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JOHN TORREY (1796—1873)

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Originally appearing in Volume V27, Page 61 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JOHN TORREY (1796—1873), American botanist, was born at New York on the 15th of August 1796. When he was 15 or 16 years of age his father received a prison appointment at Greenwich, and there he made the acquaintance of Amos Eaton (1776—1842), a pioneer of natural history studies in America. He thus learned the elements of botany, as well as something of mineralogy and chemistry. In 1815 he began the study of medicine, qualifying in 1818. In the following year he issued his Catalogue of Plants growing spontaneously within Thirty Miles of the City of New York, and in 1824 he issued the first and only volume of his Flora of the Northern and Middle States. In the same year he obtained the chair of chemistry and geology at West Point military academy, and three years later the professorship of chemistry and botany in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. In 1836 he was appointed botanist to the state of New York and produced his Flora of that state in 1843; while from 1838 to 1843 he carried on the publication of the earlier portions of Flora of North America, with the assistance of his pupil, Asa Gray. From 1853 he was chief assayer to the United States assay office, but he continued to take an interest in botanical teaching until his death at New York on the loth of March 1873. He made over his valuable herbarium and botanical library to Columbia College in 186o, and he was the first president of the Torrey Botanical Club in 1873. His name is commemorated in the small coniferous genus Torreya, found in North America and in China and Japan. T. taxifolia, a native of Florida, is known as the Torrey tree or savin, and also as the stinking cedar. TORREY, REUBEN ARCHER (1856— ), American evangelist, was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, on the 28th of January 1856. He graduated at Yale University in 1875 and at the Yale Divinity School in 1878. ` He became a Congregational minister in 1878, studied theology at Leipzig and Erlanger in 1882—1883,', joined D. L. Moody in his evangelistic work in Chicago in 1889, and became pastor of the Chicago Avenue Church in 1894 and afterwards superintendent of the Moody Bible Institute of Chicago. In 1902—1903 he preached in nearly every part of the English-speaking world, and with Charles McCallon Alexander (b. 1867) conducted revival services in Great Britain in 1903—1905; Torrey conducted a similar campaign in American and Canadian cities in 1906—1907.
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