NOM THOU . tuhaT eft taT taT tat Obl. tai, tuha, tai tujh tohi to tujjhu You, Nom. tumhe tusi tum tum tum ON. turnhahet tusa turn/zit' tumhazl tuns Thus, calab-u, it-is-to-be-gone by-me, I shall go . We thus get the following forms . It will be observed that, as in many other Indo-
See also:languages, the first
See also:person plural has no suffix: Sing . Plur . i. calaba calab 2. calabe calabd 3. calihai calihat In, old E.H. the future participle passive, calab, takes no suffix for any person, and is used for all persons . The last remark leads us to a class of tenses in P. and W.H., in which a participle, by itself, can be employed for any person of a finite tense . A few examples of the use of the
See also:present and past participles will show the construction . They are all taken from Hindostani . Woh calla, he goes; woh calti, she goes;
See also:mai cala, I went ; woh calf, she went ; we
See also:tale, they went . The present participle in this construction, though it may be used to signify the present, is more commonly employed to signify a past .conditional " (if) he had gone.” It will have been observed that in the above examples, in all of which the verb is intransitive, the, past as well as the present participle agrees with the subject in gender and number; but, if the verb be transitive,, the passive meaning of the past participle comes into force . The subject must be put into the case of the
See also:agent, and the participle inflects to agree with the
See also:object . If the object be not expressed, or, as sometimes happens, be expressed in the dative case, the participle is construed impersonally, and takes the masculine (for want of a neuter)
See also:form, Thus, mai-ne kaha, by-me it-was-said, i.e .
I said; us-ne citthi likhi, by-him a-
See also:letter (
See also:fern.) was-written, he wrote a letter;
See also:raja-n.6 sherni-kd
See also:mara, the
See also:king killed the tigress, lit., by-the-king, withreference-to-the-tigress, it (impersonal) -was-killed . In the article
See also:PRAKRIT it is shown that the same construction obtained in that language . In E.H. the construction is the same, but is obscured by the fact that (as in the future) pronominal suffixes are added to the participle to indicate the person of the subject or of the agent, as in calat-ea, (if) I had gone; cal-ea, I went;
See also:mar-ea (transitive), I struck, lit., struck-by-me; mar-es, struck-by-him, he struck . If the participle has to be feminine, it (although a weak form) takes the feminine termination i, as in mdri-u, I struck her; calati-u, (if) I (fern.) had gone; tali-u, I (fern.) went . Further tenses are formed by adding the verb substantive to these participles, as in H. mm calla-ha, I am going;
See also:mat calta-tha, I was going; mat cala-ha, I have gone; mat cala-tha, I had gone . These and other
See also:auxiliary verbs need not detain us long . They differ in the various languages . For " I am " we have P. ha, H. ha, Br. hau`, E.H. batyeu” or aheu . For " I was " we have P. si or sa, H. tha, Br. hau or hutau, E.H. raheu" . The H. has is thus conjugatedmaking potential passives and transitives from intransitives, and causals (and even
See also:double causals) from transitives . Thus dikhna, to be seen ; potential passive, dikhdna, to be visible; transitive, dikhna, to see; causal, dikhlana, to show . D .
Literature.—The literatures of Western and EasternHindi form the subject of a
See also:separate'article (see HINDOSTANI LITERATuRE) .
See also:Panjabi has no formal literature . Even the
See also:Granth, the sacred
See also:book of the Sikhs, is mainly in archaic Western Hindi, only a small portion being in Panjabi . On the other
See also:hand, the language is peculiarly
See also:rich in folksongs and
See also:ballads, some of considerable length and
See also:great poetic beauty . The most famous is the ballad of Hir and Ranjha by Waris Shah, which is considered to be a
See also:model of pure Panjabi . Colonel
See also:Temple has published an important collection of these songs under the title of The Legends of the
See also:Punjab (3 vols., Bombay and
See also:London, 1884-1900), in which both texts and
See also:translations of nearly all the favourite ones are to be found . at se pp(b)7For the separate languages, see C . J . Lyall, A
See also:Sketch of the Hindustani Language (
See also:Edinburgh, 188o) ; S . H .
See also:Kellogg, A Grammar of the Hindi Language (for both Western and Eastern Hindi), (2nd ed., London, 1893) ; J . T .
Platte, A Grammar of the Hindustani or
See also:Urdu Language (London, 1874); and A
See also:Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi and
See also:English (London, 1884) ; E . P .
See also:Newton, Panjabi Grammar: with Exercises and Vocabulary (
See also:Ludhiana, 1898) ; and Bhai
See also:Maya Singh, The Panjabi Dictionary (
See also:Lahore, 1895) . The Linguistic Survey of India, vol. vi., describes Eastern Hindi, and vol. ix., Hindostani and Panjabi, in each instance in great detail . (G . A .
JACQUES AUGUSTE DE [THUANUS] THOU (1553-1617)
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