Online Encyclopedia

THEODOSIA

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V26, Page 770 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Spread the word: del.icio.us del.icio.us it!

THEODOSIA  , formerly KAPPA, a seaport and watering-

place of South Russia, on the east coast of the Crimea, 66 m . E.N.E. of
See also:
Simferopol and 72 M. by a branch
See also:
line from the Sebastopol-
See also:
Ekaterinoslav railway . It has an excellent
See also:
modern harbour, and its roadstead, which is never frozen, is well protected from east and west winds, and partly also from the south, but its
See also:
depth is only 11 to 14 ft., reaching 35 ft. in the
See also:
middle . The population was Io,800 in 1881, and 27,236 in 1897 . Among the motley population of Russians, Tatars, Armenians, Germans and Greeks are several
See also:
hundred Qaraite Jews . Few remains of its former importance exist, the chief being the Citadel built by the Genoese and still showing Latin inscriptions on some of its towers, the one or two detached towers
See also:
left when the
See also:
town walls were pulled down, and two or three mosques, formerly Genoese churches . The town also possesses a museum of antiquities and a picture gallery containing the
See also:
works of the marine painter Ayvazovsky . Theodosia is an episcopal see of the Orthodox Greek Church . Gardening is one of the leading
See also:
industries; fishing, a few manufactures, and agriculture are II carried on . Theodosia has gained much of the trade of Sevastopol since that town was made a military
See also:
port in 1894, and the value of its exports (12—21 millions sterling annually), principally grain and oil-seeds, is increasing
See also:
year by year . A
See also:
bronze statue of Alexander III. was put up on the sea-front in 1896 . The ancient Theodosia, the native name of which was Ardabda, was a colony founded from Miletus .

Archaic terraccttas show it to have been inhabited in the 6th

century B.C., but it is first heard of in
See also:
history as resisting the attacks of Satyrus, ruler of the Cimmerian Bosporus, c . 390 B.C . His successor Leucon took it and made it a
See also:
great port for
See also:
shipping wheat to
See also:
Greece, especially to Athens . This export of wheat continued until the days of
See also:
Mithradates VI. of
See also:
Pontus, against whom the city revolted . Later it became a
See also:
special
See also:
part of the Bosporan
See also:
kingdom with its own governor . In the 3rd century A.D. it was still inhabited, but seems to have been deserted not long afterwards . Besides the terra-cottas and pottery very beautiful Greek jewelry has been found near Theodosia . It coined
See also:
silver and copper during the 5th and 4th centuries B.C . The name Kaff a (Genoese Capha,
See also:
Turkish Kefe) first occurs in a writer of the 9th century . The Genoese established them-selves on the site shortly after 1266, and the settlement flourished exceedingly, being the depot of a trade route reaching to
See also:
China . It became the head of the Genoese establishments in Gazaria, the see of a bishop, and the chief port on the
See also:
northern
See also:
shore of the Black Sea, far surpassing the Venetian
See also:
Tana . Its population is said to have reached 8o,000 souls of many creeds and nationalities .

There was a citadel (still remaining) and magnificent walls . These were rendered necessary by the occasional hostility of the Tatar khans . When the

See also:
Turks took Constantinople the colony was almost cut off from the
See also:
mother city, which handed it over to the enterprising
See also:
bank of St George; but it could not be saved and fell in 1495 to the Turks, who sometimes called it Kuchuk-Stambul (Little Stambul or Constantinople) or Krym-Stambul (Stambul of Crimea) . Its new masters kept it under their own
See also:
direct
See also:
rule and its prosperity was not entirely destroyed . In 1771 it was taken by the Russians, and in 1783 annexed by them, whereupon the greater part of its population deserted it . Its prosperity did not return until about 1894, when new harbour works made it a convenient port for grain
See also:
ships coming
See also:
light out of the Sea of Azov and wishing to
See also:
complete their cargoes . See E. von Stern, Theodosia (German and
See also:
Russian,
See also:
Odessa, 1906); E . H . Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 19o9); for the history of
See also:
Kaffa see Heyd, Histoire du commerce du
See also:
Levant au moyen age (Paris, 1886), vol. ii . (E . H .

End of Article: THEODOSIA
[back]
FLAVIUS MALLIUS THEODORUS
[next]
THEODOSIUS

Additional information and Comments

This is NOT the same Theodosia referenced under Dumbarton, Scotland and from which this article was linked to! Iain Boyd
» Add information or comments to this article.
Please link directly to this article:
Highlight the code below, right click and select "copy." Paste it into a website, email, or other HTML document.