See also:stuck up for the purpose of giving
See also:notice or information, hence a small printed or written card or slip, containing a notice,
See also:order or the like, and more particularly such an one as embodies the terms under which the party issuing the ticket grants some right,
See also:privilege or licence to the party to whom it is issued; where there has been valuable
See also:consideration for such given by the holder the ticket is the method by which the parties enter into a
See also:tract . The most
See also:familiar of this last class of tickets is the passenger's ticket issued by railway companies, tramways or "
See also:carriers " in general . The ticket does not usually contain the whole terms of the contract, but refers to the conditions under which it is issued, to which the holder is considered subject if sufficient notice of them is given . A ticket of
See also:admission issued for a theatre, or place of entertainment, constitutes a licence to the holder to occupy and use a seat, whether particularized or not, and such parts of the
See also:building as may be open to him . Such a licence can be revoked by the issuer, and the holder may be ejected as a trespasser, subject to his right to bring an
See also:action for damages . TICKET-OF-LEAVE, a
See also:term first invented for the " emancipists " in the days of Australian transportation (see
See also:DEPORTATION) ; in the
See also:English penal
See also:system, a document or " pass " handed to a convict who has completed the second stage of his
See also:sentence and is about to enter the third and last, that of conditional liberation or semi-freedom, in which he goes at large to
See also:earn his own livelihood as a more or less
See also:independent member of the community . The " ticket " or " licence " is the outward sign of " remission " gained by
See also:industry and blameless conduct in prison (see PRISON), and it may be forfeited for disobedience or neglect of certain conditions endorsed upon the licence . Convicts are by
See also:law required to
See also:report themselves at an appointed place within
See also:hours after liberation and again every succeeding
See also:month at the
See also:police station nearest to their place of abode, between the hours of nine in the
See also:morning and nine in the evening . They must get their living by honest means and
See also:regular employment, and must reside—that is to say, sleep—at the address notified by them to the police in order that they may be found at once if required for any legal and justifiable purpose . If they ' See Warton's note in the
See also:Bathos (ed .
See also:Pope and Elwin, x . 388) where he quotes from
See also:Tickell's version and from
See also:Addison and says the same author.
See also:change their address or withdraw from any known police
See also:district, they must give notice of their removal at the police station at which they have been
See also:reporting, stating the place to which they are going, and, as far as practicable, their address there, and also at the nearest police station within forty-eight hours of arriving in any other police district in any
See also:part of the
See also:Kingdom They must produce their licences whenever they are called upon to do so by a police officer .
This treatment of offenders who have already expiated their crimes has been deemed tobear heavily on any who are anxious to turn over a new
See also:leaf . To be ever subject to the watchfulness of the police must often increase the licence-holder's difficulty of leading an honest
See also:life . The struggle is known to be often severe; employers of labour are not too ready to accept the services of "
See also:gaol birds," and
See also:free workmen often resent the admission of an old convict amongst their number . Private charity has come forward to diminish or remove this hardship, and many
See also:societies have been called into existence for the purpose of assisting discharged prisoners . They are to be found in most of the
See also:principal cities of the United Kingdom .
See also:London alone has those of the
See also:Church Army, the St
See also:Giles's Christian
See also:Mission, the Salvation Army, the Catholic Aid Society and the Royal Society for the Assistance of Discharged Prisoners, which was founded in 1856 and has done a vast and meritorious
See also:work . It labours chiefly in the metropolis; it is supported by private subscriptions, but it has
See also:control also over the gratuities of the licencees who accept its aid . The prisoners on
See also:release are first examined at the society's
See also:office as to their prospects and wishes; they are given some
See also:money out of their own gratuities; and their " liberty clothing," a
See also:present from the prison, is changed for more suitable clothes . They are then placed in respectable lodging-houses until employment is obtained for them, after which the society undertakes the reporting to the police and by its own agents exercises a
See also:watch over its proteges . There are upwards of sixty-five societies, all certified by the secretary of state, of which the number is increasing; every
See also:year the subscriptions increase, more money is expended, more cases are aided and more ex-convicts are rehabilitated . Unfortunately a large number of those who solicit help belong to the class of " lazy loafers who like neither work nor honesty," and who, when the first is found, will not adhere to the latter . Most of the societies employ agents who
See also:act as intermediaries between employers and ex-convicts and fill a place analogous to that of the "
See also:officers " in parts of the United States (see PROBATION); but the probation officer generally interposes at an earlier stage and
See also:shields the first offender from the consequences of his act, by sparing him a visit to the gaol .
In a speech on Prison Reform in the English
See also:House of
See also:Commons on the loth of
See also:July 191o, the home secretary outlined a proposed
See also:scheme for abolishing ticket-of-leave altogether, and entrusting the after-supervision of released prisoners to a central agency of semi-official character . Aid to discharged prisoners has been largely undertaken in
See also:European countries, where it is known under the name of patronage .
See also:Local societies exist in most of the capitals and chief cities, and efforts are made to
See also:rescue neglected or criminal
See also:children and find work for adults on leaving gaol . This assistance has been called by its keenest supporters the best prophylactic for
See also:crime . Conditional liberation is in force in most of the
See also:Northern states of
See also:America, and prisoners are constantly released on " parole " when they have satisfied the parole
See also:board (of prison officials) that they will not abuse their liberty; a watch is kept over all thus released, who are expected to make a monthly report of their conduct and actual position at the
See also:time of reporting . If any one relapses he is liable to recommittal . See Three Reports of Commons'
See also:Committee on the Operation of the Act substituting other Punishment in lieu of Transportation (1856) ; F . H . Wines, Punishment and Reformation (1895) . (A . G.) .
THOMAS TICKELL (1686-174o)
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