See also:Spanish nun, was
See also:born at Avila, in Old
See also:Castile, on the 2Sth of
See also:March 1515, and was educated in an Augustinian convent in the
See also:town . As a
See also:child she was interested in the stories of martyrs, and at the age of eighteen
See also:left home one
See also:morning, and applied for ad-
See also:mission at the Carmelite convent of the Incarnation . She was disappointed at first at the slackness of discipline, but she appears afterwards to have accommodated herself with tolerablesuccess to the worldliness of her environment, though not without intervals of religious misgiving . It was in the
See also:year 1554, when she was nearly
See also:forty, that the event known as her conversion took place, and the seccnd
See also:part of her
See also:life began . The
See also:death of her
See also:father roused her to serious reflection, and one
See also:day, as she entered the oratory, she was struck by the image of the wounded Christ, placed there for an approaching festival . She fell in tears at the feet of the figure, and
See also:felt every worldly emotion die within her . The
See also:shock threw her into a trance, and these trances, accompanied by visions, recurred frequently in the subsequent part of her life . They have since been. adduced as Divine attestations of her saintship, but the
See also:hood in the convent set them down to possession by a devil; her new departure was due in their eyes to no worthier
See also:motive than the
See also:desire to be
See also:peculiar and to be reputed better than other
See also:people . Teresa herself was very humble, and thought their explanation might be true; she took her case to her
See also:confessor and to the provincial-general of the
See also:Jesuits, who put her under a course of discipline . One day, while thus occupied, her trance came upon her, and she heard a
See also:voice say,." Though shalt have no more converse with men, but with angels." After this the trance or
See also:fit always returned when she was at prayers, and she felt that Christ was close to her . Presently she was able to see Him, " exactly as He was painted rising from the sepulchre." Her confessor directed her to exorcise the figure, and she obeyed with
See also:pain, but, it is needless to say, in vain . The visions
See also:grew more and more vivid .
See also:cross of her
See also:rosary was snatched from her
See also:hand one day, and when returned it was made of jewels more brilliant than diamonds, visible, however, to her alone . She had often an acute pain in her side, and fancied that an
See also:angel came to her with a
See also:lance tipped with
See also:fire, which he struck into her heart . The 27th of
See also:August is kept sacred in Spain to this mystery, which has also formed a favourite subject of Spanish painters . She had also visions of another description: she was shown
See also:hell with its horrors, and the devil would sit upon her breviary, belabour her with blows, and fill her
See also:cell with imps . For several years these experiences continued, and the
See also:verdict as to their source still remained far from unanimous . Meanwhile, the spread of the Reformation became the subject of much searching of
See also:hearts to pious Catholics . Teresa reflected like the
See also:rest, and her experience led her to find the real cause of the catastrophe in the relaxation of discipline within the religious orders . She formed the project of founding a
See also:house in which all the
See also:original rules of the Carmelite
See also:order would be observed . In spite of
See also:great opposition from the authorities of the order, and in particular from the prioress and sisters of the Incarnation, she persevered with her
See also:scheme, being encouraged to
See also:appeal to the
See also:pope by certain priests who saw the benefit which would accrue to the
See also:Church from her zeal . A private house in Avila was secretly got ready to serve as a small convent, and, when the bull arrived from Rome, Teresa went out on leave from the Incarnation and installed four poor
See also:women in the new house dedicated to her
See also:patron St
See also:Joseph . It was on the 24th of August 1562 that mass was said in the little
See also:chapel and the new order constituted . It was to be an order of Descalzos or Barefoots, in opposition to the relaxed
See also:body, the Calzados .
The sisters were not 'to be literally shoeless, but to
See also:wear sandals of rope; they were to sleep on
See also:straw, to eat no
See also:meat, to be strictly confined to the cloister, and to live on
See also:alms without
See also:regular endowment . After lodging her four sisters, Teresa returned to the Incarnation; but, when the secret was discovered,
See also:Carmelites and townspeople were alike furious . Violence, however, was prevented, and the
See also:matter was referred to the council of state at
See also:Madrid .
See also:Philip II, referred it again to the pope, and after six months a fresh bull arrived from
See also:Pius V . The provincial of her order now gave her leave to remove and take
See also:charge of her sisterhood . The number of thirteen, to which on grounds of discipline she had limited the foundation, was soon filled up, and Teresa spent here the five happiest years of her life . Her visions continued, and, by command of her ecclesiastical superiors, she wrote her autobiography containing a full account of these experiences, though she was far from basing any claim to holiness upon them . The general of the order visited her at Avila, and gave her
See also:powers to found other houses of Descalzos, for men as well as women . The last fifteen years of her life were spent mainly in hard journeys with this end and in the continually growing labour of organization . Convents were founded at Medina,
See also:Valladolid, Toledo,
See also:Segovia and Salamanca, and two at Alva under the patronage of the famous duke . Then she had three years of rest, as prioress of her old convent of the Incarnation . She next went to Seville to found a house, thus overstepping for the first
See also:time the boundaries of the Castiles, to which her authorization limited her .
The latent hostility of the old order was aroused; the general ordered the immediate suppression of the house at Seville, and procured a bull from
See also:Gregory XIII. prohibiting the further extension of the reformed houses (1575) . But the
See also:movement against her came from Italy, and was resented by Philip and the Spanish authorities • as undue interference; and after a fierce struggle, during which Teresa was two years under arrest at Toledo, the Carmelites were divided into two bodies in 1580, and the Descalzos obtained the right to elect their own provincial-generals (see CARMELITES) . The few remaining years of Teresa's life were spent in the old way, organizing the order she had founded, and travelling about to open new convents . Sixteen convents and fourteen monasteries were founded by her efforts; she wrote a
See also:history of her
See also:foundations, which forms a supplement to her autobiography . Her last
See also:journey of inspection was cut
See also:short at Alva, where she died on the 29th of
See also:September 1582 . A
See also:violet odour and a fragrant oil were said to distil from her
See also:tomb; and when it was opened nine months afterwards the flesh was found uncorrupted . A hand cut off by a fervent
See also:brother was found to
See also:work miracles, and the order became convinced that their founder had been a
See also:saint . It was resolved in 1585 to remove her remains to Avila, where she was born, the sisters at Alva being consoled by per-mission to retain the mutilated
See also:arm . But the
See also:family of the duke of Alva procured an order from the pope enjoining that the body should be restored to Alva, and she was accordingly laid there once more in a splendid tomb . But even then she was not allowed to rest: she was again disentombed, to be laid in a more magnificent
See also:coffin, and the greed of reverential relic-seekers made unseemly havoc of her bones . Teresa was canonized by Gregory XV. in 1622 . The
See also:honour was doubtless largely due to her
See also:asceticism and mystic visions .
She called herself Teresa de Jesus, to signify the closeness of her relation to the heavenly Bridegroom, who directed all her actions . Though s1ie deprecated excess of ascetic severity in others, she scourged herself habitually, and wore a peculiarly painfulhair-
See also:cloth . But her life shows her to have been, besides, a woman of strong practicality and
See also:good sense, full of natural shrewdness, and with unusual powers of organization . " You deceived me in saying she was a woman," writes one of her confessors; " she is a bearded man." She was brave in the
See also:face of difficulties and dangers, pure in her motives, and her utterances, some of which have been quoted, have the true ethical
See also:ring about them . Her
See also:MSS. were collected by Philip II. and placed in a
See also:rich case in the
See also:Escorial, the
See also:key of which the
See also:king carried about with him . Besides her autobiography and the history of her foundations, her.
See also:works (all written in Spanish) contain a great number of letters and various
See also:treatises of mystical religion, the chief of which are The Way of Perfection and The
See also:Castle of the Soul . Both describe the progress of the soul towards perfect union with
See also:God . Her works, edited by two
See also:Dominicans were first published in 1587, and have since appeared in various
See also:editions . They were soon afterwards "translated into
See also:Italian, French (4 vols.,
See also:Paris, 1840–46) and Latin; an
See also:translation of the Life and works (except the letters) by A . Woodhead appeared in 1669 . Other
See also:translations of the Life are those by
See also:John Dalton (1851), who also translated The Way of Perfection and the Letters (1902), and by
See also:Lewis (1870), who in 1871 also translated the Foundations . A .
R .Waller reprinted Woodhead's translation of The Way of Perfection in " The Cloister Library " (1901) .
See also:Biographies appeared soon after her death by the Jesuit
See also:Ribera, who had been her confessor (1602), and by Diego de Yepez, confessor to Philip II . (1599) . Details are also given in Ribadeneyra's Flos Sanctorum and in
See also:Butler's Lives of the
See also:Saints . A
See also:separate biography, with preface by
See also:Manning, appeared in 1865; a full and critical edition of the Life is that by Mrs G . C .
See also:Graham, 2 vols . (1894) . See also H . Prinz v . Oettingen-Spielberg, Geschichte d. heil .
See also:Regensburg, 1899) ; A .
See also:Santa Teresa, an appreciation, with some of the best passages of the writings (1897) ; E . Hello, Studies in Saintship (1903) .
THERAPEUTICS (Gr. BepaaeuTLKIi, Sc. TEXVrt, from Be...
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