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Originally appearing in Volume V26, Page 305 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SYRACUSE, a city and the county-seat of Onondaga county, New York, U.S.A., situated at the southern end of Onondaga Lake, about 75 M. E. of Rochester and about 150 M. W. of Albany. Pop. (188o), 51,792; (189o), 88,143; (1900), 108,374, of whom 23,757 were foreign-born (including 7865 German, 5717 Irish, 2393 English Canadian and 2383 English) and 1034 were negroes; (1910, census), 137,249. Area (1906), 16.62 sq. m. Syracuse is served by the New York Central & Hudson River, the West Shore, and the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railways, by the Erie Canal and the Oswego Canal, which joins the Erie within the city limits, and by several electric inter-urban lines. The city is built on high ground in an amphitheatre of hills surrounding the lake, which is a beautiful body of clear water, 5 in. long by 11 m. broad at its widest point. Of the residential streets, James Street, in the north-eastern part of the city, is the most attractive. Salina Street is the principal business thoroughfare. The park system comprises more than fifty parks and squares, with a total area of 278 acres. The largest and most noteworthy are Burnet park (about Ica acres), on high land in the western part of the city, Lincoln park, occupying a-heavily wooded ridge in the east, and Schiller, Kirk and Frazer parks. A boulevard runs along the shore of the lake. A fine water-supply controlled by the city is obtained from Skaneateles Lake, 18 m. distant, by a gravity system which cost $5,000,000; and the city has an intercepting sewer system. Among the most noteworthy churches of Syracuse are the Roman Catholic cathedral of the Immaculate Conception—Syracuse became the see of a Roman Catholic bishop in 1887 —and St Paul's Protestant Episcopal, the first Presbyterian, first Methodist Episcopal, Dutch Reformed and May Memorial (Unitarian) churches, the last erected in memory of Samuel Joseph May (1797-1871), a famous anti-slavery leader, pastor of the church in 1845-1868, and author of Some Recollections of Our Anti-Slavery Conflict (1873). Among the public buildings are the Federal Building, the Onondaga county court-house, costing $1,5oo,000 and containing a law library of 15,000 vols., the city-hall, the Central high school, a fine building erected at a cost of $400,000, the North high school ($300,000), and the public library (Carnegie) with 6o,000 volumes in 1908 and housing the Museum of Fine Arts (1897), also. Among the hospitals and charitable institutions are the Syracuse hospital (1872) for infectious diseases, the Hospital of the Good Shepherd (1873), the Syracuse homoeopathic hospital (1895), the Syracuse hospital for women and children (1887), St Mary's infantand maternity hospital (1900) under the Sisters of Charity, St Joseph's hospital (1869) under Sisters of the Third Order of St Francis, the Syracuse home for aged women (1852), Onondaga county orphan asylum (private; 1841), and two other orphan asylums controlled by the Sisters of Charity, and the state institution for feeble-minded children (1896). The University block (an office building owned by Syracuse University), the Union Building, the Onondaga county savings bank and the Syracuse savings bank are among the most notable business structures; and the Onondaga, the Vanderbilt House and the Yates and St Cloud hotels are the principal hotels. In Jamesville, about 6 in. south, is the Onondaga penitentiary. Adjacent to the city is Oakwood cemetery, overlooking the lake; and north-west of the city are the state fair grounds, with extensive exhibition halls and barns, where the annual fairs of the New York State Agricultural Society are held. Six miles south of the city is the Onondaga Indian reservation, the present capital of the " Six Nations." The city has an annual carnival and a musical festival. Syracuse University, whose campus (of Too acres) in the south-east part of the city commands a fine view of the lake, is a co-educational institution largely under Methodist Episcopal control, but not sectarian, which in 1908-1909 had 239 instructors and 3205 students (1336 in the college of liberal arts; 189 in the summer school; 62 in the library school; 933 in the college of fine arts; 147 in the college of medicine; 179 in the college of law; 401 in the college of applied science; and 78 in the teachers' college). The university was opened in 1871, when the faculty and students of Genesee College (185o) removed from Lima (New York) to Syracuse—a court-ruling made it impossible for the corporation to remove; in 1872 the Geneva medical college (1835) removed to Syracuse and became a college of the university. The courses in library economy (college of liberal arts) are particularly well known. The university library (about 8o,000 bound volumes and 40,000 pamphlets) includes (since 1887) the collection of the German historian, Leopold von Ranke. There are seventeen buildings, among which the Holden observatory, the John Crouse memorial college (of fine arts), the hall of languages, the Lyman Smith college of applied science, the Lyman hall of natural history, the Bowne hall of chemistry, and the Carnegie library, are the most notable. There are a large gymnasium and a stadium of re-enforced concrete for athletic contests, capable of seating 20,000 people and one of the largest athletic fields in the world. The plant of the university in 1909 was valued at $3,193,128, and in 1908-1909 its productive funds amounted to about $2,000,000 and its income from all sources was about $784,000. Other educational institutions are the Syracuse Teachers' training school, Christian Brothers' academy (Roman Catholic), St John's Catholic academy, Travis preparatory school (non-sectarian), and at Manlius (pop. 1910, 1314), a suburb, St John's military academy (Protestant Episcopal, 1869). The Onondaga Historical Association was organized in 1862, and after 21 years of inactivity was reorganized in 1892; it occupies its own building; its committee on natural science developed (1896) into the Onondaga academy of science. Several educational journals are published at Syracuse. There are three daily newspapers, the Post--Standard (Standard, 1829; Post, 1894; consolidated, 1899, Republican), Journal (1839; daily since 1844, Republican, and Evening Herald (1877), Independent). The government is that of all cities of the second class in New York state, with an elective mayor and other important officers and a single-chambered city council. Power from Niagara Falls is used by factories in the city, and the manufactures are extensive and greatly diversified. In 1905 the aggregate capital of the city's manufacturing industries was $38,740,651, and the value of its factory products was $34,823,751, 31.2% more than in 1900. The principal products in 1905 were: men's and women's clothing ($3,527,494, of which $3,082,052 represented men's clothing), foundry and machine-shop products, of which agricultural implements and machinery constituted the greater part ($2,415,466), iron and steel products ($2,117,585), chemicals, malt liquors ($1,960,466), typewriters and typewriting supplies ($1,553,113), and boots and shoes ($1,253,982). Other important products were automobiles and sewing machines, hosiery and knit goods, candles, furniture, flour, crockery, and canned goods (especially mince-meat). Syracuse was long the principal seat of the salt industry in America. The Onondaga salt deposits were mentioned in the journal of the French Jesuit Lemoyne as early as 1653, and before the War of Independence the Indians marketed Onondaga salt at Albany and Quebec. In 1788 the state undertook, by treaty with the Onondaga Indians, to care for the salt springs and manage them for the benefit of both the whites and the Indians. In 1795, by another treaty, the state acquired for $i000, to be supplemented by an annual payment of $loo and 150 bushels of salt, the salt springs and land about them covering about to sq. m. In 1797 the state leased the lands, the lessees paying a royalty of 4 cents per bushel and being forbidden to charge more than 6o cents per bushel. The state sank wells and built and maintained tanks from which brine was delivered to lessees. During 1812-1834 a royalty of 121 cents was charged to raise funds for building canals (a rebate being granted in the last three years covering the entire amount of the royalty for these years). During 1834-1846 the royalty was 6 cents, and between 1846 and 1898 it remained stationary at one cent. In 1898 the state ordered the sale of the salt lands, because the revenues were less than the expense of keeping up the works; but state ownership was maintained until 1908, when the last of the lands were sold and the office of superintendent of salt lands, created in 1797, was abolished. Until 1840 only boiled salt was manufactured; in that year the solar process was introduced. The annual production, which amounted to ioo,000 bushels in 1804, reached its highest point in 1862 (9,053,874 bushels, of which 1,983,022 bushels were solar,and 7,070,852 boiled). The development of the Michigan salt deposits and (after 188o) of the deposits in Wyoming, Genesee and Livingston counties in New York caused a rapid decline in the Onondaga product. In 1876 both processes yielded together only 5,392,677 bushels, and in 1896 only 2,806,600 bushels. The salt deposits at Syracuse had, however, laid the basis for another industry, the manufacture of soda-ash, which has grown to important proportions. At the village of Solvay (pop. 1905, 5196), adjoining Syracuse on the lake shore, are the largest works for the production of soda-ash in the world, giving employment to more than 3000 hands. The Syracuse region became known to Europeans through its salt deposits. Until several years after the close of the War of Independence, however, there was no settlement. Ephraim Webster, who built a trading-post near the mouth of Onondaga Creek in 1786, was the first white settler. About 1788-1789 small companies began to visit the place every summer to work the salt deposits. In 1796-1797 there was a permanent settlement known as Webster's Landing, and in 1797 a settlement was begun at Salina, a short distance to the north on the lake shore. Geddes, another " salt settlement," was founded in 1803. In 1800 " the landing " received the name " Bogardus's Corners," from the proprietor of a local inn. Between 'Soo and 18os a dozen families settled here, and in the latter year a grist mill, the first manufacturing establishment, was built on Onondaga Creek. A sawmill was built in the following year. In 1804 the state government, which had assumed control of the saltfields, sold to Abraham Walton of Albany, for $6J50, some 250 acres, embracing the district now occupied by Syracuse's business centre, to secure money for the construction of a public road. During the succeeding years the name of the place was frequently changed. It was called Milan in 1809, South Salina in 1809-1814, Cossitt's Corners in 1814-1817, and Cossitt in 1817-1824. In 1824 a post office was established, and as there was another office of that same name in the state, the name was again changed, the present name being adopted. The village was incorporated in 1825, Salina being incorporated independently at the same time. In the meantime the settlement had been growing rapidly. In 1818 Joshua Forman bought an interest in the Walton tract, had the village platted, and became the " founder " of the city. The first newspaper, the Onondaga Gazette, was established in 1823; and in 1825 the completion of the Erie Canal opened a new era of prosperity. In 1827 Syracuse became the county-seat of Onondaga county. In 1847 Salina was united to Syracuse, and the city was chartered. Geddes was annexed in 1886. Syracuse has been the meeting-place of some historically important political conventions; that of 1847, in which occurred the split between the " Barnburner " and " Hunker " factions of the Democratic party, began the Free Soil movement in the state. The strong anti-slavery sentiment here manifested itself in 1851 in the famous " Jerry rescue," one of the most significant episodes following the enactment of the Fugitive Slave Law of 185o; Samuel J. May, pastor of the Unitarianchurch, and seventeen others, arrested for assisting in the rescue, were never brought to trial, although May and two others publicly admitted that they had taken part in the rescue, and announced that they would contest the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Law, if they were tried. See Carroll E. Smith, Pioneer Times in Onondaga County (Syracuse, 1904). SYR-DARYA (Gr. and Lat. Jaxartes; Arab. Shash or Si/tun), a river of Asia, flowing into the Sea of Aral, and having a length of 1500 M. and a drainage area of about 320,000 sq. m. Its headstream is the Naryn, which rises in the heart of the Tianshan complex south of Lake Issyk-kul, on the southern slope (12,000 ft.) of the Terskei Ala-tau. After its union with another mountain stream, the Barskaun, it flows W.S.W. at 11,000 to 1o,000 ft. above the sea, in a barren longitudinal valley between the Terskei Ala-tau and the foothills of the Kokshal-tau. On entering a wild narrow gorge in the south-west continuation of the Terskei Ala-tau it receives the name of Naryn. Within this gorge it descends some 4000 ft.; Fort Narynsk, 20 M. below the confluence of the Great and the Little Naryn, is only 6800 ft. above the sea. Here the river enters a broad valley—formerly the bottom of an alpine lake—and flows past the ruins of Fort Kurtka, for 90 m. westward, as a stream some 50 yds. wide and from 3 to 11 ft. deep. Its waters are utilized by the Kirghiz for irrigating their cornfields, which contrast strangely with the barren aspect of the lofty treeless mountains. The At-bash, a large mountain stream, joins the Naryn at the head of this valley and the Alabuga or Arpa at its lower end, both from the left. Before reaching the low-lands the Naryn cuts its way through three ridges which separate the valley of Kurtka from that of Ferghana, and does so by a series of wild gorges and open valleys (170 m.), representing the bottoms of old lakes; the valleys of the Toguztorau, 2000 ft. lower than Kurtka, and the Ketmen-tube are both cultivated by the Kirghiz. Taking a wide sweep towards the north, the river enters Ferghana—also the bottom of an immense lake—where, after receiving the Kara-darya (Black River) near Namangan, it assumes the name of Syr-darya.' The Kara-darya is a large stream rising on the northern spurs of the Alai Mountains. As it deflects the Naryn towards the west, the natives look upon it as the chief branch of the Syrdarya, but its volume is much smaller. At the confluence the Syr is 1440 ft. above sea-level. The waters of the Syr-darya and its tributaries are in this part of its course largely drained away for irrigation. It is to the Syr that Ferghana is indebted for its high, if somewhat exaggerated, repute in Central Asia as a rich garden and granary; cities like Khokand, Marghilan and Namangan, and more than 800,000 inhabitants of the former khanate of Khokand, subsist by its waters. Notwithstanding,this drain upon it, the Syr could be easily navigated, were it not for the Bigovat rapids at Irjar, at the lower end of the valley, where the river pierces the Mogol-tau. On issuing from this gorge the Syr enters the Aral depression, and flows for 85o m. in a north-westerly and northerly direction before reaching the Sea of Aral. On this section it is navigated by steamers. Between the Irjar rapids and Baildyr-turgai (where it bends north) the river flows along the base of the subsidiary ranges which flank the Chotkal Mountains on the north-west, and receives from the longitudinal valleys of these alpine tracts a series of tributaries (the Angren, the Chirchik, the Keles), which in their lower courses fertilize the wide plains of loess on the right bank of the Syr. Some 50 M. below Chinaz (770 ft. above sea-level) the Syr bends northwards, but resumes its north-westerly course 150 M. farther down, following with remarkable persistency the edge of the loess. Its low banks, overgrown with reeds and rendered uninhabitable in summer by clouds of mosquitoes, are inundated for 20 M. on both sides when the snows begin to melt. These inundations prevent the moving sands of the Kyzyl-kum desert from approaching the Syr; below Perovsk, however, the steppe does gain the upper hand. Down to Perovsk the river rolls its muddy yellow waters, at the rate of 3 to 5 M. an hour, in a channel 300 to 600 yds. wide and 3 to 5 fathoms deep; at Perovsk its vertical section is 8220 sq. ft., and 312,500 cub. ft. of water are discharged per second. The Arys and the Bugun are the only tributaries worthy of notice along this part of its course; the other streams which descend from the Kara-tau fail to reach the river. The Kirghiz rear numerous herds of cattle and 1 Syr and darya both signify " river," in two different dialects. sheep in the valley of the Arys, while lower down, as far as Julek, the Iginchis carry on agriculture. All this applies of course only to the right bank; on the left the moisture is absorbed by the hot winds which cross the Kyzyl-kum sands towards the river. The dryness of the atmosphere has a marked effect upon the Syr when it gets below Julek, the Kara-kum sands being then on its right. Ten miles below Perovsk the river traverses a marshy depression (the bottom of a lake not yet fully dried up), where it divides into two branches—the Jaman-darya and the Kara-uzyak. The latter spreads out into marshes and ponds, from which it again issues to join the former at Karamakchi, after a course of 8o m. The main arm, owing to its shallowness and sinuosity, is very difficult to navigate, and the difficulty is increased by the rapidity of the current and the want of fuel. Between Kazalinsk and the Sea of Aral (158 ft.) navigation becomes somewhat easier, except for the last to m., where the river divides into three shallow branches before entering the " Blue Sea." All three have at their mouths sandy bars with only 3 ft. of water. Two former right-hand tributaries of the Syr—the Chu and the Sary-su—now disappear in the sands some 6o m. before reaching it. The Chu, which is 600 m. in length, rises in the Tian-shan south-west of Lake Issyk-kul, and as the Kashkar flows towards Lake Issyk-kul, but a few miles before reaching that lake turns suddenly to the north-west, enters under the name of Chu the narrow gorge of Buam, and, piercing the snow clad Kunghei Ala-tau, emerges on its northern slope, having descended from 5500 ft. to less than 2000 in a distance of not more than 50 M. In this part of its course it receives from the right the Kebin, whose high valley equals in size that of the upper Rhone. It then flows north-westwards through the valley of Pishpek, and, avoiding the Muyun-kum sands, describes a wide curve to the north before finally taking a western direction. Numberless streams flow towards it from the snow-clad Alexander Mountains, but they are for the most part lost in the sands before reaching it. The Talas, 170 M. long, formerly an affluent of the Chu, which rises in the highest parts of that range, pierces the Cha-archa Mountains, and, flowing past Aulie-ata on the south border of the Muyun-kum, enters the salt lake of Kara-kul 6o m. from the Chu. The Chu terminates in the Saumal-kul group of lakes, 6o rn. from the Syr. Another elongated group of lakes—the Uzun-kul—near the above, receives 'the Sary-su, which has a length of nearly 570 M. and flows rapidly in a narrow channel along the western edge of the northern Famine Steppe (Bekpak-dala). The delta of the Syr begins at Perovsk, whence it sends a branch to the south-west, the Jany-darya (New River), which formerly reached the south-eastern corner of the Sea of Aral, very near to the mouth of the Amu-darya. The Kirghiz affirm that a canal dug for irrigation by the Kara-kalpaks gave origin to this river. It had, however, but a temporary existence. A dam erected by the people of Khokand at Ak-mechet (Perovsk) caused its disappearance, and the Russians found nothing but a dry bed in 1820. When the dam was removed the Jany-darya again reappeared, but it failed to reach the Sea of Aral ; in 1853 it terminated in Lake Kuchka-denghiz, after a course of 250 m.; all traces of its bed were then lost in the sand. Five centuries ago, in the time of Timur, the Mongol prince of Samarkand, the Jany-darya brought the waters of the Syr to the Daukara lakes, close by the present mouth of the Amu. The series of old river-beds in the Kyzyl-kum, which are still seen above Perovsk, indicates that the Syr had a constant tendency to seek a channel to the south-west, and that its present delta is but a vestige of what it was once. At a still more remote period this delta probably comprised all the space between the Kara-tau and the Nura-tau in Samarkand ; and the series of elongated lakes at the base of the Nuratau—the Tuz-kaneh and Bogdan-ata lakes—represent an old branch of the delta of the Syr which probably joined the Zarafshan before reaching the Amu. The cause of this immense change is simply the rapid desiccation of all the northern and central parts of Asia, due to the fact that we are now living in the later phase of the Lacustrine period, which has followed the Glacial period. The extension of the Caspian Sea as far as the Sary-kamysh lakes during the post-Pliocene period and the extension of the Sea of Aral at least too m. to the east of its present position are both proved by the existence of post-Pliocene marine deposits. (P. A. K.; J. T. BE.) SYR-DARYA, or SYR-DARIINSK, a province of Russian Turkestan, lying on both sides of the Syr-darya river, from its embouchure in the Sea of Aral up to Khojent, where it issues from the mountain region of the Tian-shan. The province is bounded N. by the provinces of Turgai, Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk; E. by Semiryechensk; S. by Ferghana, Zarafshan, Bokhara and Khiva; and W. by Khiva and the Sea of Aral. Its area (r66,000 sq. m.), its population (over a million and a half) and the city of Tashkent make it the most important province of Russian Turkestan. The south-eastern boundary runs along the Chotkal Mountains (14,000 ft.), which separate the river Chotkal from the river Naryn, and join the Alexander Mountains on the east. A series of short chains, such as the Talas-tau and Ala-tau, fringe the aboveon the north-west, and occupy the south-east of the province. The snow-clad summits of the Talas-tau reach 14,000 to 15,000 ft. in altitude, and immense glaciers occur about Manas Mountain. This range seems to run from west-south-west to east-north-east; the other flanking chains have a decidedly south-westerly direction, and are much lower, the outlying ranges having rather the character of broad plateaus above 2000 ft. in altitude, where the Kirghiz find excellent pasture-grounds. Some of them, such as the Kazyk-urt, rise isolated from the steppe. The Kara-tau is quite separate from the preceding and runs at right angles to them—that is, from north-west to south-east. It belongs therefore to another series of upheavals prevalent in western Asia, to which Richthofen has given the name of the " Kara-tau series." Its length is about 270 m., and its average altitude about 5000 ft., rising at some points to 6000 and 7000 ft. It separates the river Syr-darya from the river Chu, and its gentle south-western slope contains the sources of a multitude of streams which water the oasis around the town of Turkestan. The mountainous tracts occupy, however, only a small part of Syr-darya, the rest is steppe. Three different areas must be distinguished—the Kyzyl-kum, the Muyun-kum or Ak-kum, and the Kara-kum. The Kyzyl-kum (red sands) sands stretch between the Amu and the Syr, and have a gradual ascent from 16o ft. at the Sea of Aral to 1500 and 2000 ft. in the south-east. They are partly shifting, partly stationary (see KARA-KUM). In the west the surface is overlaid with remains of Aral-Caspian deposits. As the Tian-shan is approached the steppe assumes another character : a thick sheet of loess girdles the foothills and forms the fertile soil to which Turkestan is indebted for its productive fields and gardens. The Kara-kum sands, situated north-east of the Sea of Aral, are manifestly a former bottom of the lake. In the east the steppe yields some vegetation and is visited by the Kirghiz. The barkhans do not shift, being covered with Calligonum, Tamarix, Holoxylon anemodendron. The Muyun-kum or Ak-kum steppe, between the Kara-tau Mountains and the Chu River, is quite uninhabited, except in the loess region at the northern base of the mountains. (For the geological history of the western Tian-shan ranges see TIAN-SHAN.) Throughout the Cretaceous and earlier Tertiary periods the lowlands of Syr-darya were under the sea. The character of the region during the post-Pliocene period remains unsettled. A girdle of loess, varying in width from 30 to 50 m., encircles all the mountain tracts, increasing in extent in Bokhara and at the lower end of the valley of Ferghana. It seems certain that during the Lacustrine period the Caspian was connected by a narrow gulf with the Aral basin, which was then much larger, while another inland sea of great dimensions covered the present Balkash basin, and at an earlier period may have been connected with the Aral basin. Recent traces of these basins are found in the steppes. The chief river of the province is the Syr-darya (q.v.). The frontier touches the eastern shore of the Sea of Aral, and numerous small lakes, mostly salt, are scattered over the sandy plains. A few lakes of alpine character occur in the valleys of the hilly tracts. The climate of the province varies greatly in its different parts. It is most severe in the mountain region; and in the lowlands it is very hot and dry. As a whole, the western parts of the Tian-shan receive but little precipitation, and are therefore very poor in forests. In the lowlands the heat of the dry summer is almost insupportable, the thermometer rising to III° F. in the shade; the winter is severe in the lower parts of the province, where the Syr remains frozen for three months. The average yearly temperature at Tashkent and Kazalinsk respectively is 58.3° and 46.4° (January, 29° and 12°; July, 77.5° and 78°). The terraces of loess mentioned above are alone available for cultivation, and accordingly less than I% (o•8) of the total area of the province is under crops, the remainder being either quite barren (57%) or pasture land (42 %). In the few cases where cultivation is possible, it is carried to great perfection owing to a highly developed system of irrigation—two crops being gathered every year. Wheat and barley come first, then peas, millet and lentils, which are grown in the autumn. Rye and oats are grown only about Kazalinsk. Cotton is cultivated. Gardening is greatly developed. Sericulture is an important source of income. Livestock breeding is largely pursued, not only by the nomads but by the settled population. Fishing is prosecuted to some extent on the lower Syr. Timber and firewood are exceedingly dear. The population of the province was estimated in 1906 as 1,779,000. It is comparatively dense in certain parts. The Russians number barely 850o, if the military be left out of account. Kirghiz (50 %) and Sarts (9.8%) are the main elements of the population, with Uzbegs (4.3 %), and a few Jews, Tajiks, Tatars, Persians and Hindus. The predominant occupations of the Sarts, Uzbegs, Tajiks and settled Kirghiz are agriculture and gardening, but the Kirghiz lead chiefly a nomadic pastoral life. Manufactures are represented by cotton mills, tanneries and distilleries;, but a great variety of petty industries are practised in the towns and villages. Syr-darya is divided into six districts, the chief towns of which are Tashkent, Aulie-ata, Kazalinsk, Perovsk, Chimkent and Amu-darya. (P. A. K.; J. T. BE.)
End of Article: SYRACUSE
SYRA, or SYROS (anc. E6pos, perhaps Homeric lapin},...
SYRACUSE (Gr. Mvpaaovoat; Lat. Syracusae, Ital. Sir...

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