Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V25, Page 571 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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THE EARLY COUNTS OF BARCELONA In the last years of the 8th and beginning of the 9th century, Charlemagne and Louis the Pius began conquering the north-east of Spain, which the Arabs had occupied as early as 713. By 811 the Franks had conquered as far as Tortosa and Tarragona. The territory gained was called the Marca Hispanica, and was governed by counts of Roussillon, Ampurias, Besaltu, Barcelona, Cerdena, Pallars and Urgell. They became independent during the decadence of the Carolingians. The supremacy was acquired gradually by the Garcia . Fernan Gonzales Ordono H. . Fruela . Alphonso IV. . Ramiro H. . Ordono HI. . Sancho I., " The Fat." Ramiro III. Bermudo II., The Gouty " Alphonso V. . Bermudo III. . Fernando I., or Ferdinand. Garcia Fernandez Saneho Garcia . Garcia . . I 923-968 968-1006 I006-IO28 1028 923-924 924-931 931-950 950-955 955-967 967-982 982-999 999-1027 1027-1037 1027-1065 910-913 913-923 Took Leon, which then included Bardulia, or Castile, as the eldest son. Second son; became king in Gallicia which included north-ern Portugal and acquired Leon on the death of his brother Garcia. Third brother; held Asturias, and was king of all north-west for a short time after death of Ordono. Son of Ordono ; became a monk at Sahagun, and was succeeded by his brother Ramiro. In his reign Castile broke away from Leon, under the count Fernan Gonzales. Son of Ramiro. Half brother of Ordono III. and son of Ramiro II. by his second marriage with a daughter of Sancho Abarca of Navarre. Was driven out by his nobles, in alliance with Fernan Gonzales, count of Castile, and restored by the caliph. The rebels put Ordono, son of Alphonso IV., on the throne for a time. Son of Sancho. Succeeded as a boy. His reign was a period of anarchy. Son of Ordono III.,was supported against his cousin Ramiro III. by the nobles, and was placed on the throne by the Hajib Mansur. Son of Bermudo. Began the restoration of the kingdom after the period of anarchy, and subjection to the caliphate. Killed at siege of Viseu. Son of Alphonso V.; was killed in battle at Tamaron with his brother-in-law Ferdinand, count and then first king of Castile. Son of Sancho el Mayor of Navarre, king of Castile by right of his mother, and of Leon and Gallicia by the sword. Sancho Abarca, i.e. Brogues Garcia Sanchez Sancho Garcia . Garcia Sanchez . "TheTrembler" Sancho el Mayor Garcia III. . Sancho IV. . 906-926 926-966 966-993 993-1000 1000-1035 1035-1054 1054-1076 Ramiro Sanchez Sancho I. Pedro I. . . . Alphonso I."The Battler." Ramiro II. . Petronilla . 1035-1067 1067-1094 1094-1102 1102-1134 1134-1137 1137-1164 counts of Barcelona who became independent with Wilfred I. by 874. He and his immediate descendants gradually subdued the other counts. They suffered much from the inroads of Mansur in the loth century, but on the decline of the caliphate, they took part in the general advance. Berenguer Ramon I. 1018-1035 Held Barcelona, Vich and Manresa with land con- quered from the Moors to' the south. Ramon Berenguer, . 1035-1076 Son. His father had divided " The Old." his possessions between his widow and all his sons, but Ramon Berenguer reunited them by force. He left his dominion to be held in common by his two sons. Ramon Berenguer II. Cap Ramon Berenguer I076-I082 d'estops (" Tow Pow ") and was murdered by Beren- Berenguer Ramon II. I076-I082 guer Ramon II., whose end is unknown. Ramon Berenguer . 1082-1131 Son of Ramon Berenguer II. By his marriage with Aldonza or Douce of Pro- vence he acquired territory in south-eastern France. He inherited or subdued all the other countships of Catalonia, except Peralada. Ramon Berenguer . I131-1162 Son. Inherited the Spanish possessions of his father, the French going to a brother. Was betrothed to Petronilla of Aragon, and married her in 1150, becoming king of Aragon. Second period of the union, disunion and reunion of Castile and Leon from Fernando I. to Fernando III. Fernando I. divided his dominions among his three sons: to Sancho, the eldest, Castile; to Alfonso, the second son, Leon; to Garcia, the third son, Gallicia.

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