THEINNI , or HsENWI, one of the
See also:Northern Shan States of
See also:Burma . It is called by the
See also:Shans Hsenwi, and also officially so designated, but is better known by the Burmanized name of Theinni . It was by far the largest of the cis-
See also:Salween Shan states, and at one
See also:time included not only all the territory of the
See also:present states of
See also:North and South Hsenwi, but also Kehsi Mansam, Mong Hsu, Mong Sang, and 1Vlong Nawng, besides having a sort of
See also:protectorate over
See also:Mang Lon and other Wa states east of the Salween . These had, however, fallen away. in Burmese times, and at the
See also:period before the
See also:British annexation Theinni was divided into five parts by name; but there was no central authority, and the whole state was in hopeless disorder . This continued until the appearance of British troops in
See also:March 1888, when it was divided into two states—North Theinni, which was assigned to a successful adventurer, Hkun Sang, of Ton Hong, and South Theinni, which went to Nawmong, of the old Shan ruling
See also:house . North Theinni has an
See also:area of 6330 sq. m., and a population (1901) of 118,325 persons; estimated revenue, £6oco . South Theinni has an area of 2400 sq. m., with a population (in 1901) of 67,836; estimated revenue, £4800 . The northern
See also:part of North Theinni is a mass of hills affected by the
See also:fault which has produced the rift that forms the Nam Tu or Myit-nge valley, and has thrown up a series of parallel ranges which extend northwards to the Shweli (
See also:Lung Kiang), without altogether destroying the north and south trend which is the characteristic of the Shan hills as a whole . In the valleys between these hills are numerous tracts under
See also:rice cultivation, some circular or
See also:oval, some mere ribands along the
See also:banks . The
See also:southern portion has much more
See also:land, along the
See also:line of the Nam Tu, its tributaries the Nam Yao and the Nam Nim, and the Nam Yek flowing into the Saiween . This was formerly thickly populated, and still remains the most valuable portion of the state . A range
See also:running westwards from the Salween, and marking the southern border of the rift in the hills, divides North from South Theinni .
Both north and south of the Nam Tu there are many peaks which rise to 6000 ft., and several over 7000 ft.- The northern portion is almost consistent enough in itsaltitude of about 4000 ft. to be called a
See also:plateau . It has large, grassy, upland
See also:downs . This part of the state has fallen almost entirely into the hands of the Machine . The Shans are found in the Nam
See also:Mao (Shweli or Lung Kiang) valley, and in the Nam Tu and other valleys in the southern part of the state . The line of the Nam Mao is the lowest portion of North Theinni, being little over 2000 ft. above
See also:sea-level . The southern valleys are about 500 or more ft. higher . South Theinni is practically bisected by the huge mass of Lei'
See also:Ling, nearly 9000 ft. above sea-level, and by the spurs which that
See also:peak sends north and south . Apart from this it consists of broken
See also:country of no
See also:great height, or open
See also:rolling downs, the latter chiefly in the eastern
See also:half of the state . It is watered by numerous streams, of which the chief is the Nam Pang, an affluent of the Salween . The chief river in the northern state, apart from the Salween, is the Nam Tu or Myit-nge, which rises on the
See also:watershed, not far from the latter river, and flows westwards through the state into Taungbaing or
See also:Thibaw, and eventually into the Irrawaddy at Amarapura . The Nam Mao or Shweli only skirts the state, but it receives a considerable tributary, the Nam Paw, which has its entire course in Theinni territory, and is large enough to be barely fordable in the dry
See also:weather, and only passable by boats in the rains . The deforestation caused by years of upland cultivation has dried up many of the springs, but as a whole North Theinni is very well watered .
Considerable deposits of
See also:coal, or rather of
See also:lignite, exist in both North and South Theinni, but do not appear to be of high quality . Gold is washed in many of the streams in a fitful way .
See also:Limestone exists in large quantities . No valuable
See also:timber exists to any considerable extent . There is some
See also:teak in the Nam Yao valley, and scattered
See also:wood-oil trees exist .
See also:Pine forests cover some of the ranges, but, as elsewhere in the Shan states, varieties of the
See also:oak and
See also:chestnut are the commonest
See also:forest trees . The
See also:climate of the state as a whole is temperate . In the plains of the uplands there are yearly frosts in
See also:February and March, but in the greater part of the state the thermometer rarely falls to freezing-point, and in the hot weather does not exceed ninety degrees for any length of time . The
See also:average rainfall seems to be about 6o in. yearly . After the disruption of the
See also:ancient Shan
See also:empire at Tali by Kublai Khan, Theinni seems to have been the centre of the
See also:independent Shan
See also:kingdom, with various capitals in the Shweli and Nam Tu valleys . This kingdom of Kawsampi was ended by the Burmese about 1738, and the country was divided into various states, with
See also:appointment orders from
See also:Ava . Numerous rebellions and
See also:wars have reduced Theinni from its position as the most powerful and populous Shan state to a
See also:condition of fearful desolation .
It has regained much population since the British occupation in 1888, but is still far from its old prosperity . Much may be expected from thecart roads that have been made, and from the
See also:Mandalay-Kun long Railway . Hsenwi, the capital of North Theinni, stands near the north
See also:bank of the Nam Tu . The ruins of the old capital lie at a
See also:short distance, and show it to have been a large and well-built
See also:town, with a number of houses variously estimated at from three to ten thousand . Mong Yai is the capital of South Theinni, with a population of about 2000 .
See also:Lashio, the headquarters of the
See also:superintendent of the Northern Shan State, is in North Theinni . The races found in Theinni comprise Shans, Kachins,
See also:Chinese, Burmese, Lihsaws, Wa, Palaungs and Yanglam . The Shans and Kachins vastly predominate, and are nearly equal in numbers . (J . G .
THEGN, or THANE
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