See also:Indian frontier war in 1897-98 . The Afridis had for sixteen years received a
See also:subsidy from the Indian
See also:government for the safeguarding of the Khyber Pass, in addition to which the government had maintained for this purpose a
See also:local regiment entirely composed of Afridis, who were stationed in the pass . Suddenly, however, the tribesmen
See also:rose, captured all the posts in the Khyber held by their own
See also:country-men, and attacked the forts on the Samana
See also:Ridge near
See also:Peshawar . It was estimated that the Afridis and Orakzais could, if
See also:united, bring from 40,000 to 5o,000 men into the
See also:field . The preparations for the expedition occupied some
See also:time, and meanwhile the
See also:Mohmand rising
See also:north-west of the Khyber Pass was first dealt with (see MOHMAND) . The general commanding was General
See also:Lockhart (q.v.) commanding the
See also:Punjab Army
See also:Corps; he had under him 34,882 men,
See also:British and native, in addition to 20,000 followers . The frontier
See also:post of
See also:Kohat was selected as the
See also:base of the
See also:campaign, and it was decided to advance along a single
See also:line . On the 18th of
See also:October the operations commenced, fighting ensuing immediately . The
See also:Dargai heights, which commanded the line of advance, were captured without difficulty, but abandoned owing to the want of
See also:water . On the loth the same positions were gallantly stormed, with a loss of 199 killed and wounded . The progress of the expedition, along a wretched track through the mountains, was obstinately contested on the 29th of October at the Sampagha Pass leading to the Mastura valley, and on the 31st at the Arhanga Pass from the Mastura to the
See also:Tirah valley . The force, in detached brigades, now proceeded to
See also:traverse the Tirah
See also:district in all directions, and to destroy the walled and fortified hamlets of the Afridis .
The two divisions available for this
See also:duty numbered about 20,000 men . A force about 3200 strong commanded by Brigadier-General (afterwards Major-General Sir
See also:Westmacott was first employed to attack
See also:Saran Sar, which was easily carried, but during the retirement the troops were hard pressed by the enemy and the casualties numbered sixty-four . On the 11th of
See also:November Saran Sar was again attacked by the
See also:brigade of Brigadier-General (afterwards Sir
See also:Alfred) Gaselee . Experience enabled better dispositions to be made, and the casualties were only three . The traversing of the valley continued, and on the 13th of November Brigadier-General Kempster's brigade visited the Waran valley via the Tseri Kandao Pass . Little difficulty was experienced during the advance, and several villages were destroyed; but on the 16th, during the return
See also:march, the rearguard was hotly engaged all
See also:day, and had to be relieved by fresh troops next
See also:morning . -The casualties numbered seventy-two . Almost daily the Afridis, too wise to
See also:risk general engagements, waged a perpetual guerrilla warfare, and the various bodies of troops engaged in foraging or survey duties were constantly attacked . On the 21st of November a brigade under Brigadier-General Westmacott was detached to visit the Rajgul valley . The road was exceedingly difficult and steady opposition was encountered . The
See also:objects were accomplished, and the casualties during the retirement alone numbered twenty-three . The last important
See also:work under-taken was the punishment of the Chamkannis, Mamuzais and Massozais .
This was carried out by Brigadier-General Gaselee, who joined hands with the
See also:Kurram movable
See also:column ordered up for the purpose . The Mamuzais and Massozais submitted immediately, but the Chamkannis offered resistance on the 1st and 2nd of
See also:December, the British casualties numbering about
See also:thirty . The Kurram column then returned to its
See also:camp, and Sir W . Lockhart prepared to evacuate Tirah, despatching his two divisions by
See also:separate routes—the 1st under Major-General W . Penn Symons (d . 1899) to return via the Mastura valley, destroying the forts on the way, and to join at Bara, within easy march of Peshawar; the 2nd division under Major-General Yeatman Biggs (d . 1898), and, accompanied by Sir W .
See also:hart, to move along the Bara valley . The base was thus to be transferred from Kohat to Peshawar . The return march began on the 9th of December . The
See also:cold was intense, 21 degrees of
See also:frost being registered before leaving Tirah . The
See also:movement of the 1st division though arduous was practically unopposed, but the 40
See also:miles to be covered by the 2nd division were contested almost throughout .
The actual march down the Bara valley (34 miles) commenced on the loth, and involved four days of the hardest fighting and marching of the campaign . The roadcrossed and recrossed the icy stream, while
See also:sleet and
See also:rain fell constantly . On the loth the casualties numbered about twenty . On the lrth some fifty or sixty casualties were recorded among the troops, but many followers were killed or died of exposure, and quantities of stores were lost . On the 12th the column halted for
See also:rest . On the 13th the march was resumed in improved
See also:weather, though the cold was still severe . The rearguard was heavily engaged, and the casualties numbered about sixty . On the 14th, after further fighting, a junction with the Peshawar column was effected . The 1st division, aided by the Peshawar column, now took possession of the Khyber forts without opposition . Negotiations for peace were then begun with the Afridis, who under the
See also:threat of another expedition into Tirah in the
See also:spring at length agreed to pay the fines and to surrender the rifles demanded . The expeditionary force was broken up on the 4th of
See also:April 1898 . A memorable feature of this campaign was the presence in the fighting line of the Imperial Service native troops under their own
See also:officers, while several of the best known of the Indian princes served on Sir W .
See also:staff . (C . J .
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.