TELL EL AMARNA , the name now given to a collection of ruins and
See also:rock tombs in Upper
See also:Egypt near the east
See also:bank of the Nile, 58 m. by
See also:river below
See also:Assiut and 190 M. above Cairo . The ruins are those of Ekhaton (Akhet-Aton), a city built c . 136o B.C. by Akhenaton (Amenophis IV.) as the new capital of his
See also:empire (in place of
See also:Thebes) when he abandoned the worship of Ammon and devoted himself to that of Aton, i.e. the
See also:sun (see EGYPT:
See also:History, §
See also:Ancient) . Shortly after the
See also:death of Akhenaton the
See also:court returned to Thebes, and the city, after an existence of perhaps only twenty years—of fifty years at the utmost—was abandoned . Not having been inhabited since, the lines of the streets and the ground-plans of many buildings can still be traced . The chief ruins are those of the royal palace and of the
See also:House of the Rolls; there are scanty remains of the
See also:temple . In the palace are four pavements of painted
See also:work in
See also:fair preservation . They were discovered in 1891–92 by Prof .
See also:Flinders Petrie (see his Tell el Amarna, 1894) . In the Rolls House were discovered in 1887 by the fellahin some 300
See also:clay tablets inscribed with cuneiform characters . They are letters and state documents addressed to Amenophis IV. and his
See also:father, from the
See also:kings of
See also:Assyria, &c., and from the
See also:governors in
See also:Syria and neighbouring districts: The greater
See also:part of them were
See also:purchased for the Berlin Museum, but a large number were secured for the
See also:British Museum . Their contents proved invaluable for the reconstruction of the history, social and
See also:political, of Egypt and Western
See also:Asia during that
See also:period .
Hewn out of the sides of the hills whichclose in on the east the plain on which Ekhaton stood are two groups of tombs; one
See also:group lies 12 m . N.E., and the other 3 M . S. of the city . The tombs, all of which belong to the
See also:time of Akhenaton, are full of interesting scenes in the
See also:style of the period, accompanied by
See also:hymns to the sun
See also:god . The most important
See also:tomb is, perhaps, that of Meri-Ra, high
See also:priest of the sun, which has a
See also:facade nearly too ft. long and two large
See also:chambers . On one of the walls of the
See also:main chamber is depicted the scene, now well known, in which a
See also:choir of harpists and singers celebrate the arrival of the court at the temple . In the early centuries of Moslem
See also:rule in Egypt the
See also:northern tombs were inhabited by
See also:Copts, one tomb, that of Pa-Nehesi, being turned into a
See also:church . In a
See also:ravine opening into the plain between the
See also:north and south tombs, and some seven
See also:miles from the city, is a tomb supposed to be that of Akhenaton . The tombs and the great stelae sculptured on the cliffs which mark the
See also:bounds of the city of Akhet-Aton have been the
See also:object of
See also:special study by N. de G .
See also:Davies on behalf of the Archaeological Survey of Egypt . The results, with numerous plates and plans, are embodied in a series of
See also:memoirs, Rock Tombs of El Amarna (six parts, 1903–8) . For the tablets see Tell el Amarna Tablets in the British Museum (1892); C .
See also:Diplomacy; the transliterated text of the Cuneiform Despatches discovered at Tell el Amarna (1893) ; The Tel el Amarna Letters (
See also:translation by M . Winckler, Berlin, 1896) ; J . A . Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna Tafeln (
See also:Leipzig, 1907-9) ; W . M . F . Petrie, Syria and Egypt from the Tell el Amarna Letters (1898) .
CHARLES DE TELIGNY (c. 1535—1572)
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