See also:Matthew (Matt. x . 3i Mark iii . 18; Luke vi . 15); in Acts i . 13 he is coupled with
See also:Philip . In the
See also:Gospel of
See also:John (xi . 16; xiv . 5; xx . 24 seq.; xxi . 2) he appears in a characteristic
See also:light, full of
See also:personal devotion and ready to die with his
See also:Master, but slow to grasp the true significance of the
See also:personality of Jesus, and incredulous of the resurrection till
See also:direct evidence convinces him of its truth and at the same
See also:time of the Divinity of his risen
See also:Lord . John translates the Aramaic name or surname
See also:Thomas by the Greek
See also:Didymus (twin) .
Tradition has it that he was the twin
See also:brother of a
See also:Lysias (his parents being Diophanes and Rhoa, and his birthplace
See also:Antioch; " XII . Apost . Patriae," in Chron . Pasch. ii . 142), or of a brother Eliezer (Hotta Clem. ii . I), or, according to the
See also:Syriac Acta Thomae (ed .
See also:Wright, Eng. trans. pp . 155, 18o), of Jesus Himself . The last
See also:form of the tradition seems to be derived from the name Judas Thomas, which he bears in Edessene
See also:legend (cf .
See also:Eusebius, H . E. i . 13, 10), and implies the
See also:identification of Thomas with Judas, the brother of the Lord .
See also:ancient tradition makes Thomas the evangelist of
See also:Parthia (Eus . H.E. iii . 1, I); and at Edessa which claimed to possess his bones, it was related that their missionary Addai (
See also:Doctrine of Addai, ed .
See also:Phillips, 1876, p . 5), whom Eusebius calls Thaddaeus (H.E. i . 13), was sent to them by him . Later tradition, originating with the Ada Thomae, and accepted by-catholic teachers from the
See also:middle of the 4th century, makes him proceed to India and there suffer martyrdom . The
See also:king Gundaphar of the Acta is, however, certainly identical with the
See also:Gondophares, whose
See also:dynasty was
See also:Parthian, though his
See also:realm included regions loosely reckoned to India . The Parthian and Indian
See also:missions of Thomas may perhaps therefore be regarded as derived from a single tradition, but it is very doubtful whether it is based on any historical facts .. The
See also:oldest extant tradition is that St Thomas did not suffer martyrdom at all (
See also:Heracleon ap . Clem . Alex .
Strom. iv . 9) . The best investigation of the traditions connecting St Thomas with India is that by W . R . Philipps (Indian
See also:Antiquary, 1903, xxxii . 1–15, 145–160) . The ingenious conjectures of von Gutschmid (N . Rhein .
See also:Mus. xix . 161 seq.) and Sylvain Levi (Journ. asiatique, 1897, p . 27 seq.) are greatly weakened by the fact that they do not start from a
See also:consideration of the names in their
See also:original Syriac form .
See also:Bishop Medlycott's India and the Apostle Thomas (19o5) is wholly uncritical .
The Ada Thomae, very imperfectly published by Thito (1823) andTischendorf (1851), have
See also:beets edited in Greek by Bonnet
See also:Leipzig, 1883, and ed., with new
See also:matter, 1903), and in the original Syriac, with an
See also:translation, by W . Wright (Apocryphal Acts, 2 vols.,
See also:London, 1871) . See also Lipsius, Die apocryphen Appostelgesch., ii . (2nd. ed.) 423–425 (
See also:Brunswick) ; F.C . Burkitt in Journ . Theol . St. i . 28o seq., ii . 94 . The Acta are said by Photius to be a
See also:part of the U Epto.loc rwv hiroar6Xwv of the Gnostic Leucius Charinus,but this unknown personage is to be thought of as a
See also:collector of Gnostic " Acts of Apostles," rather than as the first author . In spite of extensive Catholic revision, the" Acts of Thomas "form one of the most interesting monuments of Syriac
See also:Gnosticism .
See also:Internal evidence assigns them with
See also:great probability to the school of Bardesanes, and the very ancient allegorical hymn about the soul which is preserved in the Syriac text (p .
274 seq., Eng. trans., p.238 seq.) is perhaps by Bardesanes himself (cf .Noldeke in Z.D.M.G., 1871, p . 676) . This hymn was translated into the Greek Acta, along with the
See also:rest of the
See also:work (Bonnet, pp . 219–224, Anal. bolland. xx . 158-164) . It is one of the most remarkable pieces in Syriac literature, and has been edited separately by A . A . Bevan, Texts and Studies, v . 3 (Cambridge, 1897) . A metrical English version is given in F . C .
See also:Christianity, p . 2.18 seq . (London, 1904) . (F . C . B.) " Christians of St Thomas " is a name often applied to the members of the ancient Christian churches of
See also:southern India, which claim him as their first founder, and
See also:honour as their second founder a certain bishop named Thomas, who is said to have come with some presbyters from Jerusalem to
See also:Malabar in A.D . 345.1 According to their tradition, St Thomas went from Malabar to Mylapur, now a suburb of
See also:Madras, where the
See also:shrine of his martyrdom, rebuilt by the Portuguese in 1547, still stands on Mt St Thomas, and where a miraculous
See also:cross is shown with a
See also:Pahlavi inscription which may be as old as the end of the 7th century . We know from Comas Indicopleustes that there were Christian churches of Persian (East-Syrian) origin, and doubtless of Nestorian creed, in
See also:Ceylon, in Malabar, and at Caliana (
See also:north of Bombay) before the middle of the 6th century, and even then St Thomas, the reputed apostle of
See also:Persia, may have been their
See also:saint . The ancient churches of southern India never died out or wholly lost their sense of connexion with their
See also:church, for we find them sending deputies in 1490 to the Nestorian
See also:patriarch Simeon, who furnished them with bishops (
See also:Assemani, Bib. or. iii . 1, 590 seq.) . Hard pressed by the Moslems, they welcomed the approach of the Portuguese, but proved by no means tractable to efforts to bring them within the
See also:Roman obedience . At length a formal union with Rome was carried through in the synod of Diamper (1599) .
Syriac was to remain the ecclesiasticallanguage, but the service books were corrected and purified from error . A century and a
See also:half of
See also:foreign Jesuit
See also:rule followed, but the love of independence was not Iost . A great
See also:schism took place in 2653, and of 200,000 Christians of St Thomas only 400 remained loyal to Rome, though many of their churches were soon won back by the
See also:Carmelites . Those who remained
See also:independent fell under the influence of the Jacobite
See also:Mar Gregorius, styled patriarch of Jerusalem, who reached Malabar in 1665 as an emissary from
See also:Ignatius, patriarch of Antioch . From his time the independent Christians have been
See also:Jacobites, the
See also:counter-efforts of the
See also:Nestorians under Mar
See also:Gabriel, bishop of
See also:Azerbaijan, having apparently come to nothing after his
See also:death in 1730 . Since the visit of
See also:Buchanan, whose Christian . Researches in
See also:Asia (1811) excited great
See also:interest, much has been done for the Christians of South India by English missionary effort, and Anglicans have cultivated friendly relations with the
See also:clergy of the independent native church, while discouraging dependence on the Jacobite patriarch of Antioch . A valuable though tedious and
See also:history of the Christians of St Thomas is that by W . Germann, Die Kirche der Thomaschristen, (
See also:Gutersloh, 1877) . See also La Croze, Histoire du christianisme
See also:des Indes (The
See also:Hague, 1724) ; Alexius de Menezes, Historic ecclesiae malabarieae (Latin by F . Raulin, Rome, 1745) (especially for the synod of Diamper) ; Paulinus a S . Bartholomaeo, India orientalis christiana (4to, Rome, 1794) ;
See also:George Milne
See also:Rae, The Syrian Church in India (
See also:Edinburgh and London, 1892) .
SIDNEY GILCHRIST THOMAS (1850-1885)
THEODORE THOMAS (1835-1905)
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