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Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 744 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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THOMAS HOWARD, 4th duke (1536-1572), son of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, was born on the Loth of March 1536. His tutor was John Foxe, the martyrologist. Soon after Elizabeth became queen in 1558 she sent the young duke to take part in the war against the Scots and their French allies, but the conclusion of the treaty of Edinburgh in July 156o enabled him to return to the court in London. Having married and lost three wives, all ladies of wealth and position, Norfolk was regarded as a suitable husband for Mary queen of Scots, who had just taken refuge in England. He presided over the commission appointed by Elizabeth to inquire into the relations between the Scottish queen and her subjects; and although he appears to have believed in Mary's guilt he was anxious to marry her. Among the Scots Maitland of Lethington favoured the proposed union; Mary herself consented to it; but Norfolk was unwilling to take up arms, and while he delayed Elizabeth ordered his arrest and he was taken to prison in October 1569. In August 1570, after the suppression of the rising in the north of England, the duke was released; but he entered into communication with Philip II. of Spain regarding the proposed invasion of England by the Spaniards. After some hesitation Norfolk placed himself at the head of the conspirators; and in return for his services he asked the king of Spain " to approve of my own marriage with the Queen of Scots." But the plot failed; Norfolk's treachery was revealed to Lord Burghley, and in September 1571 he was arrested. He was beheaded on the 2nd of June 1572. It is noteworthy that he always regarded himself as a Protestant. Norfolk's first wife, Mary (154o-1557), daughter and heiress of Henry Fitzalan, 12th earl of Arundel, bore him a son, Philip, who in consequence of his father's attainder was not allowed to succeed to the dukedom of Norfolk, but became 13th earl of Artindel in succession to his maternal grandfather in 1580. Norfolk left two other sons, Thomas Howard, created earl of Suffolk in 1603, and Lord William Howard (q.v.). In 166o the dukedom was restored by act of parliament to THOMAS HOWARD, 4th earl of Arundel (1627-1677), a descendant of the 4th duke. The 5th duke was succeeded by his brother Henry (1628-1684), the friend of John Evelyn, who had been already created earl of Norwich; in 1672 he was made earl marshal, and this dignity was entailed on his male heirs.
End of Article: THOMAS HOWARD

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