TEXAS , asouth central state of the
See also:United States of
See also:America, extending from
See also:lat . 26' 51, N. to lat . 36' 39'N. and from long . 93° 3o' W. to long . 1o6° 3o' W . A western
See also:projection is bounded N. by New Mexico, but the
See also:main portion of the state is bounded N. by Oklahoma, from which it is separated in
See also:part by the Red
See also:river; a
See also:northern projection (the Panhandle) is bounded E. by Oklahoma, but the main portion is bounded E. by
See also:Arkansas and
See also:Louisiana, the
See also:Sabine river separating it in part from Louisiana; on the S.E. the state is bounded by the Gulf of Mexico; on the S.W. by Mexico, from which it is separated by the Rio Grande; on the W. by New Mexico . Texas is much the largest state in the Union . Its length and breadth are nearly equal—about 75o m.—and its
See also:area is 262,398 sq. m., of which 3498 sq. m. are
See also:surface .
See also:Physical Features.—Texas is crossed by four physiographic provinces . In the S.E. are the West Gulf Plains, a part of the Coastal Plain province . Thence westward to the tooth meridian are the prairies, the south-westward extension of the
See also:Prairie Plain province . The
See also:Great Plains (really a
See also:plateau) comprise the W.
See also:half of the state, except a mountainous area in the W. part of the Panhandle, which belongs to the
See also:Basin Range province .
The surface is principally aseries of plains sloping S.E. from the high plateau or from the mountains in the W. to the low
See also:shore of the Gulf of Mexico . The mountains of the Basin Range region, known in Texas as the Trans-Pecos Province, rise in Guadalupe
See also:Peak near the border of New Mexico, to nearly 9000 ft . (the greatest
See also:elevation in the state), and the Great Plains have a maximum elevation in northern Texas exceeding 4000 ft., but from these heights the surface descends to
See also:sea level and the mean elevation of the state is about 1700 ft . The Gulf Plains have a
See also:line of about 400 m., and are bordered along the Gulf of Mexico by a series of long narrow islands and peninsulas, or sandbars, which have been formed by the waves breaking on the shelving shore . Padre, the longest of these islands, extends northward from the mouth of the Rio Grande more than
See also:loo m . Back of the islands are the quiet
See also:waters of lagoons, and at the mouths of
See also:rivers are several shallow bays indenting the mainland; these hays were formed by only a slight subsidence of the
See also:land and the rivers are filling them with deposits of silt . For 20 M. or more inland in the N. and for 5o m. inland in the S. the Gulf Plains are low and
See also:Rat, seldom rising as much as too ft. above the sea, but farther W. the surface is more broken and rises to a maximum elevation of about 700 ft . Along a line
See also:drawn approximately S.S.W. from the S.E. corner of Oklahoma, the N.W. part of the Gulf Plains merges with the Prairie Plains . The N.E. portion of the Texas Prairie Plains is only gently
See also:rolling, but the S. portion is quite rugged, and the \V. half rises in a succession of scarps or steps to an elevation of 2500 ft., to the Great Plains region, which extends westward past the valley of the Pecos river . One of the scarps or steps is the result of a great
See also:fault or displacement of the
See also:earth's crust, and is known as the Balcones fault scarp; others are due to erosion and weathering of alternate layers of hard and soft rocks lying almost
See also:horizontal . South of the parallel of the S. boundary of New Mexico the Great Plains province is known as the
See also:Edwards Plateau; between the Edwards Plateau and the valley of the
See also:Canadian river, as the Llano Estacado, or Staked Plains; and N. of the Canadian Valley, as the
See also:North Plains . The E. and S. parts of the Edwards Plateau and the E. margin of the Llano Estacado have been much dissected by headward erosion of streams, but the central portion of the Edwards Plateau and nearly all of the Llano Estacado have a notably even surface rising slowly to the north-westward .
In the S.E. corner of the Trans-Pecos Province is a smaller plain known as theStockton Plateau, but the remaining portion of this province is traversed from N.E. to S.W. by isolated
See also:mountain ranges of the Basin Range or
See also:block mountain type . The N. portion of the Panhandle is drained by the Canadian river eastward into the Arkansas . The S. portion of the Panhandle and a
See also:strip along the N. border of the state, E. of the Panhandle, is drained by the Red river south-eastward into the
See also:Mississippi . The
See also:rest of the state is drained S.E. directly into the Gulf of Mexico . The Rio Grande and its
See also:principal tributary, the Pecos, drain narrow basins in the S.W.; these two rivers and the Canadian river rise in the Rocky Mountains in
See also:Colorado and New Mexico, but all the other rivers by which the state is drained rise within its
See also:borders . The Red, the Brazos, the Colorado, the Guadalupe, and the Nueces rise on the E. or S.C. border of the Great Plains; the Sabine andthe Trinity, on the Prairie Plains; and numerous small streams, on the Coastal Plain . In the Great Plains region and in the Trans-Pecos Province the rivers have cut deep canyons, and the character of the longer rivers in their upper courses varies from mere rivulets
See also:late in summer to swift and powerful streams during
See also:spring freshets . Most of the large Texas rivers have deposited great quantities of silt along their
See also:lower courses on the Coastal Plain, where the current is often sluggish and the
See also:banks are periodically overflowed . Texas has no large lakes; but
See also:freshwater lakes, which are fed either by streams or springs, are
See also:common on the Coastal Plain; the best known of them are
See also:Grand Lake in Colorado
See also:county, Clear Lake in
See also:Harris county, and
See also:Caddo Lake on the Louisiana border . On the Llano Estacado there are both freshwater and
See also:salt lakes, and there are a few salt lakes in the Trans-Pecos Province and near the mouth of the Rio Grande on the Coastal Plain . The Texas Cretaceous is notably
See also:rich in the fossil remains of an invertebrate
See also:fauna and in the vicinity of
See also:Waco Cretaceous fossils of vertebrates have been obtained . Fossils of both vertebrates and invertebrates are also common in the
See also:Permian and
See also:Jurassic formations .
Fauna.—The varied fauna and
See also:flora of Texas may be classified in the following
See also:life-zones: the Canadian zone, on the highest parts of the
See also:Davis Mountains; the Transition zone, including high parts of the Davis, Chisos and Guadalupe mountains; the Upper Austral zone, Upper Sonoran division, in the Panhandle, E. of the Pecos Valley, and in the Staked Plain and Edwards Plateau; and the widely extending Lower Austral zone, covering most of the state and subdivided into the Lower Sonoran or arid western part, the Austroriparian, or humid eastern, and the narrow Gulf Strip, which is semi-tropical . Originally great herds of bison roamed over the Texas plains, and
See also:deer, bears and wolves were numerous, especially in the forests . Only a few of the larger
See also:wild animals remain, but the Texas fauna is still varied, for it includes not only many
See also:species common' to northern and eastern United States but also several Mexican species . The few remaining bison are on a
See also:ranch near Goodnight, in
See also:Armstrong county, where they have been crossed with polled
See also:cattle .
See also:White-tailed, Sonora, and
See also:mule-deer (Odocoileus) are found in the south-western counties; and there are a few
See also:antelope (Antilocapra Americana) in the west . Louisiana bears (Ursus luteolus) still inhabit the inaccessible canebrakes near the coast, and occasionally one is found farther west; and in the western mountains black (and
See also:cinnamon) bears, including the New Mexico black bear (L rsus Americanus amblyceps) still are found . Coyotes or prairie wolves (of which there is a
See also:local sub-species, Canis nebracensis texensis), grey wolves, prairie
See also:dogs (gophers), and
See also:jack rabbits are common on the plains; less common are the grey
See also:wolf or
See also:lobo (Canis griseus) and the
See also:timber wolf ; and there are several species of foxes, including the swift . Cottontail rabbits, raccoons (including the Mexican variety), and squirrels are common in the forests . A few otters, beavers and minks are still found in eastern Texas . Opossums and skunks (several varieties of the Mephitis and several of the Spilogale, including S. interrupta, the prairie spotted
See also:skunk or "
See also:hydrophobia cat ") are found in nearly all parts of the state . The
See also:peccary (Tayassu angulatum), the
See also:armadillo (Tatunovemcinctum), the
See also:civet-cat (Bassariscus astutus flavus), the Mexican bighorn (Ovis mexicanus) and the jaguar are Mexican species found in
See also:southern or south-western Texas . The Mexican cougar (Felis hippolestes aztecus) is found in the west .
Other felines are the
See also:ocelot (F. pardalis limitis) and red and grey
See also:cats (F. cacomitli) in the south, the Texan lynx (Lynx rufus texensis) in the south-east, and the plateau wild cat (L. baileyi) in the west . There are several varieties of
See also:grasshopper mice (Orychomys), white-footed mice (Peromyscus),
See also:harvest mice (Reithrodontomys),
See also:rice-rats (Oryzomys),
See also:wood-rats (Neotoma), voles (Microtus), &c . Bats inhabit caves in Burnet,
See also:Williamson, Lampasas, Gillespie and other counties . The mocking-
See also:bird is the principal
See also:song bird and it and the lark-sparrow are common throughout the state . 'The snowy
See also:heron is a rare plume bird seen occasionally along the coast . The scissor-tailed
See also:flycatcher, or Texas bird of
See also:paradise, is common on the prairies and in the lightly wooded districts . The Texas screech-
See also:owl, the Texas
See also:woodpecker, and the road runner, or ground
See also:cuckoo, are found mostly in southern and south-western Texas . Among birds common in Texas as well as in the other Southern States are the
See also:golden-fronted woodpecker, Mississippi
See also:mourning-dove, and
See also:buzzard . In a narrow strip along the Gulf there are some Mexican or tropical birds, notably the caracara and two varieties of
See also:grackle (Megaquiscalus) . The Texas Bob White or Texas
See also:quail is found principally in Texas and a few neighbouring states . The Texas
See also:game birds consist chiefly of
See also:plover, snipe,
See also:teal, mallard and wild geese . Texas has also the
See also:coot or mud-
See also:hen and the pelican .
See also:reptiles there are the alligator, and several species each of turtles, lizards and
See also:snakes . Alligators are found in the low coast region and are especially numerous in the Nueces river . The painted box
See also:tortoise is common in the central part of the state; the snapping-turtle and the soft-
See also:shell turtle in most of the rivers and creeks; the Louisiana mud-turtle, in the coast marshes . The horned
See also:lizard, or horned
See also:toad (Phrynosoma cornutum; P. hernandesi; P. uzodestum), is the most common of Texas lizards, except in the western counties where the Texas
See also:rock lizards (Sceloporus lorquatus; S. clarkii; S. spinosus; S. consobrinus; S. dispar) are numerous . The
See also:tree swift, or scaly lizard, is also an inhabitant of western and south-western Texas . The
See also:green lizard, the fence lizard and
See also:whip-tailed lizard (Cnemidophorus gularis; C. sexlineatus; C. tesselatus, &c.) are quite widely distributed . The Gila
See also:Monster (Heloderma suspectum), a poisonous lizard, whose bite is injurious but rarely, if ever, fatal to man, also occurs in the
See also:desert regions . The
See also:blow snake, or spreading
See also:adder (Heterodon platyrrhinus), black snake (Bascanion constrictor),
See also:coach whip (Bascanion flagellum), and prairie bull snake (Pituophis) are common; the
See also:diamond water snake (Natrix fasciata) is found along creeks; the
See also:king snake (Lampropeltis getula), in central and southern Texas; and the
See also:pilot snake (Callopeltis obsoletus), mostly in the woods of McLennan county . Among venomous snakes the
See also:harlequin, or
See also:coral snake (Elaps fulvius) is common along the coast; the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) along the wooded banks of creeks and rivers; the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), in all parts of the state except the more arid districts; the " sidewiper," or massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus consors, sometimes called Crotalephorus tergeminus) and the ground
See also:rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius), in all sections . The green rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus) inhabits the valley of the Rio Grande; the plains rattle-snake (Crotalus confluentus), the north-western counties; the diamond rattlesnake (C. adamanteus), the wooded river bottoms; the Texas rattlesnake, western Texas and the southern coast counties; the banded rattlesnake, a few widely separated woodland districts . There are several varieties of the skink (Eum-eces) . Freshwater
See also:fish, consisting mostly of catfish,
See also:buffalo fish,
See also:sunfish and
See also:drum, are common in the lower courses of the rivers .
Oysters, clams, and
See also:shrimp abound along the coast, and there are more than 50o species of mollusks in the state . The
See also:weevil, preying on the
See also:cotton, is the most noxious of the
See also:insects . Flora.—The arboreal flora of Louisiana and Arkansas extends into north-eastern Texas, conformable with the Coastal Plain, where, immediately south of the Colorado river, the great
See also:belt of the
See also:Atlantic and Gulf coasts terminates . The flora of the Great Plains region, consisting principally of nutritious
See also:grasses, enters the north-western portion of the state and extends south to the Edwards Plateau and east into the Prairie Plains region . The
See also:plants of the Rocky Mountain plateaus penetrate into the Trans-Pecos region, which the north Mexican flora, including the
See also:Agave lecheguilla, a valuable commercial fibre, is found along the Rio Grande . The central region is a transition ground where these floras find
See also:representation generally in deteriorated and dwarfed species . The long-
See also:leaf pine is the dominant
See also:forest tree on the uplands of the Coastal Plain, north of the Colorado river, for too m. or more from the coast; farther inland and especially in the north-eastern corner of the state, it is succeeded by the
See also:short-leaf pine . Between the rising swells of long-leaf pine lands are impenetrable thickets of hawthorn,
See also:plane trees and magnolias . Loblolly pine,
See also:cypress, oaks,
See also:hickory, ash, pecan,
See also:beech and a few other deciduous trees are interspersed among both the long-leaf and the short-leaf pines, and the proportion of deciduous trees increases to the westward . In the broad river valleys of the eastern part of the Prairie Plains region are forests and isolated groves consisting principally of pecan, cypress, cottonwood and several species of
See also:oak . Farther west two narrow belts of timber, consisting mostly of stunted
See also:post oak and black jack, and known as the Eastern and Western
See also:Cross Timbers, cross the prairies southward from the Red river, and a low growth of
See also:mesquite, other shrubs and vines are common in the eastern half of the Prairie Plains . The western half of these plains has only a few trees along the watercourses and some scraggy bushes of oak,
See also:juniper and
See also:cedar in the more hilly sections .
In the canyons of the Edwards Plateau grow the pecan, live oak, sycamore,
See also:walnut and cypress; on the hilly dissected borders of the same plateau are cedars, dwac: and scrubby oak, and higher up are occasional patches of stunted oak, called " shinneries." The upper slopes of some of the mountains in the Trans-Pecos region are clothed with forests of large pines, cedars and other trees . Smaller trees and shrubs grow farther (down the same mountain slopes, but other mountains and the valleys are wholly destitute of trees . The entire valley of the Rio Grande, from El Paso to
See also:Brownsville, grows many species of
See also:cactus, and other prickly coriaceous shrubs . The low
See also:country along the coast is covered chiefly with grasses and rushes, but scattered over it are clumps cf live oak, called " mottes." Grasses representing several species also cover most of the Great Plains, the uplands in the southern portion of the Coastal Plain, and the treeless portions of the Prairie Plains and the Trans-Pecos region .
See also:Climate.—In the region of
See also:Galveston, along the northern section of the coast, where southerly or south-easterly winds from the Gulf prevail throughout the
See also:year, the climate is warm, moist and squable, but the moisture decreases westward and south-westward, Ind she equability, partly because of northerly winds during the
See also:sinter months, decreases in all directions inland . The mean
See also:annual temperature decreases to the north-westward with an increase of both altitude and latitude, and ranges from 73° F. in the lower689 Rio Grande Valley to 95° F. in the northern portion of the
See also:Pan-handle . The range between the mean of the
See also:maxima of the summer months (
See also:July and
See also:August) and the mean of the minima of the winter months (
See also:January and
See also:February) is only from 88° to 50° at Galveston, but at
See also:Mount Blanco,
See also:Crosby county, on the eastern border of the Llano Estacado, it is from 9o° to 26° . During a
See also:period of twenty-six years (from January 1882 to December 1908) the greatest extremes that were recorded in the state by the United States
See also:Weather Bureau were 113° at El Paso in June 1883 and -16° at Amarillo,
See also:Potter county, in the Panhandle, in February 1899; within the same period the extremes at Galveston ranged only from 98° to 8° . Along the coast the
See also:average number of days during a year in which the temperature falls below freezing-point is only 3 or 4, but in the Panhandle this average is 111 . January is the coldest
See also:month in nearly all parts of the state and July is the warmest . The mean temperature for January decreases from 5° at Brownsville, at the southern extremity of the state, to 36' at Amarillo in the Panhandle . The mean temperature for July is 85° both at Beeville, Bee county, in the southern coast region, and at Waco, much farther north but also farther inland ; at Amarillo it falls to 76° .
The average annual rainfall decreases quite regularly westward and south-westward from 47.6 in. at Galveston to 9.3 in. at El Paso . Along the coast the autumn months are the wettest and the spring months are the driest; for example, at Galveston the rainfall amounts to 5.7 in. in
See also:September and only 2.9 in. in
See also:April . In the
See also:middle, eastern and north-eastern parts of Texas the spring months are the wettest and the winter months are the driest; for example, at Waco the rainfall amounts to 4.5 in. in May and only 1.9 in. in December . In the western and south-western parts the summer months are the wettest and the spring months are the driest; thus, at El Paso the rainfall amounts to 2.2 in. in July and only o•2 in. in April . The average annual snowfall for the state is about 5 in., ranging from 19 in. in the northern portion of the Panhandle to scarcely any along the coast and in the lower Rio Grande Valley . The prevailing winds are southerly or south-easterly throughout most of the state in spring and summer . Along the coast they continue in the same direction throughout the year, but inland they usually shift to the north or north-west either in autumn or winter . Soils.—The Coastal Plain has for the most part a
See also:light sandy
See also:soil, but there is a fertile
See also:alluvium in the river bottoms and
See also:clay soils on some of the uplands . The eastern part of the Prairie Plains is a belt known as the Black Prairie, and it has a rich black soil derived from Upper Cretaceous
See also:limestone; immediately west of this is another belt with a thinner soil derived from Lower Cretaceous rocks; a southern part of the same plains has a soil derived from granite; in a large area in the north-west the plains have a reddish clay soil derived from Permian rocks and a variety of soils—good black soils and inferior sandy and clay soils—derived from Carboniferous rocks . A very thin soil covers the Edwards Plateau, but on the Llano Estacado are brownish and reddish loalns derived from the sediments of a Neocene lake .
See also:farm acreage was 125,807,017 acres in 1900, the total number of farms' being 351,085, their average acreage 358.3 acres, 84.9 per cent, being operated by white farmers . There were 11,220 farms of moo acres and more; 10,183 between 500 and moo acres; 115,393 between loo and 50o acres; and 88,537 between 50 and too acres .
See also:Indian corn was I22,250,000 bu. in 1909 (valued at $92,910,000) ; the wheat
See also:crop, 5,050,000 bu . (valued at $5,959,000); the
See also:oat crop, 11,500,000 bu . (valued at $7,130,000); the rice crop, 9,894,000 bu . (valued at $7,717,000); the acreage under
See also:hay was 618,000, the crop being 587,000 tons and its value $6,985,000 . Texas ranked first in 1899 among the states in the production and value of cotton, the acreage of which increased from 2,178,435 acres in 1879 to 6,960,367 acres in 1899, and the number of commercial
See also:bales from 805,284 in 1879 to 2,506,212 in 1899, when the total crop was valued at $96,729,304 . The estimates for 1909 were 9,334,000 acres and 2,570,000 bales . In the value of live stock on farms and ranges, Texas ranked seventh among the states in 1880 and second in 1900, with a value of $240,576,955 . The value of all domestic animals on farms and ranges in 1900 was $236,227,934, Texas ranking second in this respect among the states . The censuses from 186o to 1900 showed a far greater number of neat cattle on farms and ranges in Texas than in any other state or Territory ; in 1900 the number was 7,279,935 (excluding spring calves) ; and in 1910 there were 8,308,000 neat cattle including 1,137,000 milch cows . In the number of horses the state ranked third in 1900, with 1,174,003 head—excluding colts—and in 1910 with 1,369,000
See also:head . In the number of mules the state ranked first by a wide margin in 1900, with 474,737 head, and in 1910 with 702,000 head . In the number of
See also:swine the state ranked eighth in 1900 with 2,665,614 head, and third in 1910 with 3,205,000 head .
In the number of
See also:sheep the state
See also:rose from
See also:rank in 1880 to first in 189o, but dropped to tenth rank in 1900, when there were 1,439,940 head; in 1910 1 Not including farms of less than three acres and of small productive capacity . 690 there were 1,909,000 sheep in the state . The wool product of the state in 1900 was 9,638,002 lb, and in 1910 was 8,943,750 lb washed and unwashed and 3,040,875 lb scoured . In the number of chickens (13,562,302 in 1900) the state ranked fifth, and in the number of ducks, geese and turkeys (1,299,044 in 1900), ranked first . The cereals grow generally throughout the state, excepting in the arid western lands . The crop of Indian corn is especially large in a belt of counties beginning near the north-eastern corner of the state and extending in a south-
See also:westerly direction . Most of the rice is raised along the seaboard, in the south-eastern corner of the state . The largest crops of cotton are grown in the cereal-growing counties . Forests and Timber.—About 64,000 sq. m., or 24 per cent. of the area of Texas, is estimated to be wooded . The area of yellow pine forests (the stand is estimated at 67,568.5 million ft.), and the lesser one of hardwood, together with considerable softwood, represent
See also:lumber-producing possibilities of much economic importance . The pine and hardwood areas occur chiefly in the north-eastern part of the state, and are bordered on the west by scattering growths of hardwood, extending as far westward as
See also:Austin . Sparse scrub timber, of little value except for posts, poles and rough beams and for fuel, occupies the region westward to approximately the longitude of the
See also:Pease river .
Outside of thesegeneral areas, forest products are of relatively little value, the exceptions being the dense growths, in certain restricted areas, of live-oak, which is in demand for
See also:ship timbers; and scattering patches of hickory, which is requisite for certain manufactures . The pine and hardwood forests are of great economic value because of the
See also:density of their growth, and there are at
See also:hand the means of profitable development of this
See also:industry in the numerous watercourses which make logging cheap and expeditious . The maple, walnut, oak, ash, 'beech, elm.
See also:gum, sycamore, hickory and poplar, found on the southern slope of the Osage
See also:highlands, on the uplands about the source of the highlands and in the central portions of the Red river valley, are valuable for
See also:cabinet woods . The cut, consisting almost entirely of yellow pine, was valued in 1900 at $16,296,473 .
See also:Fisheries.—The value of the fisheries product of Texas increased from $286,610 (7,174,550 lb) in 1897 to $353,814 (8,044,404 lb) in 1902; and the amount of capital invested in the industry from $237,496 in 1897 to $373,724 in 1902, but the number of wage-earners employed decreased slightly—from 1199 in 1897 to 1144 in 1902 . The values of the principal catches in 1902 were: red snapper, $103,398; oysters, $100,359; squeteague, $49,577, and channel bass, $39,525.' Minerals.—The total value of the
See also:mineral products of Texas in 1890 was $1,986,679; in 1902, $6,981,532; in 1907, $19,806,458, and in 1908, $15,212,929—the valuations for the two years last named being those of the United States
See also:Geological Survey . By far the largest item in these totals after 1902 represented the value of petroleum . Little
See also:attention was paid to this resource until 1883; in 1890 the product was valued at only $227; and five years later it had increased to only $250 . A good quality of oil—better in fact than the
See also:Ohio product, but not as good as that of Pennsylvania—was accidentally found at
See also:Navarro county, about 1894, and in 1898 it was discovered at a
See also:depth of 1040 ft . In 1901 an extraordinary " gusher " well was drilled near
See also:Beaumont, Jefferson county; in the nine days before this well was capped, it threw a stream of oil 16o ft. high, and poured out about 5oo,000 barrels . The development of the Hardin county
See also:field also began in 1902 . As the result of these developments, the value of the oil product increased from $277,135 (546,070 bbls.) in 1898, to $871,996 (836,039 bbls.) in 19o0; to $4,174,731 (18,083,658 bbls.) in 1902; and to $10,410,865 (12,322,696 bbls.) in 1907; it decreased to $6,700,708 (II,206,464 bbls.) in 1908 .
The value of the bituminous
See also:coal output was $465,900 (184,440 short tons) in 1890; $1,581,914 (968,373 short tons) in 1900; $2,778,811 (1,648,069 short tons) in 1907; and $3,419,48I (1,805,377 short tons) in 1908 . The value of the product of limestones and
See also:dolomites in 1900 was $124,728; in 1902, $228,662; of sand-stones and quartzites in 1900, $37,038; in 1902, $165,56; while the value of all
See also:stone produced in 1907 was $497,962, and in 1908, $659,574 . Natural
See also:gas was discovered in
See also:Washington county in 1879, but was not commercially used in that vicinity until 1888 . In 1902 gas was discovered in Jefferson county . Other minerals found in small quantities are copper, lead,
See also:zinc, iron ores,
See also:manganese ores and tin . Manufactures.—The value of the manufactured products of Texas in 1905 was $150,528,389, the capital invested in manufacturing being $115,664,871, and the number of factories, 3158 . In the value ($14005,324 in 1900 2 and $18,698,815 in 1905) i Publications of the U.S . Commission of Fish and Fisheries . Part
See also:Report of the
See also:Commissioner for the Year ending June 3o, 1903 (Washington, 1905) . 2 'The
See also:statistics given in the text for 1900 from this point are for factory products and are thus comparable with those` given for 1905; the
See also:census of the latter year was limited to the manufactures under the factory
See also:system.of its cotton-seed oil and cake product Texas surpassed all other states .
See also:Flour and grist
See also:mill products advanced in value from $11,948,556 in 1900 to $22,083,136 in 1905 . The values of other products in 1905 were as follows: slaughtering and
See also:meat packing (wholesale), $15,620,931; lumber and timber products (which employed the largest average number of wage-earners—13,332, or 27.2 per cent.), $16,278,240; cars and general
See also:shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, $10,472,742; printing and
See also:publishing; $7,782,247; foundry and machine shop products, 1905, $4,952,827;
See also:malt liquors, $4,153,938;
See also:saddlery and
See also:harness, 1905, $3,251,525 .
The highest average quantity of rough milled rice per
See also:establishment in the United States in 1905 was for Texas, where seventeen establishments produced an average of 18,598,259 lb, valued, together with that of other rice products, at $4,638,867 . Transportation.—Until the middle of the 19th century transportation facilities remained practically undeveloped in Texas . In 186o the steam railway mileage was 307 m.; in 187o, 711 m.; in 188o, 3244 m.; in 1890, 8709 M.; in 1905, 11,949 M.; in 1907, 12,877 m.; and in 1908, 13,066 m . Most of this mileage is in the eastern part of the state, the western and southern portions having slight railway facilities . The principal railway systems are the Southern Pacific, the
See also:Santa F6, the Texas & Pacific and the Colorado & Southern . The inland waterways include the 25 ft. ship canal from the Gulf to
See also:Port Arthur (the Port Arthur Canal), opened in 1899, and transferred to the United States
See also:government in 1906; the Galveston and Brazos River canal, 29.5 M. long and of a ruling depth of 3 ft., also acquired by the government in 1902, and a privately owned canal, 9 M. long and from 6.5 ft. to to ft. deep, extending from Corpus Christi to Aransas
See also:Bay . Other important waterways which have been authorized by the United States government and on which
See also:work was proceeding in 1910 are canals from the Rio Grande river to the Mississippi river at Donaldsonville, Louisiana; and " a navigable channel depth of 5 ft. in a canal along the coast of Texas, underlying the lagoons lying between the islands and the mainland" to develop light navigation to points not reached by the
See also:railways . Another important under-taking is the deepening of the Trinity river to Dallas, a distance of 511 m., thereby affording a navigable waterway almost to the northern boundary of the state . Congressional appropriations for the survey, improvement and
See also:maintenance of waterways began in 1852; amounted to $15,055,688 between 1891 and 1896 inclusive, and $1,613,829 between 1897 and 1907; the total appropriated being $23,249,419 . The ports of entry of Texas are Galveston, Corpus Christi, Eagle Pass, El Paso and Brownsville . Population.—The population in 188o was 1,591,749; in 1890, 2,235,523; in 1900, 3,048,710; and in 1910, 3,896,542 s Of the population in 1900, 94.1 per cent. was native
See also:born, 79.6 per cent. was white and 20.4 per cent . (or 620,722) was
See also:negro, or of negro descent .
There were in 1900, 2,249,088 native whites, 179,357 persons of
See also:birth, 836
See also:Chinese, 470
See also:Indians and 13
See also:Japanese . Of the inhabitants born in the United States 130,389 were natives of
See also:Tennessee, 129,945 of
See also:Alabama, 90,584 of Mississippi, 77,950 of
See also:Georgia and 75,633 of Arkansas; and of the foreign-born 71,062 were Mexicans, 48,295 Germans, 9204 Bohemians, 8213
See also:English, 687o Austrians and 6173 natives of
See also:Ireland . Of the total population 471,573 were of foreign parentage—i.e. either one or both parents were foreign-born, and of those both of whose parents were foreign-born 70,736 were of German, 10,967 of Bohemian, 7759 of Irish and 6526 of
See also:Austrian parentage . In 1906 1,226,906 inhabitants of the state were members of religious
See also:societies . Of these 401,720 were
See also:Baptists; 317,495 Methodists; 308,356
See also:Roman Catholics; 62,090 Presbyterians; 39,550 Disciples of Christ; 34,006 members of the Churches of Christ; 27,437
See also:Lutherans; 14,246
See also:Protestant Episcopalians; 7745 members of the German Evangelical Synod of North America, and 1856 Congregationalists . The principal cities are
See also:San Antonio, Houston, Dallas, Galveston, Fort Worth, Austin, the capital, Waco, El Paso,
See also:Laredo, Denison and Sherman . Administration.—Texas as a part of Mexico was governed under the constitution (1827) of the "
See also:Free State of
See also:Coahuila and Texas "; a
See also:separate constitution adopted in 1835 was never recognized by the Mexican government and never went into effect . The Texan Declaration of Independence, adopted in
See also:November 1835, was accompanied by a provisional constitution; and with the Declaration of Independence of
See also:March 1836 there were adopted an executive ordinance and a constitution . As a state of the United States Texas adopted a constitution in 1845, another in i866, and a third in 1868, and is now 2In other census years the populations were: 185o (the first under the United States), 212,592 . 1860 604,215; 1870 818,579,
See also:independent existence of Texas as a republic (1836–45) was also citizens over twenty-one years of age and
See also:resident in the state not without influence . By strengthening the feeling of local
See also:pride for one year and in the county or election
See also:precinct for six it added force to the states' rights sentiment, and it enabled the months immediately preceding election (except paupers, idiots, state on coming into the Union to retain possession of all its public lunatics, felons, United States soldiers,
See also:marines and
See also:seamen lands . This vast domain has been utilized to provide homes for settlers to encourage
See also:education, to subsidize railways, and to and persons who have taken part, either as principal or second, build the state capitol .
There is a general land
See also:office at Austin in fighting a duel or in sending a
See also:challenge) have the right of under the
See also:charge of a commissioner . Among other features of
See also:suffrage . The constitution originally forbade the
See also:interest the constitution forbids the suspension of the writ of habeas of voters, but an amendment of 1891 permits it in cities having cising the rightutoli ote,da daa thorizesf the excl uionfiof atheists a population of ten thousand or more, and the Australian from office . There is also a clause which exempts from seizure ballot system was adopted in such cities by an
See also:act of the for
See also:debt the
See also:homestead, not more than two
See also:hundred acres of land twenty-second legislature in 1892 . An amendment to the in the country; or a
See also:house of any value in a city or
See also:town on a lot constitution may be proposed by a two-thirds
See also:vote of all members or lots not exceeding five thousand dollars in value at the
See also:time d if it is of its designation as the homestead . The
See also:object is the
See also:protection elected to each house of the legislature, and is adopted widows and orphans, but the right has been very much abused, approved by a majority of the popular vote on the amendment. and its abuse is in part responsible for the high
See also:rate of interest The executive department consists of a
See also:lieutenant- which prevails . State-wide prohibition of the sale of intoxicating governor, secretary of state,
See also:comptroller of public accounts, trea- li uors was voted down in 1887 and a local option
See also:law went into surer, commissioner of the general land office, and
See also:attorney-general. effect; in 1907, when there was no licence in 145 (out of 243) Contrary to the usual
See also:custom in other states, the secretary of state counties and licence only in parts of 51 other counties, a law was is appointed by the governor . The other officials are elected by there was an un uccessful attempt tof cities towns . In o pass i indthe legislature a
See also:con popular vote for two years' terms . The governor and lieutenant- stitutional amendment providing for state-wide prohibition; the governor must be, at the time election, at least
See also:thirty years amendment was favoured by the Democratic state platform, but of age, citizens of the United States, and residents of the state for the hostility of the legislature to Governor
See also:Campbell, who favoured the preceding five years . The governor receives an annual
See also:salary the amendment, secured its defeat . of $4000 and the use of the governor's
See also:mansion .
His functions Both
See also:husband and wife retain their separate title to the
See also:pro-are rather more extensive than those of the average American perty which each owned before
See also:marriage and to that acquired executive . In addition to the usual
See also:privilege of granting pardons after marriage by
See also:gift, devise or descent, and to the increase of and reprieves, he controls considerable patronage, and possesses a all lands thus. acquired, but the husband has the
See also:sole management rills. of
See also:veto which extends to separate items in appropriation both. of his wn and of his wife's separate
See also:property . However, biolls . A two-thirds majority in each house is necessary to over- should the husband neglect to sue for the recovery of any separate ride a veto. property of his wife she may, with the permission of the
See also:court, The legislature of the state is composed of a
See also:Senate and a House sue for it in her own name; or should the husband refuse to sup-of Representatives . The Senate consists of thirty-one members, port his wife and educate her
See also:children as her
See also:fortune would war-chosen by popular vote for four years, one-half retiring every two rant, the county court may in answer to her complaint require a years . Representatives are elected biennially . Their number, fixed portion of the proceeds from her property to be paid to her. originally ninety-three, is determined by
See also:apportionment bills passed All property which either husband or wife acquires during the after the publication of each Federal census, but under the con- marriage, other than by gift, devise or descent, is their common stitution it can never exceed one hundred and fifty . Senators and property, and during coverture may be disposed of by the husband representatives must be at least twenty-six years old, citizens of only; on the
See also:death of the husband the widow has one-half of the the United States, qualified electors of the state, and residents of property, which they held in common . The causes for a
See also:divorce the state for two years, and of the
See also:district for one year, preceding are cruelty,
See also:desertion for three years, or conviction after the election . The unusual
See also:provision that two-thirds of each house marriage a felonand imprisonment in the state prison without shall constitute a
See also:quorum would probably prove inconvenient, if being pardoned within one year after conviction; the
See also:plaintiff the
See also:political parties were approximately equal in strength . Bills must reside in the county six months before beginning suit . for raising revenue may originate only in the House of Represents Education.—Educational matters are supervised by a state
See also:fives, but may be amended or rejected by the Senate .
See also:board, composed of the governor, comptroller and secretary' of of the legislature are biennial, although special sessions may be state, by a
See also:superintendent of public instruction, who is ex officio called by the governor. secretary of the board, by county superintendents (in counties The judicial system, revised by a constitutional amendment of having a school population of 3000 or more), by superintendents 1891, consists of a supreme court of three members, elected for a and boards of trustees in corporate towns and cities, and by school
See also:term of six years, with
See also:civil jurisdiction only, largely appellate; commissioners in the rural districts . The permanent public school a court of criminal appeals, of three members, elected for six years, fund is the largest of any state in the Union; in 1908 it included with appellate jurisdiction. in criminal cases; courts of civil appeals $38,406,222 in land notes, $15,136,808 in bonds, $7,915,257 (esti-(number determined by the legislature) of three members each, elected for six years; district courts, each with one
See also:judge, elected mated) in leased lands, and $67,956 in
See also:cash awaiting investment. for four years, with
See also:original jurisdiction in the more important The invested fund is largely in Federal, state and county bonds. civil and criminal (
See also:felony) cases and a limited appellate jurisdic- The revenue for
See also:schools in 1907–08 was $8,020,229, of which on; county and
See also:justice of the peace courts with original
See also:juris- $2,761,651 was from the state tax, $2,080,159 from the local tax, ton; diction in misdemeanours and
See also:petty civil cases . The commissioners' $1,640,969 from the one
See also:poll tax on
See also:males between the ages court of five members, including the presiding judge, attends to of twenty-one and sixty, $481,894 from a state occupation tax, county business matters, the county being the unit of local govern- $429,365 from county funds, and $105,806 from tuition fees . The ment. state apportionment to the districts was $5 per capita of school
See also:Laws.—The long domination of Spain and Mexico population in 1906-o7, and was $6 in 1907 08 . In the latter exercised an influence on the institutions of the state, but it can year the total enrolment in public schools was 777,545, of whom scd for whit easily be exaggerated . It must be remembered that during the and 7nego children and Separatial te p 000ls are maimade both racese
See also:ion i s colonial period the
See also:Spanish and Mexican population was never very In 1839 the Congress of the Republic set apart fifty square leagues large, that the first permanent Anglo-American settlement was (221,420 acres) of land for the establishment of two
See also:universities. not established until 1821, that there was
See also:ill-feeling between the The state legislature approved this
See also:grant in 1858, added to the two peoples almost from the very beginning, and that in fifteen endowment one section (64o acres) out of every ten appropriated years the Americans carried through a successful
See also:rebellion . The co encourage the
See also:building of railways, and provided that there framework of the governments established in 1836–37 and 1845 should be one university instead of two . The Civil War and was not essentially different from those with which the framers mers Reconstruction delayed the execution of the plan, and the were
See also:familiar in the United States . But while this was true university of Texas was not opened until September 1883. the outward structure it was impossible to disregard entirely private te The math university is at Austin, and the medical department rights based upon Spanish and Mexican legislation . In other words, (established 1891) at Galveston . The state also supports, wholly the system of
See also:jurisprudence is the most striking example of Spanish or in part: the Agricultural and
See also:College at College influence . There was the same Common Law and the Roman Civil Lawt bwhich etween the taken English la a Station (opened in 1876; a land grant college under the
See also:Morrill Act of 1862), near
See also:Bryan, which has a course in textile
See also:engineering in Louisiana a few years before (see LOUISIANA) ; but the result besides the courses usually given in state agricultural and mechanical was different .
Owing to the peaceful character of its acquisition and the relative strength of the
See also:Romance (French)
See also:element, Louisiana continued the use of the Civil Law . The Texas invaders, For a full discussion of this question see E . W . Townes, Quarterly on the other hand, adopted the Common Law; but with the addition of'the Texas State
See also:Historical Association, ii . 29–53, .134–151 (July of many Civil Law principles . For example, the state has never and
See also:October 1898): colleges; ,the Sam Houston Normal Institute (1879) at
See also:Huntsville, the North Texas State Normal (1901) at
See also:Denton, the South-west Texas Normal (1903) at San Marcos, the School of
See also:Industrial Arts for girls at Denton, and the Prairie View Industrial and Normal School (1876) for negroes near Hempstead . The system is not unified or organized: the university's department of education, the school for girls at Denton and the negro normal school all issue teachers' certificates, but are not under the contrcl of the State Department of Education or the State Board of Education . The state library and museum are a part of the Department of Banking, Statistics,
See also:History and
See also:Insurance . Denominational schools are: Baylor University (Baptist; 1845), at Waco, with a medical department at Dallas; the East Texas Normal and Industrial Academy (Baptist; 1905), at Tyler; Trinity University (
See also:Cumberland PresbyteriaA; 1869), at Waxahachie; Austin College (Presbyterian; 185o), at Sherman; South-western University (Methodist Episcopal; 1873), at
See also:Georgetown, with a medical department at Dallas; the Polytechnic College (Methodist Episcopal, South; 1891), at Fort Worth; Texas Holiness College (Holiness; 1899), at Peniel, near
See also:Greenville; Texas Christian University (Christian; 1873 until 1895 at Thorp's Spring; until 1902 Add-Ran College), at Waco; St
See also:Edward's College (Roman Catholic, under the
See also:Congregation of the
See also:Holy Cross; 1885), at Austin; St Mary's University (1854; since 1884 under the Society of Jesus), at Galveston; St
See also:Basil's College (under the Basilian Fathers; 1899), at Waco; for girls, Baylor
See also:Female College (Baptist; 1845), at Belton; San Antonio Female College (Methodist Episcopal, South; 1894), at San Antonio; North Texas Female College (Methodist Episcopal, South; 1877), at Sherman; and the Academy of Our
See also:Lady of the Lake, under the Sisters of Divine
See also:Providence, at San Antonio; and for negroes Paul Quinn College (
See also:African Methodist Episcopal; 1881), at Waco;
See also:Tillotson College (Congregational; 1881), at Austin;
See also:Samuel Huston College (Methodist Episcopal; .1900), at Austin;
See also:Bishop College (Baptist; 1881), at
See also:Marshall; Wiley University (Methodist Episcopal; 1873), at Marshall; and Texas College (Coloured Methodist Episcopal; 1895), at Tyler . Charitable and Penal Institutions.—Texas has done more than any other Southern state for the humane and scientific treatment of its dependent and defective classes . There are insane asylums at Austin (the State Lunatic
See also:Asylum), San Antonio (the South-western Insane Asylum), and
See also:Terrell (North Texas Hospital for the Insane) ; the Texas School for the
See also:Deaf (1857), an institution for deaf, dumb and
See also:blind coloured youths (1889), a School for the Blind (1856), and a home for dependent Confederate soldiers, at Austin, a state
See also:orphan home (1889) at Corsicana, an epileptic colony at Abilene, and a state reformatory (1889) for boys under seventeen years at Gatesville . A
See also:statute of 1899, authorized by a constitutional amendment of 1897, instituted a system of
See also:pensions for Confederate veterans .
For this purpose $200,000 was appropriated during the fiscal year 1902–1903 . The maximum permitted by the constitution is $250,000 per annum . The penitentiaries are at Huntsville and Rusk, and there is a reform school for juvenile offenders at
See also:Gainesville . The convict lease system in its most objectionable
See also:form was abolished in 1883, and convicts are now employed on state account or by private contract . There are several state farms in successful operation . Each of these institutions, penal and charitable, has its own superintendent and board of managers, appointed by the governor .
See also:Finance.—The heavy debt incurred in the struggle with Mexico was paid out of the $io,000,000 received from the United States government under the Compromise of 185o . New loans were made during the Civil War, but they were repudiated by the constitution of 1866, and were made void by the Fourteenth Amendment to the Federal constitution . The extravagance of the Reconstruction governments resulted in the accumulation by 1876 of a debt of $4,792,394 . The constitution of 1876 forbids the borrowing of
See also:money except to supply casual deficiencies of revenue (amount limited to $200,000 at a time), repel invasion, suppress insurrection defend the state in war, or pay existing debts . The nominal amount of the public debt on the 1st of September 1908 was $3,989,400. but the figures are misleading, because, with the exception of $22,000 (held partly by counties), all of these obligations were in the permanent school fund or in funds for the University, the Agricultural and Mechanical College, and the various charitable institutions . Owing to a clause in the constitution forbidding the issue of
See also:bank charters, the
See also:financial business of the state was controlled by
See also:national and private banks until 1904, when the constitution was amended and provision was made for the incorporation of state banks under a system of state super-vision, regulation and
See also:control, deposits being guaranteed as in the Oklahoma banking system .
History.—The history of Texas may be regarded as a step in the great struggle betweenEngland, France and Spain for the possession of America . The earliest explorations were made by the Spaniards, Cabeza de Vaca, 1528-36, and Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, 1540-42, but the first colony was that planted on Matagorda Bay in 1685 by the French under the Sieur de la Salle . This was, however, soon abandoned, and the field
See also:left to the Spanish . Beginning in 1690 they established several ecclesiastical, military and civil settlements known respectively as
See also:missions (Franciscan), presidios, and
See also:pueblos . In or near the city of San Antonio are the ruins of five missions built of stone; and missions were more numerous in east Texas, but they were built of wood and nothing remains to mark their location . In 1727 the territory, with vaguely defined limits, was formed into a province and named Tejas, or Texas, after the tribe or the confederacy of Tejas Indians . For more than a century the conditions were favourable for colonization . The French in Louisiana proved to be peaceable neighbours, and that province, both under French (to 1763) and under Spanish
See also:rule (1763-1803) served as a protection against the English . Spain failed to take
See also:advantage of the opportunity, however, and it was lost when the United States
See also:purchased Louisiana in 1803 . Three abortive Anglo-American invasions during the first few years of the century indicated the future trend of events . The first, under
See also:Philip Nolan, in 1799-1801, was poorly supported, and was crushed without difficulty; the second, under Bernardo Gutierrez and
See also:Augustus Magee, 1812-13, captured San Antonio and defeated several Mexican armies, but was finally overpowered; the third, under
See also:James Long, an ex-officer of the United States army, 1819-21, was less formidable . The year 1821 marks a significant turning-point in the history .
See also:Florida treaty, finally ratified at that time, the claims of the United States to Texas, based on the Louisiana
See also:purchase, were given up, and the eastern and northern boundaries of the province were determined . They were to be, in general terms, the Sabine river, the 94th meridian (approximately), the Red river, the tooth meridian, the Arkansas river, and the 42nd parallel . So far as Spain was concerned this was only a form, inasmuch as Mexico, of which Texas formed a part, was just completing its long struggle for independence (1810—21) . In that year also (December 1821)
See also:Stephen F . Austin established the first permanent Anglo-American settlement at San Felipe de Austin on the Brazos river . This was followed by an extensive immigration from the United States during the period of Mexican rule (1821-36) . It is estimated that the population, exclusive of Indians, increased from four thousand in 1821 to ten thousand in 1827, and nearly twenty thousand in 183o . Most of the settlers came from the southern section of the Union and of course brought their slaves with them, but there is no evidence to show that their object was the territorial extension of
See also:slavery, or that the revolt against Mexico was the result of dissatisfaction with that country's
See also:anti-slavery policy . Texas was joined to Coahuila in 1824 to form a state of the Mexican federation . Although the attempt to force the Roman Catholic religion upon the
See also:people, the federal decree of 183o forbidding further immigration from the states, and the reckless grants of land to Mexican favourites aroused some ill-feeling, the government on the whole was fairly liberal . The peace party, led by Stephen F . Austin, was able to restrain the more warlike followers of
See also:William H .
See also:Smith (1794-1851) until 1835, when Santa Anna overthrew the federal constitution of 1824 and established a dictatorship . A consultation of representatives from the various settlements met at San Felipe de Austin, October to November 1835 . Under Austin's influence the delegates rejected an independence
See also:resolution arid recommended a union with the Mexican Liberals for the restoration of the constitution of 1824 . A provisional government was organized with Henry Smith as governor and James W .
See also:Robinson (d . 1853) as lieutenant-governor, Sam Houston as major-general of the armies of Texas; and Austin, Wharton and Branch T .
See also:Archer (1790-1858) were elected commissioners to seek aid in the United States . Hostilities had already begun . The Texans routed the Mexicans near Gonzales on the 2nd of October . About a hundred men under Colonel James
See also:Bowie and Captain J . W . Fannin defeated a Mexican force near
See also:Mission Conception on the 28th of October; and after a
See also:campaign of nearly two months Bejar was surrendered to them on the x rth of December .
In the Matamoras expedition the Texan forces were severely crippled on account of a
See also:quarrel between Governor Smith, who desired independence, and the majority of his council, who favoured union with the Mexican Liberals . The command was divided between Houston, who was supported by the governor, and two leaders,
See also:Frank W .
See also:Johnson and J . W . Fannin, who were appointed by the council . The Mexicans under Santa Anna captured the Alamo on the 6th of March 1836 and slaughtered its garrison of 183 men; on the loth of the same month they captured Fannin and his force of 371 men, and a week later slaughtered all except twenty who escaped . Houston now assumed active command and, surprising Santa Anna near the San Jacinto, on the 21st of April, he dealth the enemy a crushing blow and brought the war to an end; nearly all of Santa Anna's army were killed, wounded or taken prisoners, and even Santa Anna himself was captured the next
See also:day, while the Texans lost only two killed and twenty-three wounded . The weakness of the Mexican Liberals and the
See also:necessity of securing aid in the States led the Austin party to abandon their opposition to independence . A
See also:convention, assembled in the town of Washington on the 1st of March, adopted a declaration of independence on the 2nd and a republican constitution on the 17th . Houston was elected
See also:president in September 1836, and the independence of the republic was recognized in 1837 by the United States, Great Britain, France and Belgium . After a long conflict over the slavery question, the state was admitted into the Union under a joint resolution of Congress adopted on the 1st of March 1845,1 on
See also:condition that the United States should settle all questions of boundary with foreign governments, that Texas should retain all of its vacant and unappropriated public lands, and that new states, not exceeding four in number, might be formed within its limits . The western boundary claimed by the republic was the Rio Grande to its source and the meridian of longitude from that point to the
See also:forty-second parallel, although as a political division of Mexico its limits never extended farther west than the Nueces and the Medina .
The United States government asserted the Rio Grande claim and prepared to enforce it at the cost of war; at the same time the Mexican government consideredannexation, regardless of the boundary question, a declaration of war by the United States . An army of 2000 men under Zachary
See also:Taylor (q.v.) arrived on the north bank of the Rio Grande, opposite Matamoras, on the 28th of March 1846 . The Mexican
See also:commander, Pedro de Ampudia, demanded Taylor's withdrawal beyond the Nueces within twenty-four
See also:hours . He did not obey, and
See also:Mariana Arista, Ampudia's successor, opened hostilities . The Americans, out-numbered three to one, defeated the Mexicans in the battles of Palo
See also:Alto (May 8th) and Resaca de la Palma (May 9th) . The war terminated in the treaty of Guadalupe
See also:Hidalgo (February 2, 1848) by which Mexico accepted the Rio Grande boundary . By the Compromise of 1850 Texas received $to,000,000 for its territory lying north and west of a line drawn from the tooth meridian to the Rio Grande, following 36° 3o' N., 103° W. and 32° N . The final step in the determination of the
See also:present boundaries of the state was taken in 1896, when the Supreme Court of the United States decided the Greer county case . Under the Florida treaty of 1819-21 a portion of the Red river was to be the northern boundary of Texas east of the tooth meridian, but as there are two branches of the river
See also:meeting east of the meridian the enclosed territory (Greer county) was in dispute . The decision of 1896 selected the southern branch and thus deprived Texas of a large
See also:tract of fertile land over which it had previously exercised jurisdiction . In the crisis of 186o-61 Texas sided with the other Southern States in spite of the strong Unionist influence exerted by the German settlers and by Governor Sam Houston . An ordinance of
See also:secession was adopted February 1, 1861, and Governor Houston was deposed from office on March 16th .
The state was never thescene of active military operations during the 1 This acquisition of foreign territory by joint resolution instead of by treaty was followed in the case of Hawaii in 1898 . Civil War (1861-65), although it is interesting to note that the last
See also:battle of the conflict was fought on its soil, at Palmito, near Palo Alto, on the 13th of May 1865, more than a month after the surrender at Appomattox . In conformity with President Johnson's plan of reconstruction, a constitution recognizing the abolition of slavery, renouncing the right of secession, and repudiating the war debt was adopted in 1866, and J . W . Throckmorton, Unionist Democrat, was elected governor . When, in 1867, the Congressional plan of reconstruction was substituted, Texas was joined to Louisiana to constitute the fifth military district, and the first commander, General P . H . Sheridan, removed Throckmorton from office as " an impediment to reconstruction " and appointed E . M . Pease in his place . Delegates to a new constitutional convention were elected in 1868, the constitution framed by this
See also:body was ratified in November 1869, state
See also:officers and congressmen were elected the same day, the new legislature ratified the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments, and on the 3oth of March 1870 Texas was readmitted to the Union . But the state remained under the rule of negroes and
See also:carpet-baggers, supported by United States troops until the inauguration of Governor
See also:Coke in 1874 .
It has since been consistently Democratic . The supremacy of the party was threatened for a time by the growth of Populism, but the danger was avoided by theacceptance of free
See also:silver, and the partial adoption of the Populist local
See also:programme . This surrender aroused strong opposition among the conservative or
See also:Cleveland Democrats, which culminated in the Hogg-
See also:Clark gubernatorial campaign of 1892 . The victory of the Radicals resulted in the establishment of a railway rate commission, based upon a constitutional amendment of 1890 and a statute of 1891, the passage of an
See also:alien land law in 1891, which was declared unconstitutional and amended in 1892, the adoption of the Australian ballot system for cities and towns of more than ro,000 inhabitants (1892), the retirement of Roger Q . Mills from the United States Senate (1899) and the sending of free silver delegations to the national conventions of 1896 and 1900 .
See also:GOVERNORS Spanish Period (169o-1821)2 Domingo Teran de los Rios . Antonio de Martos y Navarrete . Don Gaspardo de Anaya . Juan Maria Baron de
See also:Ripperda . Don
See also:Martin de
See also:Alarcon . Domingo Cabello .
See also:Marquis San
See also:Miguel de Aguayo .
See also:Pacheco . Fernando de Almazan .
See also:Manuel Munoz . Melchior deMediavillayArcona . Juan Bautista Elguezabal . Juan Antonio Bustillos y Ceval- Antonio Cordero . los . Manuel de Salcedo . Manuel de Sandoval . Juan Bautista Casas, provisional .
See also:Carlos de Franquis . Manuel de Salcedo .
Prudencio de Oribio de Basterra . Christoval Dominquez . JJusto Boneo . Antonio Martinez. acinto de Barrios y Jaurequi . Mexican Period (1821-36)2 Trespalacios . Don LucianaGarcia, provisional . Rafael Gonzales, provisional . Victor Blanco . Jose Maria Viesca . Jose Maria Letona . Francisco Vidauri y Villasenor, provisional . Jose Maria Goribar, }
See also:rival claimants .
Juan Jose Elguezebal, Augustin Viesca . Henry Smith, provisional Period of the Republic (1836-46)4
See also:David G . Burnet, provisional 1836 Sam Houston 1836-38
See also:Mirabeau B . Lamar 1838-41 Sam Houston 1841-44 Anson
See also:Jones 1844-46 2 Coahuila and Texas, 1690-1725, Texas alone 1725-1824 . 3 Coahuila and Texas, 1824-35 . 4 The state was annexed to the Union in 1845, but the govern. meat of the Republic continued in existence until early in 1846 . 1835-36 Period of Statehood (1846- ) 1846-47 James
See also:Henderson, Democrat .
See also:George T . Wood, 1847-49 P . Hansborough
See also:Bell, X849-53 Elisha M . Pease, „ 1853-57 Hardin R . Runnels, „ 1857-59 Sam Houston, 1859-61 Edward Clark (lieutenant-governor, acting) Dem .
See also:Francis R . Lubbock, Democrat 1861-63 Pendleton
See also:Murray, 1863-65 Andrew J .
See also:Hamilton, provisional . 1865–66 James W . Throckmorton, Conservative Democrat 1866-67 Elisha M . Pease, provisional 1867–7o Edmund . Davis, Republican 1870-74 Richard Coke, Democrat 1874-76 Richard B . Hubbard, Democrat 1876-79
See also:Oran M . Roberts, „ 1879-83
See also:John Ireland, „ 1883-87
See also:Lawrence S .
See also:Ross, „ 1887–91 James S . Hogg, „ 1891–95
See also:Charles A . Culberson, „ 1895-99
See also:Joseph D .
See also:Sayers, „ 1899-1903 Samuel W . T . Lanham, „ 1903-1907
See also:Thomas M . Campbell, „ 1907–1911 O . B . Colquitt, „ 1911 On the administration: see the Constitution of the State of Texas, with Amendments (Austin, 1891) ; John and Henry Sayles, Annotated Civil Statutes of Texas (2 vols., St
See also:Louis, 1897) ; The Session Laws, Twenty-fifth to Twenty-ninth Legislature (Austin, 1897–1905) ; W . M .
See also:Gouge, The Fiscal History of Texas (
See also:Philadelphia, 1852), for the early financial history; O . M . Roberts in D . G . Wooten's history (see below), ii .
7–325, for an account of legislative and judicial history; and J . J .Lane in Wooten for the educational system . Some valuable statistics will be found in C . W . Raines, Year-
See also:Book for Texas, 1901 (Austin, 1902) . An excellent
See also:guide to the history of the state is C . W . Raines, Bibliography of Texas (Austin, 1896) . The best history of the state is George P . Garrison's Texas (Boston and New
See also:York, 1903), in the American Commonwealths series, but its treatment of the period since 1845 is too brief . John Henry
See also:Brown's History of Texas from 1685 to 1892 (2 vols., St Louis, 1892) is a detailed, rather biased treatment, by an old Texas
See also:pioneer who had
See also:access to a large mass of unprinted material .
The best of the older
See also:works and the basis for subsequent books on the period which it covers is Henderson Yoakum's History of Texas from its first Settlement in 1685 to its Annexation to the United States in 1846 (2 vols., New York, 1856) . See also David B . Edward, The History of Texas (
See also:Cincinnati, 1836), slightly pro-Mexican in sympathy; H . .
See also:Ban-croft, History of Texas and the North Mexican States (2 vols., San Francisco, 1884–89), valuable for authorities cited in the
See also:foot-notes; and A . M .
See also:Williams, Sam Houston and the War of Independence in Texas (Boston and New York, 1893), the best life of Houston .
See also:Dudley G . Wooten (ed.), A Comprehensive History of Texas, 1685–1897 (2 vols., Dallas, 1898), contains a reprint of Yoakum with notes and several chapters by various writers on Anglo-American colonization, the revolution against Mexico, the land system, the educational system, &c . A series of monographs dealing mostly with the period before 1845 will be found in The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association (Austin, 1897 sqq.) . Among the
See also:manuscript treasures at Austin may be mentioned the
See also:correspondence of the Republic in the state department, the Nacogdoches archives and the W . D .
See also:Miller papers in the state library, and the Bexar archives and the
See also:Guy M .
Bryan (Austin) papers in the university .
TEXT (Lat. textum, woven fabric, from texere, to we...
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