See also:work to the required
See also:form by cutting or otherwise, in gauging it and testing its accuracy, or in duly securing it while thus being treated . For the tools of prehistoric man see such articles as ARCHAEOLOGY ;
See also:FLINT IMPLEMENTS; and
See also:EGYPT, §
See also:Art and Archaeology . In beginning a survey of tools it is necessary to draw the distinction between
See also:hand and machine tools . The former class includes any
See also:tool which is held and operated by the unaided hands, as a
See also:plane or saw . Attach one of these to some piece of operating mechanism, and it, with the environment of which it is the central essential
See also:object, becomes a machine tool . A very
See also:simple example is the
See also:common power-driven hack saw for
See also:metal, or the small high-
See also:drill, or the
See also:auger held in a
See also:frame and turned by a winch handle and bevel-gears . The difference between these and a big frame-saw cutting down a dozen boards simultaneously, or the immense machine boring the cylinders of an ocean
See also:liner, or the
See also:lathe, or the
See also:press, is so vast that the relationship is hardly apparent . Often the tool itself is absolutely dwarfed by the machine, of which nevertheless it is the central object and around which the machine is designed and built . A milling machine weighing several tons will often be seen rotating a tool of but two or three dozen pounds'
See also:weight . Yet the machine is fitted with elaborate slides and self-acting movements, and
See also:provision for taking up
See also:wear,and is worth some hundreds of pounds sterling, while the tool may not be worth two pounds . Such apparent anomalies are in
See also:constant evidence . We propose, therefore, first to take a survey of the principles that underlie the forms of tools, and then pursue the subject of their embodiment in machine tools .
THOMAS TOOKE (1774-1858)
JOHN LAWRENCE TOOLE (1832-1906)
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