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Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 86 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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THE LYRIC AND DRAMATIC OR " ROMANTIC " PERIOD [In this list the only qualifications given are those of which the complex conditions of modern art make definition easy as well as desirable; and, as throughout this table, the definitions must not be taken as exclusive. The choice of names is, however, guided by the different developments represented: thus accounting for glaring omissions and artistic disproportions.] Weber, 1786–1826. Master of romantic opera. Schubert, 1797–1828. The classic of song. Mendelssohn, 18o9–1847. Chopin, 1809–1849. Composer of pianoforte lyrics. Berlioz, 1803–1869. Master of impressionist orchestration. Schumann, 1810–1856. Wagner, 1813–1883. Achieves absolute union of music with drama. Liszt, 1811–1886. Pianoforte virtuoso and pioneer of the symphonic poem. Bruckner, 1824–1896. The symphonist of the Wagnerian party. Brahms, 1833–1897. Classical symphonic and lyric composer. Joachim, 1831–1907. Violinist, composer and teacher. Brahms's chief fellow-worker in continuing the classical tradition. Tschaikovsky, 1840—1893. Dvoiiak, 1841–1904. Richard Strauss, 1864– Development of the symphonic poem. (D. F. T.) II.—RECENT MUSIC Under separate biographical headings, the work of the chief modern composers in different countries is dealt with ; and here it will be sufficient to indicate the general current of the art, and to mention some of the more prominent among recent composers. Germany.—On the death of Brahms, the great German composers seemed, at the close of the 19th century, to have left no successor. Such merely epigonal figures as A. Bungert (b. 1846) and Cyrill Kistler (1848–1907) could not be regarded as important; and E. Humperdinck's (b. 1854) striking success with Hansel and Gretel (1893) was a solitary triumph in a limited genre. The outstanding figure, at the opening of the loth century, was Richard Strauss (q.v.); but it was not so much now in composition, as in the high excellence of executive art, that Germany still kept up her hegemony in European music, by her schools, her great conductors and instrumentalists, and her devotion as a nation to the production of musical works. France.—From the earliest days of their music, the French have had the enviable power of assimilating the great innovations which were originated in other countries, without losing their habit of warmly appreciating that which their own countrymen produce. That which happened with the Netherlandish composers of the 16th century, and with Lulli in the 17th, was repeated, more or less exactly, with Rossini in the early part of the 19th century and with Wagner at its close. During the last quarter of the 19th century all that is represented by the once-adored name of Gounod was discarded in favour of a style as different as possible from his. The change was mainly due to the Belgian musician, Cesar Auguste Franck (1822–X890), who established a kind of informal school of symphonic and orchestral composition, as opposed to the conventional methods pursued at the Paris Conservatoire. Massenet was left as almost the only representative of the older school, and from Edouard Lalo (1823–1892) to G. Charpentier (b. 1860), all the younger composers of France adopted the newer style. With these may be mentioned Alfred Bruneau (b. 1857), and Gabriel Faure (b. 1845). Camille Saint-Seens (b. 1835), however, remained the chief representative of the sound school of composition, if only by reason of his greater command of resources of every kind and his success in all forms of music. Among the newer school of composers the most original unquestionably was Debussy (q.v.), and among others may be mentioned Ernest Reyer (b. 1823), the author of some ambitious and sterling operas; F. L. V. de Joncieres (b. 1839), an enthusiastic follower of Wagner, and a composer of merit; Emanuel Chabrier 1841–1894), a man of extraordinary gift, who wrote one of the finest operas comiques of modern times, Le Roi malgre lui (1887); Charles Marie Widor (b. 1845), an earnest musician of great accomplishment; and Vincent d'Indy (b. 1851), a strongly original writer, alike in dramatic, orchestral and chamber compositions. In the class of lighter music, which yet lies above the level of opera bouffe, mention must be made of Leo Delibes (1836–1891) and Andre Messager (b. 1855). In describing the state of music in France, it would be wrong to pass over the work done by the great conductors of various popular orchestral concerts, such as Jules E. Pasdeloup (1819–1887), Chas. Lamoureux (1834-1899), and Judas [Edouard] Colonne (b. 1838). Italy.—In Italy during the last quarter of the 19th century many important changes took place. The later development in the style of Verdi (q.v.) was only completed in Otello (1887) and Falstaff (1893), while his last composition, the four beautiful sacred vocal works, show how very far he had advanced in reverence, solidity of style and impressiveness, from the time when he wrote his earlier operas. And Arrigo Boito's Mefistofele had an immense influence on modern Italian music. Among the writers of " absolute " music the most illustrious are G. Sgambati (b. 1843) and G. Martucci (b. 1856), the latter's symphony in D minor being a fine work. Meanwhile a younger operatic school was growing up, of which the first production was the Flora mirabilis of Spiro Samara (b. 1861). given in 1886. Its culmination was in the Cavalleria rusticana (189o) of Pietro Mascagni (b. 1863), the Pagliacci (1892) of R. Leoncavallo (b. 1858), and the operas of Giacomo Puccini (b. 1858), notably Le Villi (1884), Manon Lescaut (1893), La Belie-me (1896), Tosca (1900), and Madama Butterfly (1904). The oratorios of Don Lorenzo Perosi (b. 1872) had an interesting influence on the church music of Italy (see PALESTRINA). Russia.—The new Russian school of music originated with M. A. Balakirev (b. 1836), who was instrumental in founding the Free School of Music at St Petersburg, and who introduced the music of Berlioz and Liszt into Russia; he instilled the principles of " advanced " music into A. P. Borodin (1834–1887), C. A. Cui (b. 1835), M. P. Moussorgsky (1839–1881), and N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov (1844–1908), all of whom, as usual with Russian composers, were, strictly speaking, amateurs in music, having some other profession in the absence of any possible opportunity for making money out of music in Russia. The most remarkable man among their contemporaries was undoubtedly Tschaikovsky (q.v.). A. Liadov (b. 1855) excels as a writer for the pianoforte, and A. Glazounov (b. 1865) has composed a number of fine orchestral works. United States.—Of the older American composers, only John Knowles Paine (d. 1906) and Dudley Buck (d. 1909), both born in 18J9, and Benjamin Johnson Lang (1837–1909), need be mentioned. Paine, professor of music at Harvard University, and composer of oratorios, orchestral music, &c., ranks with the advanced school of romantic composers. Dudley Buck was one of the first American composers whose names were known in Europe; and if his numerous cantatas and church music do not reach a very high standard according to modern ideas, he did much to conquer the general apathy with regard to the existence of original music in the States. Lang, prominent as organist and conductor, also became distinguished as a composer. George Whitefield Chadwick (h. 1854) has produced many orchestral and vocal works of original merit. Though the works of Clayton Johns (b. 1857) are less ambitious, they have won more popularity in Europe, and his songs, like those of Arthur Foote (b. 1853), Reginald De Koven (b. 1859), and Ethelbert Nevin (1862–1901), are widely known. Edward Alexander McDowell (q.v.) may he regarded as the most original modern American composer. Waiter Johannes Damrosch (b. 1862), the eminent conductor of the New York Symphony Orchestra, and of various operatic undertakings, has established his position as an original and poetic composer, not only by his opera, The Scarlet Letter, but by such songs as the intensely dramatic " Danny Deever." Dr Horatio William Parker's (b. 1863) oratorio settings of the hymn Hora novissima " and of "The Wanderer's Psalm " are deservedly popular. Their masterly workmanship and his power of expression In sacred music mark him as a distinct personality. Numerous orchestral as well as vocal works have not been heard out of America, but a group of songs, newly set to the words of familiar old English ditties, have obtained great success. Mrs H. H. A. Beach, the youngest of the prominent composers of the United States and an accomplished pianist, has attained a high reputation as a writer in all the more ambitious forms of music. Many of her songs and anthems have obtained wide popularity. The achievements of the United States are, however, less marked in the production of new composers than in the attention which has been paid to musical education and appreciation generally. Henry E. Krehbiel (b. 1854), the well-known critic, was especially prominent in drawing American attention to Wagner and Brahms. The New York Opera has been made a centre for the finest artists of the day, and the symphony concerts at Boston and Chicago have been unrivalled for excellence. It is worthy of note that no country has produced a greater number of the most eminent of recent singers. Mesdames E. Eames, Nordica, Minnie Hauck, Susan Strong, Suzanne Adams, Sybil Sanderson, Esther Palliser, Evangeline Florence, and very many more among leading sopranos, with Messrs E. E. Oudin, D. Bispham and Denis O'Sullivan, to name but three out of the host of excellent male artists, proved the natural ability of the Americans in vocal music; and it might also be said that the more notable English-speaking pupils of the various excellent French schools of voice-production are American with hardly an exception. United Kingdom.—English music requires more detailed notice, if only because of the striking change in the national feeling with regard to it. The nation had been accustomed for so long to consider music as an exotic, that, notwithstanding the glories of the older schools of English music, the amount of attention paid to everything that came from abroad, and the rich treasures of traditional and distinctively English music scattered through the country, the majority of educated people adhered to the common belief that England was not a musical country. The beauty and the enormous . quantity of traditional Irish music, the enthusiasm created in Scotland by trumpery songs written in what was supposed to bean imitation of the Scottish style, the existence of the Welsh Eisteddfodau, were admitted facts; but England was supposed to have had no share in these gifts of nature or art, and the vogue of foreign music, from Italian opera to classical symphonies, was held' as evidence of her poverty, instead of being partly the reason of the national sterility. In the successive periods during which the music of Handel and Mendelssohn respectively had been held as all-sufficient for right-thinking musicians, success cquld only be attained, if at all, by those English musicians who deliberately set themselves to copy the style of these great masters; the few men who had the determination to resist the popular movement were` either confined, like the Wesleys, to one branch of music in which some originality of thought was still allowed, that of the Church, or, like Henry Hugo Pierson in the days of the Mendelssohn worship, were driven to seek abroad the recognition they could not obtain at home. For a time it seemed as if the great vogue of Gounod would exalt him into a third artistic despot; but no native composer had even the energy to imitate his Faust; and, by the date of The Redemption (1882) and Mors et vita (1885), a renaissance of English music had already begun. For a generation up to the 'eighties the affairs of foreign opera in England were rather depressing; the rival houses presided over by the impresarios Frederick Gye (1810–1878) and Colonel J. H. Mapleson (1828–1901) had been going from bad to worse; the traditions of what were called " the palmy days " had been for-gotten, and with the retirement of Christine Nilsson in 1881, and the death of Therese J. A. Tietjens in 1877, the race of the great queens of song seemed to have come to an end. It is true that Mme Patti was in the plenitude of her fame and powers, but the number of her impersonations, perfect as they were, was so small that she alone could not support the weight of an opera season, and her terms made it impossible for any manager to make both ends meet unless the rest of the company were chosen on the principle enunciated by the husband of Mme Catalani, " Ma femme et quatre ou cinq poupees." Mme Albani (b. 1851) had made her name famous, but the most important part of her artistic career was yet to come. She had already brought Tannhduser and Lohengrin into notice, but in Italian versions, as was then usual; and the great vogue of Wagner's operas did not begin until the series of Wagner concerts given at the Royal Albert Hall in 1877 with the object of collecting funds for the preservation of the Bayreuth scheme, which after the production of the Nibelungen trilogy in 1876 had become involved in serious financial difficulties. The two seasons of German opera at Drury Lane under Dr Hans Richter (b. 1843) in 1882 and 1884, and the production of the trilogy at Her Majesty's in 1882, under Angelo Neumann's rnanagership, first taught stay-at-home Englishmen what Wagner really was, and an Italian opera as such (i.e. with Italian as the exclusive language employed and the old " star " system in full swing) ceased to exist as a regular institution a few years after that. The revival of public interest in the opera only took place after Mr (afterwards Sir) Augustus Harris (1852–1896) had started his series of operas at Drury Lane in 1887. In the following season Harris took Covent Garden, and since that time the opera has been restored to greater public favour than it ever enjoyed, at all events since the days of jenny Lind. The clever manager saw that the public was tired of operas arranged to suit the views of the prima donna and no one else, and he cast the works he produced, among which were Un Ballo in maschera and Les Huguenots, with due attention to every part. The brothers Jean and Edouard de Reszke, both of whom had appeared in London before—the former as a baritone and the latter during the seasons 188b–1884—were even 'stronger attractions to the musical public of the time than the various leading sopranos, among whom were Mme Albani, Miss M. Macintyre, Mme Melba, Frau Sucher and Mme Nordica, during the earlier seasons, and Mme Eames, Mlle Ravogli, MM. Lassalle and P. H. Plangon, and many other Parisian favourites later. As time went on, the excellent custom obtained of giving each work in the language in which it was written, and among the distinguished German artists who were added to the company were Frau M. Ternina, Frau E. Schumann-Heink, Frau Lilli Lehmann and many more. Since Harris's death in 1896 the traditions started by him were on the whole well maintained, and as a sign of the difference between the present and the former position of English composers, it may be mentioned that two operas by F. H. Cowen, Signa and Harold, and two by Stanford, The Veiled Prophet and Much Ado about Nothing, were produced. To Signor Lago, a manager of more enterprise than good fortune, belongs the credit of reviving Gluck's Orfeo (with the masterly impersonation of the principal character by Mlle Giulia Ravogli), and of bringing out Cavalleria rusticana, Tschaikovsky's Eugen Onegin and other works. If it be just to name one institution and one man as the creator of such an atmosphere as allowed the genius of English composers to flourish, then that honour must be paid to the Crystal Palace and August Manns, the conductor of its Saturday concerts. At first engaged as sub-conductor, under a certain Schallehn, at the building which was the lasting result of the Great Exhibition o` 1851, he became director of the music in 1855; so for the better part of half a century his influence was exerted on behalf of the best music of all schools, and especially in tavour of anything of English growth. Through evil report and good report he supported his convictions, and for many years he introduced one English composer after another to a fame which they would have found it hard to gain without his help and that of Sir George Grove,' his loyal supporter. In 1862, when Arthur Sullivan had just returned from his studies in Leipzig, his Tempest music was produced at the Crystal Palace, and it is beyond question that it was this success and that of the succeeding works from the same hand which first showed Englishmen that music worth listening to might be produced by an Eaglish hand. Sullivan reached the highest point of his achievement in The Golden Legend (1886), his most important contribution to the music of the renaissance. An important part of the Crystal Palace music was that the concerts did not follow, but led, popular taste; the works of Schubert, Schumann and many other great masters were given constantly, and the whole repertory of classical music was gone through, so that a constant attendant at these concerts would have become acquainted with the whole range of the best class of music. From 1859 onwards the classical chamber-music could be heard at the Popular Concerts started by Arthur Chappell, and for many years their repertory was not less catholic than that of the Crystal Palace undertaking; that in later times the habit increased to a lamentable extent of choosing only the " favourite " (i.e. hackneyed) works of the great masters does not lessen the educational value of the older concerts. The lovers of the newer developments of music were always more fully satisfied at the concerts of the Musical Union, a body founded by John Ella in 1844, which lasted until 1880. From 1879 onwards the visits of Hans Richter, the conductor, were a feature of the musical season, and the importance of his work, not only in spreading a love of Wagner's music, but in regard to every other branch of the best orchestral music, cannot be exaggerated. Like the popular concerts, the Richter concerts somewhat fell away in later years from their original purpose, and their managers were led by the popularity of certain pieces to give too little variety. The importance of Richter's work was in bringing forward the finest English music in the years when the masters of the renaissance were young and untried. Here were to be heard the orchestral works of Sir Hubert Parry, Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, Sir A. Campbell Mackenzie and Dr F. H. Cowen; and the names of these composers were thus brought into notice much more effectually than could have been the case in other surroundings. Meanwhile outside London the work of the renaissance was being carried on, notably at Cambridge, where by the amalgamation of various smaller societies with the University Musical Society, Stanford created in 1875 a splendid institution which did much to foster a love of the best music for many years; and at Oxford, where private meetings in the rooms of Hubert Parry brought about the Institution of the Musical Club, which has borne fruit in many ways, though only in the direction of chamber-music. The Bach Choir, founded by Mr Arthur Duke Coleridge in 1875, and conducted for the first ten years of its existence by Mr Otto Goldschmidt and subsequently by Professor Stanford, worked on purely uncommercial lines ever since its foundation, and besides many important works of Bach, it brought forward most important compositions by Englishmen, and had a prominent share In the work of the renaissance. Parry's earlier compositions had a certain austerity in them which, while it commanded the homage of the cultivated few, prevented their obtaining wide popularity; and it was not until the date of his choral setting of Milton's Ode at a Solemn Musick that he found his true vein. In this and its many successors, produced at the autumn festivals, though very rarely given in London, there was a nobility of utterance, a sublimity of conception, a mastery of resource, that far surpass anything accomplished in England since the days of Purcell; while his " Symphonic Variations " for orchestra, and at least two of his symphonies, exhibit his command of the modern modifications of classical forms in great perfection. Like Parry, Stanford first caught the ear of the public at large with a choral work, the stirring ballad-setting of Tennyson's Revenge; and in all his earlier and later works alike, which include compositions in every form, he shows himself a supreme master of effect; in dramatic or lyrical handling of voices, in orchestral and chamber-music, his sense of beauty is unfailing, and while his ideas have real distinction, his treatment of them is nearly always the chief interest of his works. The work of the musical renaissance has been more beneficially fostered by these two masters than by any other individuals, through the medium of the Royal College of Music. In 1876 the National Training School of Music was opened with Sullivan as principal; he was succeeded by Sir John Stainer in 1881, and the circumstance that such artists as Mr Eugen d'Albert and Mr Frederic Cliffe received there the foundation of their musical education is the only important fact connected with the institution, which in 1882 was succeeded by the Royal College of Music, under the directorship of Sir George Grove, and with Parry and Stanford as professors of composition. In 1894 Parry succeeded to the directorship, and before and after this date work of the best educational kind was done in all branches of the art, but most of all in the important branch of composition. Mackenzie's place among the masters of the renaissance is assured by his romantic compositions for orchestra—such as La Belle dame sans merci and the two " Scottish Rhapsodies "; some of his choral works, such as the oratorios, show some tendency to fall back into the conventionalities from which the renaissance movement was an effort to escape; but in The Cottar's Saturday Night; The Story of Sayid ; Veni, Creator Spiritus, and many other things, not excepting the opera Colomba or the witty " Britannia " overture, he shows no lack of spontaneity or power. As principal of the Royal Academy of Music (he succeeded Macfarren in 1888) he revived the former glories of the school, and the excellent plan by which it and the Royal College unite their forces in the examinations of the Associated Board is largely due to his initiative. The opera just mentioned was the first of the modern series of English operas brought out from 1883 onwards by the Carl Rosa company during its tenure of Drury Lane Theatre: at the time it seemed as though English opera had a chance of getting permanently established, but the enterprise, being a purely private and individual one, failed to have a lasting effect upon the art of the country, and after the production of two operas by Mackenzie, two by Arthur Goring Thomas, one by F. Corder, two by Cowen and one by Stanford, the artistic work of the company grew gradually less and less important. In spite of the strong influence of French ideals and methods, the music of Arthur Goring Thomas was remarkable for individuality and charm; in any other country his beautiful opera Esmeralda would have formed part of the regular repertory; and his orchestral suites, cantatas and a multitude of graceful and original songs, remain as evidence that if his career had been prolonged, the art of England might have been enriched by some masterpiece it would not willingly have let die. After a youth of extraordinary precocity, and a number of variously successful attempts in the more ambitious and more serious branches of the art, Cowen found his chief success in the treatment of fanciful or fairy subjects, whether in cantatas or orchestral works; here he is without a rival, and his ideas are uniformly graceful, excellently treated and wonderfullyy effective. His second tenure of the post of conductor of the Phil-harmonic Society showed him to be a highly accomplished conductor. In regard to English opera two more undertakings deserve to be recorded. In 1891 the Royal English Opera House was opened with Sullivan's Ivanhoe, a work written especially for the occasion, the absence of anything like a repertory, and the retention of this one work in the bills for a period far longer than its attractions could warrant, brought the inevitable result, and shortly after the production of a charming French comic opera the theatre was turned into the Palace Music Hall. The charming and thoroughly characteristic Shamus O'Brien of Stanford was successfully produced in 1896 at the Opera Comique theatre. This work brought into public prominence the conductor Mr Henry J. Wood (b. 1870), who exercised a powerful influence on the art of the country by means of his orchestra, which was constantly to be heard at the Queen's Hall, and which attained, by continual performance together, a degree of perfection before unknown in England. It achieved an important work in bringing music within the reach of all classes at the Promenade Concerts given through each summer, as well as by means of the Symphony Concerts at other seasons. The movement thus started by Mr Wood increased and spread remarkably in later years. His training of the Queen's Hall Orchestra was characterized by a thoroughness and severity previously unknown in English orchestras. This was partly made possible by the admirable business organization which fostered the movement in its earlier years; so many concerts were guaranteed that it was possible to give the players engagements which included a large amount of rehearsing. The result was soon apparent, not only in the raising of the standard of orchestral playing, but also in the higher and more intelligent standard of criticism to which performances were subjected both by experts and by the general public. The public taste in London for symphonic music grew so rapidly as to encourage the establishment of other bodies of players, until in 1910 there were five first-class professional orchestras giving concerts regularly in London—the Philharmonic Society, the Queen's Hall Orchestra, the London Symphony Orchestra (described by Dr Hans Richter as " the finest orchestra in the world "), the New Symphony Orchestra under Mr Landon Ronald (b. 1873), a composer and conductor of striking ability, and Mr Thomas Beecham 's Orchestra. Mr Beecham, who had come rapidly to the front as a musical enthusiast and conductor, paid special attention to the work of British composers. Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool and Edinburgh, had their own orchestras; and It might be said that the whole of the United Kingdom was now permeated with a taste for and a knowledge of orchestral music. The effect of this development has influenced the whole of the musical life of England. The symphony and the symphonic poem have taken the place so long held by the oratorio in popular taste; and English composers of any merit or ability find It possible to get a hearing for orchestral work which at the end of the :9th century would have had to remain unperformed and unheard. The result has been the rapid development of a school of English orchestral composers--a school of considerable achievement and still greater promise. The new school of English writers contains many names of skilled composers. Sir Edward Elgar established his reputation by his vigorous Caractacus and the grandiose imaginings of his Dream of Gerontius, as by orchestral and chamber compositions of decided merit and individuality, and by being the composer of a symphony which attained greater and wider fame than any similar work since the symphonies of Tschaikovsky. Mr Edward German (b. 1862) won great success as a writer of incidental music for plays, and in various lighter forms of music, for which his great skill in orchestration and his knowledge of effect stand him in good stead. The quality of Mr Frederic Cliff e's orchestral works is extremely high. Dr Arthur Somervell (b. 1863), who succeeded Stainer as musical adviser to the Board of Education, first came into prominence as a composer of a number of charming songs, notably a fine song-cycle from Tennyson's Maud, but his Mass and various orchestral works and cantatas and pianoforte pieces show his conspicuous ability in other forms. Various compositions written by Mr Hamish MacCunn (b. 1868), while still a student at the Royal College of Music, were received with acclamation; but his later work was not of equal value, though his operas Jeanie Deans and Diarmid were successful. Mr Granville Bantock (b. 1868), an ardent supporter of the most advanced music, has written many fine things for orchestra, and Mr William Wallace (b. 1861), in various orchestral pieces played at the Crystal Palace and elsewhere, and in such things as his Freebooter " songs, has shown strong individuality and imagination. Mr Arthur Hinton (b. 1869) has produced things of fanciful beauty and quaint originality. Miss Ethel M. Smyth, whose Mass was given at the Royal Albert Hall in most favourable conditions, had her opera Fantasio produced at Weimar and Carlsruhe, and Der Wald at Covent Garden. Miss Maud Valerie White's graceful and expressive songs brought her compositions into wide popularity; and Mme Liza Lehmann made a new reputation by her cycles of songs after her retirement from the profession of a singer. The first part of Mr S. Coleridge-Taylor's (b. 1875) Hiawatha scenes was performed while he was still a student at the Royal College, and so great was its popularity that the third part of the trilogy was commissioned for performance by the Royal Choral Society. Mr Cyril Scott is a composer who aims high, though with a somewhat strained originality. Dr H. Watford Davies (b. 1869) and W. Y. Hurlstone (1876–1906) excel in the serious kind of chamber-music and use the classic forms with notable skill; and Mr R. Vaughan Williams, in his songs and other works, has shown perhaps the most conspicuous talent among all of the younger school. English executive musicians have never suffered from foreign competition in the same degree as English composers, and the success of such singers as Miss Anna Williams, Miss Macintyre, Miss Marie Brema, Miss Clara Butt, Miss Agnes Nicholls, Messrs Santley, Edward Lloyd, Ben Davies, Plunket Greene and Ffrangcon Davies; or of such pianists as Miss Fanny Davies and Mr Leonard Borwick, is but a continuance of the tradition of British excellence. The scientific study of the music of the past has more and more decidedly taken its place as a branch of musical education; the learned writings of W. S. Rockstro (1823–1895), many of them made public first in the Encyclopaedia Britannica and Grove's Dictionary of Music, made the subject clear to many who had been groping in the dark before; and the actual performance of old music has been undertaken not only by the Bach Choir, but by the Magpie Madrigal Society under Mr Lionel Benson's able direction. In vocal and instrumental music alike the musical side of the Inter-national Exhibition of 1885 did excellent work in its historical concerts; and in that branch of archaeology which is concerned with the structure and restoration of old musical instruments, important work has been done by Mr A. J. Hipkins (1826–1903; so long connected with the firm of Broadwood), the Rev. F. W. Galpin. Arnold Dolmetsch and others. The formation of the Folk-Song Society in 1899 drew attention to the importance and extent of English traditional music, and did much to popularize it with singers of the present day. Aesthetics, Theory, £s' c.—H. Ehrlich, Die Musik-Aesthetik in ihrer Entwickelung von Kant bis auf die Gegenwart (Leipzig, 1882); E. Hanslick, The Beautiful in Music (London, 1891) ; R. Wallaschek, Aesthetik der Tonkunst (Stuttgart, 1886) ; R. Pohl, Die Hohenziige der musikalischen Enlwickelung (Leipzig, 1888) ; A. Schnez, Die Geheimnisse der Tonkunst (Stuttgart, 1891); J. A. Zahm, Sound and Music (Chicago, 1892) ; C. Bellaique, Psychologie musicale( Paris, 189s); W. Pole, Philosophy of Music (vol. xi. of the English and Foreign Philosophical Library, 1895) ; M. Seybel, Schopenhauers Metaphysik der Musik (Leipzig, 1895) ; L. Lacombe, Philosophie et musique (Paris, 1896) ; Sir C. H. H. Parry, The Evolution of the Art of Music (London, 1897); H. Riemann, Praludien and Studien (Frankfort, 1896); Geschichte der Musiktheorie im IX.–XIX. Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1898); Systematische Modulationslehre (Hamburg, 1887) ; J. C. Lobe, Lehrbuch der musikalischen Komposition (Leipzig, 1884) ; A. B. Marx, Die Lehre von der musikalischen Komposition (Leipzig, 1887, 1890) ; M. L. C. Cherubini, Theorie des Kontrapunktes and der Fuge (Cologne, 1896) ; Sir J. F. Bridge and F. J. Sawyer, A Course of Harmony (London, 1899) ; E. Prout, Counter-point (London, 1890); Double Counterpoint and Canon (London, 1893) ; Musical Form (London, 1893) ; Applied Forms (London, 1895); B. Widmann, Die strengen Formen der Musik (Leipzig, 1882) ; S. Jadassohn, Die Formen in den Werken der Tonkunst (Leipzig, 1885) ; M. Steinitzer, Psychologische Wirkungen der musikalischen Formen (Munich, 1885); J. Combarieu, Theorie du rhythme dans la composition moderne d'apres la doctrine antique (Paris, 1897) ; P. Goetschius, Homophonic Forms of Musical Composition (New York, 1898) ; William Wallace, The Threshold of Music (1907). English Music.—W. Nagel, Geschichte der Musik in England (Strassburg, 1894) ; H. Davey, History of English Music (London, 1895) ; F. Crewest, The Story of British Music (London, 1896); S. Vautyn, L'Evolution de la musique en Angleterre (Brussels, 1900) ; Ernest Walker, English Music (1907). America.—W. S. B. Mathews, A Hundred Years of Music in America (Chicago, 1889) ; L. C. Elson, The National Music of America and its Sources (Boston, 1900) ; T. Baker, Ober die Musik der nord-amerikanischen Wilden (Leipzig, 1882). France.—H. Laroix, La Musique franQaise (Paris, 1891); N. M. Schletterer, Studien zur Geschichte der franzosischen Musik (Berlin, 1884–1885) ; T. Galino, La Musique francaise au moyen Ilge (Leipzig, 1890) ; A. Cognard, De la Musique en France depuis Rameau (Paris, 1891) ; G. Servieres, La Musique francaise moderne (Paris, 1897). Germany.—W. Baeuinker, Geschichte der Tonkunst in Deutschland bis zur Reformation (Freiburg, 1881); O. Ebben, Der volkslhumliche deutsche Mannergesang (Tubingen, 1887) ; L. Meinardus, Die deutsche Tonkunst; A. Soubies, Histoire de la musique allemande (Paris, 1896). Italy.—O. Chilesotti, I nostri maestri del passato (Milan, 1882) ; V. Lee, Il Settecento in Italia (Milan, 1881) ; G. Masutto, I Maestri di musica italiani del secolo XIX. (Venice, 1882). Russia.—A. Soubies, Histoire de la musique en Russie (Paris, 1898). Scandinavia.—A. Gronvoed, Norske Musikere (Christiania, 1883); C. Valentin, Studien fiber die schwedischen Volksmelodien (Leipzig, 1885). Spain. . F. Riano, Notes on Early Spanish Music (London, 1887) ; J. ors y Daniel, Noticia musical del " Lied " 6 Casio catalana (Barcelona, 1892) ; A. Soubies, Hist. de la mus. en Espagne (1899). Switzerland.—A. Niggli, La Musique sans la Suisse allemande (1900) ; F. Held, La Musique dans la Suisse romande (1900) ; A. Soubies, Hist. de la mus. dans la Suisse (1899). Church Music.—F. L. Humphreys, The Evolution of Church Music (New York, 1898) ; E. L. Taunton, History of Church Music (London, 1887) ; A. Morsch, Der italienische Kirchengesang bis Palestrina (Berlin, 1887) ; G. Masutto, Della Musica sacra in Italia, (Venice, 1889) ; G. Felix, Palestrina et la musique sacrie (Bruges, 1895) ; R. v. Liliencron, Liturgisch-musikalische Geschichte der evangelischen Gottesdienste (Schleswig, 1893). Instruments (see also the separate articles on each).—L. Arrigoni, Organografia ossia descrizione degli instrumenti musicali autichi (Milan, 1881) ; F. Boudoin, La Musique historique (Paris, 1886); A. Jacquot, Etude de l'art instrumental. Dictionnaire des instruments de musique (Paris, 1886) ; H. Boddington, Catalogue of Musical Instruments illustrative of the History of the Pianoforte (Manchester 1888) ; M. E. Brown, Musical Instruments and their Homes (New York, 1888) ; A. J. Hipkins, Musical Instruments: Historic, Rare and Unique (Edinburgh, 1888) ; W. Lynd, Account of Ancient Musical Instruments and their Development (London, 1897); J. Weiss, Die musikalischen Instrumente in den heiligen Schriften des Allen Testaments (Graz, 1895) ; E. Travers, Les Instruments de musique au xiv". siecle (Paris, 1882) ; E. A. v. Hasselt, L'Anatomie des instruments de musique (Brussels, 1899) ; E. W. Verney, Siamese Musical Instruments (London, 1888) ; C. R. Day, Music and Musical Instruments of Southern India (London, I891); D. G. Brinton, Native American Stringed Musical Instruments (1897); J. Ruehlmann, Die Geschichte der Bogeninstrumente (Brunswick, 1882);. F. di Caffarelli, Gli Strumenti ad arco e la musica da camera (Milan, 1894) ; Kathleen Schlesinger, Instruments of the Orchestra (1910). Conducting.—W. R. Wagner, On Conducting (London, 1887) ; M. Kufferath, L'Art de diriger l'orchestre (Paris, 1891); F. Weingartner, Ober das Dirigiren (Berlin, 1896). Biography.—F. Hueffer, The Great Musicians (London, 1881–1884) ; F. Clement, Les Grands musiciens (Paris, 1882) ; C. E. Bourne, The Great Composers (London, 1887) ; G. T. Ferris, Great Musical Composers; Sir C. H. H. Parry, Studies of Great Composers (London, 1887) ; A. A. Ernouf, Compositeurs cilebres (Paris, 1888) ; F. Bennassi-Desplantes, Les Musiciens cilebres (Limoges, 1889); A. Haunedruche, Les Musiciens et compositeurs frantais (Paris, 1890) ; N. H. Dole, A Score of Famous Composers (New York, 1891); L. T. Morris, Famous Musical Composers (London, 1891); H. de Br6mont, The World of Music (London, 1892) ; J. K. Paine, Famous Composers and their Works (Boston, 1892–1893) ; E. Polko, Meister der Tonkunsi (Wiesbaden, 1897); R. F. Sharp, Makers of Music (London, 1898); L. Nohl, Mosaik Denksteine aus dem Leben beru.hmter Tonkf nstler (Leipzig, 1899) ; T. Baker, A Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (New York, 1900); M. Charles, Zeitgenossische Tondichter (Leipzig, 1888) ; A. Jullien, Musiciens d'aujourd'hui (Paris, 1892). MUSICAL-BOX, an instrument for producing by mechanical means tunes or pieces of music. The modern musical-box is an elaboration of the elegant toy musical snuff-box in vogue during the 18th century. The notes or musical sounds are produced by the vibration of steel teeth or springs cut in a comb or flat plate of steel, reinforced by the harmonics generated in the solid steel back of the comb. The teeth are graduated in length from end to end of the comb or plate, the longer teeth giving the deeper notes; and the individual teeth are accurately attuned, where necessary, by filing or loading with lead. Each tone and semitone in the scale is represented by three or four separate teeth in the comb, to permit of successive repetitions of the same note when required by the music. The teeth are acted upon and musical vibrations produced by the revolution of a brass cylinder studded with projecting pins, which, as they move round, raise and release the proper teeth at due intervals according to the nature of the music. A single revolution of the cylinder completes the performance of each of the several pieces of music for which the apparatus is set, but upon the same cylinder there may be inserted pins for performing as many as thirty-six separate airs. This is accomplished by making both the points of the teeth and the projecting pins which raise them very fine, so that a very small change in the position of the cylinder is sufficient to bring an entirely distinct set of pins in contact with the teeth. Iq the more elaborate musical-boxes the cylinders are removable, and may be replaced by others containing distinct sets of music. In these also there are combinations of bell, drum, cymbal and triangle effects, &c. The revolving motion of the cylinder is effected by a spring and clock-work which on some modern instruments will work continuously for an hour and a half without winding, and the rate of revolution is regulated by a fly regulator. The headquarters of the musical-box trade is Geneva, where the manufacture gives employment to thousands of persons. The musical-box is a type of numerous instruments for producing musical effects by mechanical means, in all of which a revolving cylinder or barrel studded with pins is the governing feature. The position of the pins on the barrel is determined by two considerations: those of pitch and of time or rhythm. The degrees of pitch or semitones of the scales are in the direction of the length of the cylinder, while those of time, or the beats in the bars, are in the path of the revolution of the cylinder. The action of the pins is practically the same for all barrel instruments; each pin serves to raise some part of the mechanism for one note at the exact moment and for the exact duration of time required by the music to be played, after which, passing along with the revolution of the cylinder, it ceases to act. The principle of the barrel operating by friction, by percussion or by wind on reeds, pipes or strings governs carillons or musical bells, barrel organs, mechanical flutes, celestial voices, harmoniphones, violin-pianos and the orchestrions and polyphons in which a combination of all orchestral effects is attemoted. In the case of wind instruments, such as flutes, trumpets, oboes, clarinets, imitated in the more complex orchestrions, the pins raise levers which open the valves admitting air, compressed by mechanical bellows, to various kinds of flue-pipes, and to others fitted with beating and free reeds. The sticks used for striking bells, drums, cymbals and triangles are set in motion in a similar manner. A fine set of full-page drawings, published at Frankfort in 1615,1 makes the whole working of the pinned barrel quite clear, and establishes the exact relation of the pins to the music produced by the barrel so unmistakably that some bars of the piece of music set on the cylinder can be made out. The prototype of the 19th-century musical-box is to be found in the Netherlands where during the 15th century the dukes of Burgundy encouraged the invention of ingenious mechanical musical curiosities such as " organs which played of themselves," musical snuff-boxes, singing birds, curious clocks, &c. A principle of more recent introduction than the studded cylinder consists of sheets of perforated paper or card, somewhat similar to the Jacquard apparatus for weaving. The perforations correspond in position and length to the pitch and duration of the note they represent,and as the web or long sheet of paper passes over the instrument the perforated holes are brought in proper position and sequence under the influence of the suction or pressure of air from a bellows, and thereby the notes are either directly acted on, as in the case of reed instruments, or the opening and closing of valves set in motion levers or liberate springs which govern special notes. The United States are the original home of the instruments controlled by perforated paper known as orguinettes, organinas, melodeons, &c. All these instruments are being gradually replaced in popular favour by the piano-players and the gramophone. (K. S.)

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