreseeing its importance. The theories of construction remained rudimentary until early in the 19th century, when the Gota (q.v.) canal was opened. The total length of the canalized water-system of Sweden is a little over 700 m., though wholly artificial waterways amount only to 115 m. out of this total. A large local traffic is carried on by steam launches on the lakes during the season of open navigation ; and vessels have even been introduced on some of the lakes and rivers of the far north, principally in connexion with the timber trade. Posting, which is of importance only in the highland districts and the valley roads of Norrland, is carried on by posting-stations (skjutsstatien) under government regulations; similar regulations apply when, as in the upper valleys of the great northern rivers, rowing boats on the lakes form the only means of travel. The condition of the high roads is fair as a whole, and has been much improved by increased state grants towards their upkeep; but-in Norrland they are naturally not of the best class. The postal and telegraph system is efficacious, and the telephone service, maintained partly by the state and partly by companies, is very fully developed. About twenty telephones are in use per thousand of population, and a system of trunk-lines between the important towns has been established since 1889. Agriculture.—Of the total land area of Sweden only about 12 % is arable or meadow land, but the percentage varies greatly in different parts, as will be understood from a recollection of the main physical divisions. Thus in Skane nearly 6o % of the land is under cultivation; In the midlands about 3o%; to the north from a•5 % in.
End of Article: SWEDEN [Sverige]

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