See also:TEMPLE, 1ST
See also:EARL (1711-1779),
See also:English statesman, eldest son of
See also:Richard Grenville (d . 1727) of Wootton, Buckinghamshire, was
See also:born on the 26th of
See also:September 1711 . His
See also:mother was Hester (c . 1690-1752), daughter, and ultimately heiress, of
See also:Sir Richard Temple,
See also:Bart . (1634-1697), of Stowe, Buckinghamshire,' and
See also:sister of Richard Temple,
See also:Cobham, whose title she inherited under a
See also:remainder in 1749; in the same
See also:year, her
See also:husband having been long dead, she was created Countess Temple . Her son, Richard Grenville, was educated at
See also:Eton, and in 1734 was returned to parliament as member for the
See also:borough of Bucking-
See also:ham . In 1752, on the
See also:death of his mother, he inherited her titles together with the
See also:rich estates of Stowe and Wootton; and he then took the name of Temple in addition to his own surname of Grenville . The turning point in his
See also:political fortunes was the
See also:marriage of his sister Hester in 1754 to
See also:William Pitt, afterwards earl of Chatham . Although
See also:Lord Temple was a man of little ability and indifferent character, Pitt persistently linked his own career with that of his
See also:law . In
See also:November 1756 Temple became first lord of the
See also:admiralty in the
See also:ministry of Devonshire and Pitt . He was intensely disliked by
See also:George II., who dismissed both him and Pitt from
See also:office in
See also:April 1757 . But when the memorable coalition
See also:cabinet of Newcastle and Pitt was formed in
See also:June of the same year, Temple received the office of privy seal. kie alone in the cabinet supported Pitt's proposal to declare ,
See also:var with Spain in 1761, and they resigned together on the 5th of
See also:October .
See also:time Temple became one of the most violent and factious of politicians, and it is difficult to account for the influence, wholly evil, which he exerted over his illustrious brother-in-law . He himself is said to have avowed that " he loved
See also:faction, and had a
See also:deal of
See also:money to spare." He was at variance with his younger brother, George Grenville, when the latter became first 'lord of the
See also:treasury in April 1763, and he had no place in that ministry; but the
See also:brothers were reconciled before 1765, when Temple, who probably aimed at forming a ministry mainly confined to his own
See also:family connexions, refused to join the
See also:government, and persuaded Pitt to refuse likewise . A few
See also:weeks later the
See also:king offered the most liberal terms to induce Pitt to
See also:form or join an administration; and " a ministry directed by that great statesman," says Lecky, " would have been beyond all comparison the most advantageous to the
See also:country; it had no serious difficulty to encounter, and Pitt himself was now ready to undertake the task, but the evil
See also:genius of Lord Temple again prevailed . Without his co-operation Pitt could not, or would not proceed, and Temple absolutely refused to take office even in the foremost place." Pitt's continued refusal to join the first Rockingham administration was no doubt partly due to the same disastrous influence, though before the close of 1765 the old friendship between the brothers-in-law was dissolving; and when at last in
See also:July 1766 Pitt consented to form a government, Temple refused to join; being bitterly offended because, although offered the
See also:head of the treasury, he was not to be allowed an equal
See also:share with Pitt in nominating to other offices . Temple forthwith began to inspire the most virulent libels against Pitt; and in conjunction with his brother George he concentrated the whole Grenville connexion in hostility to the government . After George Grenville's death in 1770 Lord Temple retired almost completely from public
See also:life . He died on the 12th of September 1779 . ' The Temple family belonged originally to
See also:Leicestershire, where, at Temple
See also:Hall, the elder
See also:line had resided since the 14th century .
See also:Peter Temple (1600-1663), the regicide, was a member of this elder line; a younger branch had settled in
See also:Oxfordshire and passed thence to Buckinghamshire, where
See also:John Temple
See also:purchased Stowe in 1589 . This John was brother of Anthony, who was great-grandfather of Sir William Temple, the famous statesman . John Temple's son
See also:Thomas, who was created a
See also:baronet in 1611, was the great-grandfather of Earl Temple . Lord Temple was entirely without statesmanship; he possessed an insatiable appetite for intrigue, and is said to have been the author of several
See also:anonymous libels, and the inspirer of many more .
Macaulay's well-known comparison of him with a mole working below " in some foul, crooked labyrinth whenever a heap of dirt was flung up," which perpetuates the
See also:spleen of Horace Walpole, perhaps exceeds the
See also:justice of the case; but there can be no question that Temple's character as a public man was rated very low by his contemporaries . In private life he used his great
See also:wealth with generosity to his relations, friends and dependents . Pitt was under pecuniary
See also:obligation to him . He paid the
See also:costs incurred by Wilkes in litigation, and he provided the agitator with the
See also:freehold qualification which enabled him to stand for Middlesex in the famous election of 1768 . In addition to the estates he inherited, Temple gained a considerable
See also:fortune by his marriage in 1737 with Anne, daughter and co-heiress of Thomas
See also:Chambers of Hanworth, Middlesex; a
See also:volume of poems by her was printed at the
See also:press in 1764 . The only issue of the marriage being a daughter who died in
See also:infancy, Temple was succeeded in the earldom by his
See also:nephew George (1753-1813), second son of George Grenville the
See also:minister, who then assumed in addition to the name of Grenville not only the name of Temple, but also that of
See also:Nugent, his wife being daughter and co-heiress of Robert, Viscount Clare, afterwards Earl Nugent . The 2nd Earl Temple was lord-
See also:lieutenant of
See also:Ireland in 1782–3; in 1784 was created
See also:marquess of
See also:Buckingham; and was again lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 1787-9 . His son and successor, Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville (1776-1839), was created duke of Buckingham and Chandos in 1822, his wife being only daughter of the 3rd duke of Chandos; he was in the same patent created Earl Temple of Stowe, with special remainder as regards this title, in virtue of which, on the death without male issue in 1889 of the 3rd duke of Buckingham and Chandos and the consequent extinction of the
See also:original earldom of Temple, the title of Earl Temple of Stowe devolved upon William
See also:Stephen Gore-Langton (1847-1902), whose mother was granddaughter of the 1st duke of Buckingham, grantee of this earldom . In 1902 Algernon William Stephen Temple-Gore-Langton (b . 1871) became 5th Earl Temple . See The Grenville Papers (
See also:London, 1852), a considerable portion of which consists of Earl Temple's
See also:correspondence; Horace Walpole,
See also:Memoirs of the Reign of George II., 3 vols . (London, 1847) ; Memoirs of the Reign of George III., 4 vols .
(London, 1845 and 1894) ; Earl
See also:Waldegrave, Memoirs 1154—8 (London, 1821) ; Sir N . W . Wraxall,
See also:Historical Memoirs, edited by H . B .
See also:Wheatley, 5 vols . (London, 1884) ; Correspondence of Chatham, edited by W . S .
See also:Taylor and J . H .
See also:Pringle, 4 vols . (London, 1838—4o); W . E .
H . Lecky,
See also:History of England in the Eighteenth Century, vols. ii. and iii . (7 vols., London, 1892) . (R . J .
FREDERICK TEMPLE (1821-1902)
BART SIR RICHARD TEMPLE
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.