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Originally appearing in Volume V13, Page 483 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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NOM THOU. tuhaT eft taT taT tat Obl. tai, tuha, tai tujh tohi to tujjhu You, Nom. tumhe tusi tum tum tum ON. turnhahet tusa turn/zit' tumhazl tuns Thus, calab-u, it-is-to-be-gone by-me, I shall go. We thus get the following forms. It will be observed that, as in many other Indo-Aryan languages, the first person plural has no suffix: Sing. Plur. i. calaba calab 2. calabe calabd 3. calihai calihat In, old E.H. the future participle passive, calab, takes no suffix for any person, and is used for all persons. The last remark leads us to a class of tenses in P. and W.H., in which a participle, by itself, can be employed for any person of a finite tense. A few examples of the use of the present and past participles will show the construction. They are all taken from Hindostani. Woh calla, he goes; woh calti, she goes; mai cala, I went ; woh calf, she went ; we tale, they went. The present participle in this construction, though it may be used to signify the present, is more commonly employed to signify a past .conditional " (if) he had gone.” It will have been observed that in the above examples, in all of which the verb is intransitive, the, past as well as the present participle agrees with the subject in gender and number; but, if the verb be transitive,, the passive meaning of the past participle comes into force. The subject must be put into the case of the agent, and the participle inflects to agree with the object. If the object be not expressed, or, as sometimes happens, be expressed in the dative case, the participle is construed impersonally, and takes the masculine (for want of a neuter) form, Thus, mai-ne kaha, by-me it-was-said, i.e. I said; us-ne citthi likhi, by-him a-letter (fern.) was-written, he wrote a letter; raja-n.6 sherni-kd mara, the king killed the tigress, lit., by-the-king, withreference-to-the-tigress, it (impersonal) -was-killed. In the article PRAKRIT it is shown that the same construction obtained in that language. In E.H. the construction is the same, but is obscured by the fact that (as in the future) pronominal suffixes are added to the participle to indicate the person of the subject or of the agent, as in calat-ea, (if) I had gone; cal-ea, I went; mar-ea (transitive), I struck, lit., struck-by-me; mar-es, struck-by-him, he struck. If the participle has to be feminine, it (although a weak form) takes the feminine termination i, as in mdri-u, I struck her; calati-u, (if) I (fern.) had gone; tali-u, I (fern.) went. Further tenses are formed by adding the verb substantive to these participles, as in H. mm calla-ha, I am going; mat calta-tha, I was going; mat cala-ha, I have gone; mat cala-tha, I had gone. These and other auxiliary verbs need not detain us long. They differ in the various languages. For " I am " we have P. ha, H. ha, Br. hau`, E.H. batyeu” or aheu. For " I was " we have P. si or sa, H. tha, Br. hau or hutau, E.H. raheu". The H. has is thus conjugatedmaking potential passives and transitives from intransitives, and causals (and even double causals) from transitives. Thus dikhna, to be seen ; potential passive, dikhdna, to be visible; transitive, dikhna, to see; causal, dikhlana, to show. D. Literature.—The literatures of Western and Eastern Hindi form the subject of a separate'article (see HINDOSTANI LITERATuRE). Panjabi has no formal literature. Even the Granth, the sacred book of the Sikhs, is mainly in archaic Western Hindi, only a small portion being in Panjabi. On the other hand, the language is peculiarly rich in folksongs and ballads, some of considerable length and great poetic beauty. The most famous is the ballad of Hir and Ranjha by Waris Shah, which is considered to be a model of pure Panjabi. Colonel Sir Richard Temple has published an important collection of these songs under the title of The Legends of the Punjab (3 vols., Bombay and London, 1884-1900), in which both texts and translations of nearly all the favourite ones are to be found. at se pp(b)7For the separate languages, see C. J. Lyall, A Sketch of the Hindustani Language (Edinburgh, 188o) ; S. H. Kellogg, A Grammar of the Hindi Language (for both Western and Eastern Hindi), (2nd ed., London, 1893) ; J. T. Platte, A Grammar of the Hindustani or Urdu Language (London, 1874); and A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi and English (London, 1884) ; E. P. Newton, Panjabi Grammar: with Exercises and Vocabulary (Ludhiana, 1898) ; and Bhai Maya Singh, The Panjabi Dictionary (Lahore, 1895). The Linguistic Survey of India, vol. vi., describes Eastern Hindi, and vol. ix., Hindostani and Panjabi, in each instance in great detail. (G. A. GR.)
End of Article: NOM THOU

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