See also:Russian engineer general, was
See also:born at Mittau in
See also:Courland, on the 2oth of May 1818 . His parents were of German descent, and of the
See also:mercantile class, and he himself was intended for commerce, but a strong
See also:instinct led him to seek the career of a military engineer . He entered the school of
See also:engineers at St
See also:Petersburg, and passed into the army in 1836 . In 1848 and the two following years he was employed, as captain of engineers, in the
See also:campaigns against Schamyl in the
See also:Caucasus . On the outbreak of war between Russia and
See also:Turkey in 1853, he served in the
See also:siege of
See also:Silistria, and after the siege was raised was transferred to the
See also:Crimea (see
See also:CRIMEAN WAR) .
See also:Sevastopol, while strongly fortified toward the
See also:sea, was almost unprotected on the
See also:land side . Todleben, though still a junior
See also:field officer, became the animating
See also:genius of the defence . By his advice the
See also:fleet was sunk, in
See also:order to blockade the mouth of the
See also:harbour, and the deficiency of fortifications on the land side was made
See also:good before the
See also:allies could take
See also:advantage of it . The construction of earthworks and redoubts was carried on with extreme rapidity, and to these was transferred, in
See also:part, the
See also:artillery that had belonged to the fleet . It was in the ceaseless improvisation of defensive
See also:works and offensive counterworks to meet every changing phase of the enemy's attack that Todleben's
See also:peculiar power and originality showed itself . He never commanded a large army in the open field, nor was he the creator of a great permanent
See also:system of defence like
See also:Vauban . But he may justly be called the originator of the idea that a fortress is to be considered, not as a walled
See also:town but as an entrenched position, intimately connected with the offensive and defensive capacities of an army and as susceptible of alteration as the formation of troops in
See also:battle or manoeuvre .
Until the 2oth of
See also:June 1855 he conducted the operations of defence at Sevastopol in
See also:person; he was then wounded in the
See also:foot, and at the operations which immediately preceded the fall of the fortress he was not
See also:present . In the course of the siege he had risen from the
See also:rank of
See also:lieutenant-colonel to that of lieutenant-general, and had also been made aide-de-
See also:camp to the
See also:tsar . When he recovered he was employed in strengthening the fortifications at the mouth of the
See also:Dnieper, and also those of Cronstadt . In 1856 he visited England, where his merits were well understood . In 1860 he was appointed assistant to the
See also:Nicholas, and he became subsequently chief of the department of engineers with the full rank of general . He was given no command when war with Turkey began in 1877 . It was not until after the early reverses before
See also:Plevna (q.v.) that the soldier of Sevastopol was called to the front . Todleben saw that it would be necessary to draw works
See also:round Osman
See also:Pasha, and cut him off from communication with the other
See also:Turkish commanders . In due
See also:time Plevna fell . Todleben then undertook the siege of the Bulgarian fortresses . After the conclusion of preliminaries of peace, he was placed in command of the whole Russian army . When the war was over he became
See also:governor of
See also:Odessa and hereditary count .
But his '
See also:health was broken, though for some time after 188o he held the
See also:post of governor of Vilna, and after much suffering he died at
See also:Bad Soden near
See also:Main, on the 1st of
See also:July 1884 . His great
See also:work on the defence of Sevastopol appeared in Russian, French and German (5 vols . 1864-1872) . Besides this, he wrote a
See also:letter to General
See also:Brialmont on the operations around Plevna; this was printed in the Russian engineer journal, and in German in the Archie fur preussische Artillerie-offiziere (1878) . See Brialmont, Le General comte Todleben (Brussels, 1884) ; Rieger, " Todleben u. seines Wirkens Bedeutung fur die Kriegskunst der Zukunft " (in Mittheilungen fiber Gegenstande
See also:des Artillerie- and Geniewesens, Vienna, 1885) ; Witzleben, in Internationale Revue uber die gesammten Armeen and Flotten (1879); Schroder, in Archiv fur Artillerie- and Ingenieur-Offiziere (Berlin, 1888) ;
See also:Life by Schilder (in Russian, St Petersburg, 1885–1887) ; Krahmer, General-Adjutant Graf Todleben (Berlin, 1888) .
TODI (anc. Tuder)
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