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Originally appearing in Volume V27, Page 193 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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TRANSVAAL, an inland province of the Union of South Africa between the Vaal and Limpopo rivers. It lies, roughly, between 22r and 272° S. and 25° and 32° E., and is bounded S. by the Orange Free State and Natal, W. by the Cape province and the Bechuanaland Protectorate, N. by Rhodesia, E. by Portuguese East Africa and Swaziland. Save on the south-west the frontiers, for the main part, are well defined natural features. From the south-west to the north-east corners of the colony is 570 m.; east 1 Concil trident. Sess. XIII. Can. 2. 2 P. L. Migne. CXX. De corpore et sanguine Domini, cap. viii. 2, cf. xv. 2. 3 Sometimes called of Tours, or of Le Mans. ' See Batifol, Etudes d'histoire et de theologie positive, 2m° serie. 5 Lib. III. Decretalium, tit. 41, n. 6. 6 De captivitate babylonica ecclesiae. De coen5 Domini. But Luther elsewhere professed Consubstantiation ; that is, in modern Lutheran phraseology, the " presence of our Lord's Body " in, with and under the bread. to west its greatest extent is 397 M. The total area is II I,196 sq. m., a little less than the area of Great Britain and Ireland. The boundaries of the Transvaal have varied from time to time. The most important alteration was made in January 1903 when the districts of Utrecht and Vryheid, which then formed the south-eastern part of the country were annexed to Natal. The area thus lost to the Transvaal was 6970 sq. m. (For map see SOUTH AFRICA.) Physical Features.—About five-sixths of the country lies west of the Drakensberg (q.v.), the mountain range which forms the inner rim of the great tableland of South Africa. For a few miles on the Natal-Transvaal frontier the Drakensberg run east and west and here is the pass of Laing's Nek. Thence the mountains sweep round to the north, with their precipitous outer slopes facing east. For some 250 m. within the province the mountains form a more or less continuous range, the highest point being the Mauchberg (8725 ft.) in 24° 20' 10 S. 30° 35 E., while there are several heights of 7000 or more feet. Eastward from the foot of the Drakensberg stretches a broad belt of low land beyond which rise the Lebombo hills running north and south along the parallel of 32° E. and approaching within 35 M. of the sea at Delagoa Bay. The Lebombo hills are flat topped but with a well-defined break on their seaward side. This eastern edge forms the frontier between Transvaal and Portuguese territory. The country west of the Drakensberg, though part of the main South African tableland, is not uniform in character, consisting of (I) elevated downs, (2) their slopes, (3) the flat " bottom " land. The downs or plateaus occupy all the southern part of the country, sloping gradually westward from the Drakensberg. That part of the plateau east of Johannesburg is from 5000 to 6400 ft. high; the western and somewhat larger half is generally below 5000 ft. and sinks to about 4000 ft. on the Bechuanaland border. This plateau land is called the high veld,' and covers about 34,000 sq. m. The northern edge of the plateau follows an irregular line from somewhat north of Mafeking on the west to the Mauchberg on the east. This edge is marked by ranges of hills such as the Witwatersrand, Witwatersberg and Magaliesberg; the Witwatersrand, which extends eastward to Johannesburg, forming the watershed between the rivers flowing to the Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Farther north, beyond the intervening slopes and low bush, are two elevated regions covering together over 4000 sq. m. They are the Water-berg, and, more to the east, separated from the Waterberg by the valley of the Magalakwane tributary of the Limpopo, the Zoutpansberg. The Zoutpansberg has steep slopes and is regarded as the northern termination of the Drakensberg. An eastern offshoot of the Zoutpansberg is known as the Murchison Range. The low land between the high veld and the Waterberg and Zoutpansberg is traversed by the Olifants River, an east flowing tributary of the Limpopo. The true high veld, extending east to west 120 m. and north to south too m., consists of rolling grass covered downs, absolutely treeless, save where, as at Johannesburg, plantations have been made by man, the crest of the rolls being known as builts and the hollows as laagtes or vleys. The surface is occasionally broken by kopjes—either table-shaped or pointed—rising sometimes too ft. above the general level. Small springs of fresh water are frequent and there are several shallow lakes or pans—flat bottomed depressions with no outlet. The largest of these pans, Lake Chrissie, some 5 m. long by t m. broad, is in the south-eastern part of the high veld. The water in the pans is usually brackish. The middle veld is marked by long low stony ridges, known as rands, and these rands and the kopjes are often covered with scrub, while mimosa trees are found in the river valleys. The banken veld, formed by the denudation of the plateau, is much broken up and is rich in romantic scenery. It covers about 27,000 sq. m., and has an average breadth of 40 m. In places, as between Mafeking and Johannesburg, the descent is in terrace-like steps, each step marked by a line of hills; in other places there is a gradual slope and elsewhere the descent is abrupt, with out-lying hills and deep well-wooded valleys. The rocks at the base of the slopes are granite, the upper escarpments are of sedimentary rocks. Thence issue many streams which in their way to the ocean have forced their way through the ranges of hills which mark the steps in the plateau, forming the narrow passes or poorts characteristic of South African scenery. As in the middle veld, rands and kopjes occur in the low or bush veld, but the general characteristic of this part of the country, which covers over 50,000 sq. m., is its uniformity. The low veld east of the Drakensberg begins at about 3000 ft. above the sea and slopes to moo ft. or less until it meets the ridge of the Lebombo hills. The lowest point is at Komati Poort, a gorge through the Lebombo hills only 476 ft. above the sea. West and north of the Drakensberg the general level of the low veld is not much below that of the lowest altitudes of the middle veld, though the climatic ' By the Boers the western and less elevated part of the plateau is known as the middle veld.conditions greatly differ. North of the Zoutpansberg the ground falls rapidly, however, to the Limpopo flats which are little over 1200 ft. above the sea. Near the north-west foot of the Zoutpansberg is the large saltpan from which the mountains get their name. The low veld is everywhere covered with scrub, and water is scarce, the rivers being often dry in the winter season. River Systems.—There are four separate river basins in the Transvaal. Of these the Komati (q.v.) and its affluents, and the Pongola and its affluents rise in the high veld and flowing eastward to the Indian Ocean drain but a comparatively small area of the province, of which the Pongola forms for some distance the south-eastern frontier. The rest of the country is divided between the drainage areas of the Vaal and Limpopo. The Vaal (q.v.) rises in the nigh veld in the Ermelo district not far from the source of the Komati and that of the Usuto tributary of the Pongola. The Vaal drains the greater part of the plateau, flowing westward towards the Atlantic. The waters of the northern escarpments of the plateau and of all the region farther north are carried to the Indian Ocean by the Limpopo (q.v.) and its tributaries the Olifants, Great Marico, Great Letaha, &c. Both the Vaal and the Limpopo in their main course have high steep banks. They carry an immense volume of water during the summer rains, but are very small streams in the winter, when several of their tributaries are completely dry? None of the rivers is navigable within the limits of the province. The absence of alluvial deposits of any size is another characteristic of the Transvaal rivers. For a considerable distance the Vaal forms the frontier between the province and the Orange Free State and in similar manner the Limpopo separates the Transvaal from Bechuanaland and Rhodesia. Since the first advent of white colonists many springs and pans and small streams have dried up, this desiccation being attributed, not so much to decreased rainfall, as to the burning off of the grass every winter, so that the water, instead of soaking in, runs off the hard, baked ground into the larger rivers. (F. R. C.) Geology. A broad ring of crystalline rocks (Swaziland schists) encircles the Transvaal except on the south, where the Karroo formation extends over the Vaal River. Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been deter-mined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists. The following subdivisions have been recognized by Molengraaff: Karroo System, Transvaal System, Vaal River System, South African Primary System. Each of these systems is separated from the other by a strong unconformity. South African Primary System.—The South African Primary System includes a complex of rocks as yet little understood. Ac- cording to Molengraaff it includes the two following series:- -An upper group including the auriferous conglomerates of the Rand: Witwatersrand Series. a lower group (Hospital Hill series) of quartzites, shales and conglomerates. Barberton and Swaziland{ Crystalline schists, quartzites, conglom-Series. 1 erates, intrusive granites. Barberton Series.—Molengraaff considers the Barberton series to be the metamorphosed equivalent of the Hospital Hill series, while Hatch regards it to be older and to form a portion of his Archaean series (Swaziland schists) to which position it is here assigned. The chief outcrops are in the south-western Transvaal, around Zoutpansberg and in Swaziland. They show a great variety of type made up of slates, quartzites, occasional conglomerates, schists with large masses of intrusive granites and gneiss. Witwatersrand' Series.—It is now generally acknowledged that this important series consists of two main groups. Their chief occurrences are in the districts of Witwatersrand, Heidelberg, Klerksdorp and Venterskroon. The lower group (Hospital Hill slates) consists of quartzites and shales, resting on the eroded surface of the older granites and schists, and estimated to be from 10,000 to 12,000 ft. thick. There are occasional bands of conglomerates, sometimes auriferous. In the absence of fossils their age cannot be determined. The upper group consists of conglomerates, grits and quartzites with a few bands of shales. It has obtained notoriety from the conglomerates along certain bands containing gold, when they constitute the famous " banket." The thickness varies from 2300 to over II,000 ft. The conglomerate beds occur in belts forming in descending order the Elsburg series, Kimberley series, Bird Reef series, Livingstone Reef series, Main Reef series. The richest in gold are to be found among the Main Reef series, which yields by far the greater part of the total output of gold from the Transvaal. The individual beds, seldom more than a few feet in thickness and sometimes only a few inches, are interstratified with an immense thickness of quartzites. The conglomerates consist almost entirely of pebbles of quartz set in a hard 2 At the Standerton gauge on the Vaal in 1905-1906, a year of extreme drought, the total flow was 8,017,000,000 cub. ft., of which 7,102,000,000 was storm water. matrix consolidated by the deposition of secondary silica. The conglomerate bands and quartzites contain large quantities of iron pyrites deposited subsequent to their formation, that in the conglomerates containing the gold. Sericite in the form of scales and films characterizes those portions which have been faulted, squeezed or sheared. Sheets of diabase, apparently volcanic flows, and numerous dykes interfere with the regularity of the stratification. The theory of the subsequent infiltration of the gold is that generally accepted. No fossils have been discovered, and except that they represent some portion or portions of rocks of the Pre-Cape formation the age of the upper Witwatersrand beds, as well as that of the lower division, remains an open question. They may safely be considered to be among the oldest auriferous sediments of the world. Vaal River System.—This consists largely of rocks of igneous origin, of which the amygdaloidal diabase of Klipriversberg forms the type. The other rocks include igneous breccias, shales, coarse conglomerates and grits. Near Reitzburg the coarse conglomerates reach a thickness of 400 ft. and about 50o ft. at Kroomdraai. This system rests unconformably on the Witwatersrand series and is unconformably overlain by the Transvaal system. It must, however, be acknowledged that these relationships are very imperfectly understood. Compared with other formations they occupy restricted areas, being only met with south of Johannesburg, around Wolmaransstad, Lichtenburg and east of Marico. Transvaal System.—This is a very definite sequence of rocks covering immense areas in the centre of the country. The following groups are recognized : Waterberg Series, Pretoria Series, Dolomite Series, Black Reef Series. The Black Reef Series is composed of quartzites, sandstone, slates and conglomerate. It varies in thickness from 100 ft. in the southern Transvaal to i000 ft. at Lydenburg. Thin bands of conglomerate, sometimes auriferous, occur near the base. The Dolomite Series, known to the Dutch as " Olifants Klip," consists of a bluish-grey magnesian limestone with bands of chert. The thickness varies from 2600 ft. in the Witwatersrand area to 5000 ft. around Pretoria; and is about 2600 ft. about Lydenburg. It is worn by solution into caves and swallow-holes (Wondergarten). Gold, lead, copper and iron ores occur as veins. So far it has proved to be unfossiliferous. Dykes and intrusive rocks are common. The Pretoria Series, formerly known as the Gatsrand series, consists of repeated alternations of flagstones and quartzites, shales and sheets of diabase. These follow conformably on the Dolomite series. In the. Marico district the shales become highly ferruginous and resemble the Hospital Hill slates of the Witwatersrand series. Near Pretoria duplications of the beds, due to over-thrusting, are not uncommon. The Waterberg Series lies unconformably on the Pretoria series. The colour is usually red, forcibly recalling the Old Red Sandstone and Trias of England. Sandstones, quartzites, conglomerates and breccia make up the formation. They occur to the north-east of Pretoria and occupy still wide areas in the Waterberg district. A complex of igneous rocks of different ages covers immense areas in the central Transvaal. Various types of granite are the predominant variety. Syenites, gabbros, norites and volcanic rocks are also represented. The granite contains two varieties. One is a red granite intruded subsequently to the Waterberg sand-stones; another is a grey variety considered to be older than the Black Reef series and possibly older than the Witwatersrand series. The Karroo System attains its chief development in the south-eastern Transvaal in the districts of Ermelo, Standerton and Wakkerstroom. The latest classification of Molengraaff subdivides the beds as follows Hoogeveld Series = Beaufort beds of Cape Colony. Contains coal-seams. Ecca shales. Not present at Vereeniging. Dwyka conglomerate. Sandstones and conglomerates with coal-seams at Vereeniging. The Dwyka conglomerate resembles the same bed in the Cape province. The boulders consist of very various rocks often of large size. Many of them show glacial striae. The direction of striae on the underlying quartzitic rocks, particularly well seen near the Douglas colliery, Balmoral, point to an ice movement from the north-north-west to south-south-east. The Ecca series, as in the Cape, consists of sandstones and shales. Seams of coal lie near the base, some of them exceeding 20 ft. in thickness, but in this case layers of shaly coal are included. The overlying sandstones afford good building stones, and frequently, as at Vereeniging, yield many fossil plants. These include among others, Glossopteris browniana, Gangamopteris cyclopteroides, Sigillaria Brardi, Bothrodendron Leslii, Noeggerathiopsis Hislopi. The Karroo beds lie almost horizontally, in marked contrast to the highly inclined older rocks. Their distribution, other than in the south-eastern districts, is imperfectly understood. Remnants have been found of their former existence in the neighbourhood of Pretoria; and portions of the Bushveld Sandstone have recently been rule^ated to the Karroo formation. The diamond pipes probably represent some of the most recent rocks of the Transvaal. They may be of Cretaceous age or even later, and in any case belong to the same class as those of Kimberley. The recent deposits of the Transvaal may be considered to be insignificant. They include the gravels and alluviums of the present streams and the almost ubiquitous red sand of aeolian origin.' (W. G. *) Climate.—Although lying on the border of and partly within the tropics, the Transvaal, owing to its high general elevation, and to the absence of extensive marshy tracts, enjoys on the whole a healthy invigorating climate, well suited to the European constitution. The climate of the high veld is indeed one of the finest in the world. The air is unusually dry, owing to the proximity of the Kalahari Desert on the west and to the interception on the east by the Drakensberg of the moisture bearing clouds from the Indian Ocean. The range of temperature is often considerable—in winter it varies from about loo° F. in the shade at I p.m. to freezing point at night. During summer (Oct.–April) the mean temperature is about 73°; during winter about 53° Nov.–Jan. are the hottest and Juneuly the coldest months. The chief characteristic of the rainfall Is its frequent intensity and short duration. During May to August there is practically no rain, and in early summer (Sept.–Dec.) the rainfall is often very light. The heaviest rain is experienced between January and April and is usually accompanied by severe thunderstorms. On the eastern escarpment of the Drakensberg the rainfall is heavy, 5o or 6o in. in the year, but it diminishes rapidly towards the centre of the plateau where it averages, at Johannesburg about 30 while in the extreme west as the Kalahari is approached it sinks to about 12 in. The winds in winter are uniformly dry while dust storms are frequent at all seasons—a fact which renders the country unsuitable for persons suffering from chest complaints. In the eastern part of the plateau snow occasionally falls, and frost at night is common during winter. The banken veld district is also generally healthy though hotter than the plateaus, and malarial fever prevails in the lower valleys. Malarial fever is also prevalent throughout the low veld, but above 3000 ft. is usually of a mild type. Nearly all the country below that elevation is unsuitable for colonization-by whites, while the Limpopo flats and other low tracts, including the district between the Drakensberg and the Lebombo hills are extremely unhealthy, blackwater fever being endemic. In the low veld the shade temperature in summer rises to I13° F., but the nights are generally cool, and down to 2000 ft. frost occurs in winter. The rainfall in the. low country is more erratic than on the plateau, and in some districts a whole year will pass without rain. Flora.—The general characteristic of the flora is the prevalence of herbaceous over forest growths; the high veld is covered by short sweet grasses of excellent quality for pasturage; grass is mingled with protea scrub in the middle veld; the banken veld has a richer flora, the valley levels are well wooded, scattered timber trees clothe their sides and the hills are covered with aloe, euphorbia, protea and other scrub growths. Among the timber trees of this region is the bolkenhout of terblanz (Faurea Saligna) which yields a fine wood resembling mahogany. The scrub which covers the low veld consists mainly of gnarled stunted thorns with flattened umbrella shaped crowns, most of the species belonging to the sub-order mimoseae. A rare species is the acacia erioloba Rameel doorn, akin to the acacia giraffae of Bechuanaland. The wild seringa (Burkea africana) is also characteristic of the low veld and extends up the slopes of the plateau. The meroola (sclerocarya caffra) a medium sized deciduous tree with a rounded spreading top is found in the low veld and up the slopes to a height of 4500 ft. It is common in the lower slopes of the rands of the low veld. Cotton and cotton-like plants and vines are also native to the low veld. Few of the low veld bushes are large or straight enough to furnish any useful wood, and timber trees are wholly absent from the level country. The forest patches are confined to the deep kloofs of the mountains, to the valleys of the larger rivers and to the sea-slopes of the Drakensberg and other ranges, where they flourish in regions exposed to the sea mists. These patches, called " wood-bushes," contain many hardwood trees of great size, their flora and fauna being altogether different from that immediately out-side the wood. Common species in the woodbush are three varieties of yellow wood (Podocarpus), often growing to an enormous size, the Cape beech (myrsine), several varieties of the wild pear (Olinia) and of stinkwood (Oreodaphne) ironwood and ebony. The largest forest areas are in the Pongola district and the Haenertsburg and ' For geology see: F. H. Hatch and G. S. Corstorphine, The Geology of South Africa (London, 2nd ed., 1909); G. A. F. Molengraaff, Geologie de la Republique Sud-africaine du Transvaal, Bull. de la Soc. Geol. de France, 4 serie, tome i., pp. 13–92 (1901). (Translation by J. H. Ronaldson, Edinburgh and Johannesburg, 1904) ; Reports and Memoirs, Geol. Survey (Transvaal, 1903, et seq.) ; H. Kynaston, The Geology of the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony, Handbook, British Association (Cape Town, 1905) ; Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Africa (Johannesburg). i Exceptionally very heavy rain is experienced on the Rand. In January 1907 seven inches of rain fell in 24 hours. Woodbush districts north of the Olifants river. Mimosa and the wild wilge-boom (Salix capensis) are the common trees on the banks and rivers, while the weeping willow is frequent round the farmsteads. Many trees have been introduced and considerable plantations made, as for instance on the slopes between Johannesburg and Pretoria. Among the most successful of the imported trees are citrus trees, the Australian wattle and the eucalyptus. Tobacco and the vine both flourish and most European fruits and vegetables thrive. Of native fruits the misple (Vangueria infausta), miscalled the wild medlar, is of excellent flavour. It is common on the rands and kopjes of the bush veld. Rose and other flowering shrubs and trees grow well on the banken veld and in the valleys. A large yellow tulip (Homerica pallida) is one of the most abundant flowers on moist vlei lands on the high veld and is occasionally met with in the low veld ; slangkop (Urginea Burkei) with red bulbs like a beetroot is a low bush plant apparently restricted to the Transvaal and adjacent Portuguese territory. Both these and many other plants such as gift-blaar and drouk-gras are poisonous to cattle. These poisonous plants are found chiefly in the banken and low veld. Fauna.—When first entered by white men the Transvaal abounded in big game, the lion, leopard, elephant, giraffe, zebra and rhinoceros being very numerous, while the hippopotamus and crocodile were found in all the rivers. The indiscriminate destruction of these animals has greatly reduced their numbers and except in the Pongola district, at one or two other places on the Portuguese frontier, and along the Limpopo the hippopotamus, rhinoceros and crocodile are now extinct in the province. A few elephants, giraffes and zebras (equus burchelli—the true zebra is extinct) are still found in the north and north-eastern districts and in the same regions lions and leopards survive in fair numbers. Other animals fairly numerous are the spotted hyena, long-eared fox, jackal, aard wolf, red lynx, wild cat, wild dog and wart hog. Many species of antelope are found, mostly in small numbers, including the kudu, hartebeest, the sable and roan antelope, the white tailed and the brindled gnu, waterbuck, red buck, duiker, blesbok, palla, springbuck (numerous), steinbok, grysbok and klipspringer. The Africander breed of cattle is a well-marked variety, and a characteristic native domestic animal. Whether originally imported from Europe by the Portuguese or brought from the north by Africans is not certain. It is not found in a wild state and the auffalo (bos caller) is almost if not quite extinct in the Transvaal. Among edentata the ant-bear, scaly ant-eater and porcupine are plentiful. The spring hare (pedetes capensis) abounds. Baboons and other apes are fairly common and there are several species of snakes. The ostrich is found in the Marico and Limpopo districts, and more rarely else-where; the great kori bustard and the koorhaan are common. Insects abound, the greatest pest being the tsetse fly, common in the low veld. Six species of tick, including the blue tick common throughout South Africa, are found, especially in the low veld, where they are the means of the transmission of disease to cattle. Mosquitoes, locusts and ants are also common. The baba or cat fish and the yellow fish are plentiful in the rivers and the trout has been acclimatized. To preserve the native fauna the low country on the Portuguese frontier has been made a game reserve. It is nearly 300 M. long with an average breadth of 50 M. Other reserves have been constituted in the north of the province. Inhabitants.—The population of the Transvaal, on the 17th of April 1904, when the first complete census of the country was taken, was 1,269,951 (including 8215 British soldiers in garrison) ,l or 11'342 persons per sq. m. Of these 20.67%, namely 297,277, were European or white. Of the coloured population 937,127 were aboriginals; and 35,547 were of mixed or other coloured races. Of the whites 178,244 (59'95°/x) were males. The white population is broadly divisible into the British and Dutch elements, the percentage of other whites in 1904 being but 8.6. The Dutch, as their usual designation, Boers, implies, are mainly farmers and stock-raisers and are still predominant elsewhere than in the Witwatersrand and Pretoria districts. They speak the patois of Dutch known as the Taal. The British element is chiefly gathered in Johannesburg and other towns on the Rand and in Pretoria. The total white population in the Witwatersrand and in Pretoria in 1904 was 135,135, and the strength of the British in these districts is shown by the fact that only 20% was -Transvaal born. Of those born outside the Transvaal 24.6% came from other British possessions in Africa and 24'92% from Great Britain or British colonies other than African. Of the non-British or Boer whites Russians form 3.01%, Germans 1.62% and Dutch (of Holland) 1.14%. The natives are found chiefly in Zoutpansberg district, r For most purposes this military element is-omitted in the census returns.where there were 314,797 at the 1904 census, and the adjoining districts of Lydenburg and Waterberg, i.e. in the northern and north-eastern region of the country. The natives belong to the Bantu negro race and are represented chiefly by Basuto, Bechuana, Bavenda, and Xosa-Zulu tribes. None of these peoples has any claim to be indigenous, and, save the Bavenda, all are immigrants since c. 1817-1820, when the greater part of the then inhabitants were exterminated by the Zulu chief Mosilikatze (see § History). After that event Basuto entered the country from the south, Bechuana from the west and Swazi, Zulu, Shangaan and other tribes from the east and south-east. The Basuto, who number 410,020 and form 40% of the total population, are now found mostly in the central, northern and north-eastern districts, forming in Lydenburg about 67%, and in Zoutpansberg about 50% of the inhabitants. The Bechuana, who number 64,751, are almost confined to the western and south-western districts. Next, numerically, to the Basuto and Bechuana peoples are the tribes known collectively as Transvaal Kaffirs, of whom there were 159,860 enumerated at the 1904 census. Altogether the Transvaal Kaffirs form 5o% of the inhabitants of Waterberg district, 30% of Zoutpansberg district and 18 %of Middelburg district. Zulus number 75,601 and form 54% of the population in Wakkerstroom district and 18 % in Standerton district. Elsewhere they are very thinly represented. Swazis form more than half the total population of the Barberton and Ermelo districts and are also numerous in Wakkerstroom. In Barberton, Lydenburg and Zoutpansberg districts Shangaan and other east coast tribes are settled, 80,834 being returned as born in the Transvaal. The Shangaan are members of a Bantu tribe from the Delagoa Bay region who took refuge in the Transvaal between 1860 and 1862 to escape Zulu raids. They were for some time ruled by a Portuguese, Joao Albasini, who had adopted native customs. Since 1873 Swiss Protestant missionaries have lived among then and many of the Shangaans are Christians and civilized. Several other east coast tribes, such as the Bankuna, are of mixed Zulu and Shangaan blood. Among the mixed and other coloured races in the census returns figure 1592 Bushmen, 3597 Hottentots and 1147 Koranna; these people are found chiefly in the south-western regions and are remnants of the true aboriginal population. Besides the tribes whose home is in the Transvaal -considerable numbers of natives, chiefly members of east coast tribes, Cape Kaffirs and Zulus, go to the Witwatersrand to work in the gold and other mines. In all there were, in 1904, 135,042 Bantus in the country born elsewhere. Many east coast natives after working in the mines settle in the northern Transvaal. Of the aboriginal South Africans in the Transvaal, at the 1904 census, 77'69% were born in the Transvaal. Among the aborigines the number of females to males was 114 to 100. (See further KAFFIRS; BECHUANAS; ZULULAND; BUSHMEN; HOTTENTOTS; and for languages, BANTU LANGUAGES). The number of Asiatics in the Transvaal in April 1904 was 12,320, including 904 Malays, natives of South Africa, and 9986 British Indians. They were nearly all domiciled in the Witwatersrand and in the towns of Pretoria and Barberton, where they are engaged mainly in trade. Administrative Divisions and Chief Towns.—The province is divided into sixteen magisterial districts. Zoutpansberg, 25,654 sq. m.; Waterberg, 15,503 sq. m.; Lydenburg, 9868 sq. m., occupy the north and north-eastern parts of the country and include most of the low veld areas. Barberton district, 5106 sq. m., is east central. Piet Retief district (in the south-east), 1673 sq. m., lies between Swaziland and Natal. Along the southern border, going east to west from Piet Retief, are the districts of Wakkerstroom, 2128 sq. m.; Standerton, 1959 sq. m.; Heidelberg, 2410 sq. m.; Potchefstroom, 4805 sq. m.; Wolmaransstad, 2169 sq. m., and, occupying the south-western corner of the province; Bloemhef, 3003 sq. m. In the west are the districts of Lichtenburg, 4487 sq. m.; Marico,. 3626 sq. m. and Rustenberg, 9511 sq. m. The central regions are divided into the districts of Witwatersrand, 1653 sq. m.; Pretoria, 6525 sq. m.; Middelburg, 4977 sq. m.; Carolina, 1877 sq. m.; Ermelo, 2995 sq. m. and Bethel, 1959 sq. m. It will be seen that twenty districts are enumerated, these being the divisions under the Boer government and still commonly used. In 1904 Bloemhof was officially included in Wolmaransstad; Bethel in Standerton; Piet Retief in Wakkerstroom, and Carolina in Ermelo. Each district is sub-divided into field-cornetcies, the cornetcies being themselves divided, where necessary, into urban and rural areas. For parliamentary purposes the districts are divided into single member constituencies. The capital of the province, and of the Union is Pretoria, with a population (19o4) of 36,839 (of whom 21,114 were whites). Johannesburg, the centre of the gold-mining industry, had a population, within the municipal boundary, of 155,642 (83,363 whites). Other towns within the Witwatersrand district are Germiston (29,477), Boksburg (14,757) and Roodepoort-Maraisburg (1 9,949), virtually suburbs of Johannesburg, and Krugersdorp (20,073) and Springs (527o), respectively at the western and east ends of the district. Besides Pretoria and the towns in the Witwatersrand district, there are few urban centres of any size. Potchefstroom, in the south near the Vaal (pop. 9348), is the oldest town in the Transvaal. Klerksdorp (4276) is also near the Vaal, S.S.W. of Potchefstroom. Middelburg (5o85) is the largest towri on the railway between Pretoria and Delagoa Bay; Barberton ( 2433), the centre of the De Kaap gold-fields, lies on the slopes of the Drakensberg overlooking the De Kaap valley. Communications.—Before 1888 the only means of communication was by road. In that year the government sanctioned the building of a " steam tramway "—a railway in all but name—from the Boksburg collieries to the Rand gold mines. In 1890 the construction of the Transvaal section of the railway to connect Pretoria with Delagoa Bay was begun, the line from Lourenco Marques having been completed to Komati Poort in December 1887. The line to Pretoria was not opened until July 1895. Meantime, in September 1892, the Cape railway system had been extended to Johannesburg and in December 1895 the through line between Durban and Pretoria was completed. Since that date many other lines have been built. The majority of the railways are the property of and are worked by the state. With the exception of a few purely local lines they are of the standard South African gauge—3 ft. 6 in. The lines all converge on Johannesburg. The following table gives the distances from that city to other places in South Africa': Inland Centres To Pretoria 46 miles. „ Kimberley 310 „ „ Bloemfontein 263 „ „ Bulawayo (via Fourteen Streams) 979 Salisbury ( ) 1279 Seaports- To Cape Town (via Kimberley) . . 957 „ (via Bloemfontein) . 1013 „ „ Port Elizabeth 714 „ East London 665 „ „ Durban . . . . 483 „ „ Lourenco Marques (via Pretoria) 396 „ Besides the lines enumerated the other railways of importance are: (1) A line from Johannesburg eastward via Springs and Breyten to Machadodorp on the Pretoria-Delagoa Bay railway. (2) A line, 68 m. long from Witbank, a station on the Pretoria-Delagoa Bay line, to Brakpan on the Springs line. By (I) the distance between Johannesburg and Lourenco Marques is 364 m., by (2) 370 M. A continuation of the Springs-Breyten line eastward through Swaziland to Delagoa Bay will give a second independent railway from that port to the Rand, some 6o m. shorter than the route via Pretoria, while from Breyten a line (90 M. long) runs south and east to Ermelo and Piet Retief. (3) A line from Krugersdorp to Zeerust (128 m.). (4) A line from Pretoria to Rustenburg (61 m.). (5) A line from Pretoria to Pietersburg (177 M.). This line was continued (1910) north-west to effect a junction with (6) the " Selati " railway, which, starting from Komati Poort, runs north-west and was in 1910 continued to Leydsdorp. North of the junction with the Pietersburg line the railway goes towards the Limpopo. (7) A line from Belfast on the Pretoria-Delagoa Bay railway to Lydenburg (65 m.). (8) A line from Potchefstroom to Lichtenburg (70 m.). There is an extensive telegraphic system linking the towns of the province to one another, and, through the surrounding countries, with Europe and the rest of the world. There is inland communication via Rhodesia with British Central Africa and Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika. The telegraph lines within the Transvaal have a length of about 3000 M. There is a well-organized postal service with about 400 offices. In connexion with the postal services to outlying districts there is a public passenger service by mailcarts. In the Pietersberg district zebras are occasionally employed. Mineral Resources.—The Transvaal, the principal gold producing country in the world, is noted for the abundance and variety of its mineral resources. The minerals chiefly mined besides gold are diamonds and coal, but the country possesses also silver, iron, copper, lead, cobalt, sulphur, saltpetre and many other mineral deposits. Gold.—The principal gold-bearing reefs are found along the Witwatersrand (” The Rand "). Probably connected with the Rand ' For projected routes, shortening the journey between Europe and Johannesburg, see the Geog. Journ., Dec. 1910.reefs are the gold-bearing rocks in the Klerksdorp, Potchefstroom and Venterskroon districts. Other auriferous reefs are found all along the eastern escarpment of the Drakensberg and are worked in the De Kaap (Barberton) district, on the Swaziland frontier, in the Lydenburg district, in the Murchison Range and in other places in the Zoutpansberg. Goldfields also exist in the Waterberg and on the western frontier in the Marico district (the Malmani fields). The total value of the gold extracted from mines in the Transvaal up to the end of 1909 was about £246,000,000. a. The Witwatersrand and Neighbouring Mines.—The Rand reefs, first mined in 1886, cover a large area. The main reef, continuously traced, measures about 62 in. and runs in an east and west direction. The gold is found in minute particles and in the richest ores the metal is rarely in visible quantities before treatment. In many places the main reef lies at a great depth and some bore-holes are over 5500 ft. deep. The yield of the Rand mines, in 1887 but 23,000 oz.. rose in 1888 to 208,000 oz. In 1892 the yield was 1,210,000 oz.: in 1896 it exceeded 2,280,000 oz. and in 1898 was 4,295,000 oz. The war that followed prevented the proper working of the mines. In 1905 when a full supply of labour was again available the output was 4,760,000 oz., in which year the sum distributed in dividends to shareholders in the Rand mines was over £4,800,000. The total output from the Rand mines up to the end of 1908 was 56,477,240 oz. (see GOLD, and JOHANNESBURG). The Klerksdorp and Potchefstroom goldfields, known also as the Western Rand, were proclaimed in 1887 and up to the close of 1908 had yielded 446,224 oz. b. The De Kaap (Barberton) Fields.—Gold was discovered in this district of the Drakensberg in 1875, but it was not until 1884 that the fields attracted much attention. The mines are, in general, situated on the slopes of the hills and are easily opened up by adits. The reefs are narrower than those of the Rand, and the ore is usually very hard. The output, 35,000 oz. in 1889, was 121,000 oz. in 1896, but only 43,000 OZ. in 1905. The total production (including the Komati and Swaziland fields) to the end of 1908 was 1,097,685 oz. c. The Lydenburg and other Fields.—The Lydenburg fields, re-ported to have been worked by the Portuguese in the 17th century, and rediscovered in 1869, though lying at an elevation of 4500 to 5000 ft. are alluvial—and the only rich alluvial goldfields in South Africa. The ground containing the gold is soil which has escaped denudation. Though several large nuggets have been found (the largest weighing 215 oz.), the total production is not great, the highest output obtained by washing being worth about £300,000 in one year. Besides the alluvial deposits a little mining is carried on, gold being present in the thin veins of quartz which cross the sandstone. The chief centres of the fields are Lydenburg, Pilgrims Rest and Spitzkop. The total output of the Lydenburg fields up to the end of 1908 is estimated at 1,200,000 oz. Farther north, in the Zoutpansberg and on its spurs are the little-worked mines generally known as the Low Country goldfields. Near Pietersburg in the Zoutpansberg is the Eersteling, the first mine worked in the Transvaal. Operations began in 1873 but in 1880 the machinery was destroyed by the Boers. It was not until 1904 that prospecting in the neighbourhood was again undertaken. The fields in the Waterberg and along the Malmani river are very small producers. The total yield to the end of 1908 of the Zoutpansberg, Low Country and other minor fields was 160,535 oz. Diamonds.—The chief diamond fields are in the Pretoria district. The ground was discovered to be diamondiferous in 1897, but it was not until 1903, when mining began on the Premier mine, situated 20 M. north-east of Pretoria, that the wealth of the fields was proved. The site of the Premier mine had been recognized as diamond-bearing in March 1898. The owner of the land, a Boer named Prinsloo, refused to allow experimental spade work, but after the conclusion of the An to-Boer War in 1902 sold his property for £55,000 to T. Cullinan (a Cape colonist and one of the chief contractors in the building of Johannesburg), whose faith in the richness of the ground was speedily justified. In June 1903 mining began and the diamonds found in the first five months realized over £90,000. On the 27th of January 1905, the largest diamond in the world, weighing 3025} carats, over 12 lb avoirdupois, was found in the mine and named the Cullinan. The Premier mine is of the same character as the diamond mines at Kimberley (see DIAMOND), and is considerably larger. The area of the " pipe " containing blue ground is estimated at 350,000 sq. yds. Besides the Pretoria fields there are diamondiferous areas (alluvial diggings) in the Bloemhof district on the Vaal river north-east of Kimberley, and in other regions. In 1898 the output for the whole of the Transvaal' was valued at. £44,000. The output since the opening of the Premier mine has been: 19o3-19o4, £685,720; 1904-1905, £1,198,530; 1905-1906, £968,229; 1906-1907, £2,203,511 ; 1907-1908, £1,879,551; 1908-1909, £1,295,296. Coal and other Minerals.—There are extensive beds of good coal, including thick seams of steam coal near the Rand and other gold-fields. Coal appears to have' been first discovered in the neighbour-hood of Bronkhorst Spruit between the Wilge and Olifants rivers, where it was so near the surface that farmers dug it up for their own use. In 1887 coal was found at Boksburg in the East Rand, and a mine was at once started. The principal collieries are those at Boksburg and at Brakpan, also on the East Rand, with a coal area of 2400 acres; at Vereeniging and Klerksdorp, near the Vaal; at Watervaal, 12 M. north of Pretoria ; and in the Middelburg district, between Pretoria and Lourenco Marques. Like that of Natal the Transvaal coal burns with a clear flame and leaves little ash. The mines are free from gas and fire damp and none is more than 500 ft. deep. The output in 1893, the first year in which statistics are available, was 548,534 tons (of 2000 lb) ; in 1898 it was 1,907,808 tons, and for the year ending 30th of June 1909 was 3,312,413 tons, valued at £851,150. Iron and copper are widely distributed. The Yzerberg near Marabastad in the Zoutpansberg consists of exceedingly rich iron ore, which has been smelted by the natives for many centuries. Silver is found in many districts, and mines near Pretoria have yielded in one year ore worth £30,000. Salt is obtainable from the many pans in the plateaus, notably in the Zout(salt)pansberg, and was formerly manufactured in considerable quantities. Agriculture.—Next to mining agriculture is the most important industry. At the census of 1904 over 500,000 persons (excluding young children), or 37 % of the population, were returned as engaged in agriculture. Some 25 % more women than men were so employed, this preponderance being due to the large number of Kaffir women and the few native men who work in the mealie fields. The chief occupation of the majority of the white farmers is stock-raising. The high veld is admirably adapted for the raising of stock, its grasses being of excellent quality and the climate good. Even better pasture is found in the low veld, but there stock suffers in summer from many endemic diseases, and in the more northerly regions is subject to the attack of the tsetse fly. The banken veld is also unsuited in summer for horses and sheep, though cattle thrive. Much of the stock is moved from the lower to the higher regions according to the season. Among the high veld farmers the breeding of merino sheep is very popular. The amount of land under cultivation is very small in comparison with the area of the province. In 1904 only 951,802 acres, or 1.26 % of the total acreage was under cultivation, and of the cultivated land nearly half was farmed by natives. The small proportion of land tilled is clue to many causes, among which paucity of populations is not the least. Moreover while large areas on the high veld are suitable for the raising of crops of a very varied character, in other districts, including a great part of the low veld, arable farming is impossible or unprofitable. Many regions suffer permanently from deficient rainfall; in others, owing to the absence of irrigation works, the water supply is lost, while the burning of the grass at the end of summer, a practice adopted by many farmers, tends to impoverish the soil and render it arid. The country suffers also from periods of excessive heat and general drought, while locusts occasionally sweep over the land, devouring every green thing. In some seasons the locusts, both red and brown, come in enormous swarms covering an area 5 M. broad and from 40 to 6o m. long. The chief method employed for their destruction is spraying the swarms with arsenic. The districts with the greatest area under cultivation are Heidelberg, Witwatersrand, Pretoria, Standerton and Krugersdorp. The chief crops grown for grain are wheat, maize (mealie) and kaffir corn, but the harvest is inadequate to meet local demands. Maize is the staple food of the Kaffirs. Since 1906 an important trade has also arisen in the raising of mealies for export by white farmers. Oats, barley and millet are largely grown for forage. Oats are cut shortly before reaching maturity, when they are known as oat-hay. The chief vegetables grown are potatoes, pumpkins, carrots, onions and tomatoes. Fruit farming is a thriving industry, the slopes of the plateaus and the river valleys being specially adapted for this culture. At the census of 1904 over 3,032,000 fruit trees were enumerated. There were 163,000 orange trees and nearly 6o,000 other citrus trees, 430,000 grape vines, 276,000 pine plants and 78,000 banana plants. Oranges are cultivated chiefly in the Rustenburg, Waterberg, Zoutpansberg and Pretoria districts, grapes in Potchefstroom, Pretoria and Marico, as well as in the Zoutpansberg and Waterberg, to which northern regions the cultivation of the banana is confined. In the tropical district of the Limpopo valley there is some cultivation of the coffee-tree, and this region is also adapted for the growing of tea, sugar, cotton and rice. Tobacco is grown in every district, but chiefly in Rustenburg. Of the 3,032,000 lb of tobacco grown in 1904, Rustenburg produced 884,000 lb. A department of agriculture was established in 1902, and through its efforts great improvements have been made in the methods of farming. To further assist agriculture a land bank was established by the government in 1907 and an agricultural college in 1910. Land Settlement.—The land board is a government department charged with the control of Crown lands leased to settlers on easy terms for agricultural purposes. Between 1902 and 1907 about 550 families were placed on the land, their holdings aggregating over 500,000 acres. The Crown lands cover in all about 2I,15oo,000 acres. Large areas of these lands, especially in the northern districts, are used as native reserves. Other Industries.—There are few manufacturing undertakings other than those connected with mining, agriculture and the development of Johannesburg. There is a large factory for the supply ofdynamite to the gold mines. The building and construction trade is an important industry on the Rand, where there are also brick-works, iron and brass foundries, breweries and distilleries. There are a number of flour mills and jam factories in various centres. A promising home industry, started under English auspices after the war of 1899–1902, is the weaving by women of rugs, carpets, blankets, &c., from native wool. Export and Import Trade.—Bef ore the discovery of gold the grade of the Transvaal was of insignificant proportions. This may be illustrated by the duties paid on imports, which in 188o amounted to £20,306. In 1887 when the gold-mining industry was in its infancy the duty on imports had risen to £190,792, and in 1897, when the industry was fully developed, to £1,289,039• The Anglo-Boer War completely disorganized trade, but the close of the contest was marked by feverish activity and the customs receipts in 1902–1903 rose to £2,176,658. A period of depression followed, the average annual receipts for the next three years being £1,683,159. In 1908–1909 they were £1,588,960. The chief exports are gold and diamonds. Of the total exports in 1908, valued at £33,323,000, gold was worth £29,643,000 and diamonds £1,977,000. Next in value came wool (L226,000), horses and mules (£iio,000), skins, hides and horns (£io6,000), tobacco (£89,000), tin, coal, copper and lead. The gold and diamonds are sent to England via Cape Town; the other exports go chiefly to Deiagoa Bay. The imports, valued at £16,196,000 in 1908, include goods of every kind. Machinery, provisions, largely in the form of tinned and otherwise preserved food, and liquors, clothing, textiles and hardware, chemicals and dynamite, iron and steel work and timber, and jewelry are the chief items in the imports. Of the imports about 50% comes from Great Britain and about 20% from British colonies (including other South African states). Half the imports reach the Transvaal through the Portuguese port of Lourengo Marques, Durban taking 25% and the Cape ports the remainder. There is free trade between the Transvaal and the other British possessions in South Africa, and for external trade they all adhere to a Customs Union which, as fixed in 1906, imposes a general ad valorem duty of 15% on most goods save machinery, on which the duty is 3 %. A rebate of 3 % is granted on imports from Great Britain. Constitution.—The existing constitution dates from 1910. The province is represented in the Union Parliament by eight senators and thirty-six members of the House of Assembly. For parliamentary purposes the province is divided into single-member constituencies. Every adult white male British subject is entitled to the franchise, subject to a six months' residential qualification.' There is no property qualification. All electors are eligible to the assembly. Voters are registered biennially, and every five years there is an automatic redistribution of seats on a voters' basis. Central Government.—At the head of the executive is a provincial administrator, appointed by the Union ministry, who holds office for five years and is assisted by an executive committee of four members elected by the provincial council. The provincial council consists of 36 members elected for the same constituencies and by the same electorate as are the members of the House of Assembly. The provincial council, which has strictly local powers, sits for a statutory period of three years. The control of elementary education was guaranteed to the provincial council for a period of five years from the establishment of the Union. In May 1903 an inter-colonial council was established to deal with the administration of the railways in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony (known as the Central South African railways), the South African constabulary and other matters common to the Orange River and Transvaal colonies. This council was presided over by the governor of the Transvaal and formed an important part of the administrative machinery. By agreement between the two colonies the council was dissolved in 1908. In 1910 the control of the railways passed to the harbours and railway board of the Union of South Africa. Local Government.—The unit of administration is the field cornetcy. The semi-military organization of these divisions, which existed under the South African republic, has been abolished, and field-cornets, who are nominated by the provincial government, are purely civil officials charged with the registration of voters, births and deaths, the maintenance of public roads, &c. The chief local authorities are the municipal bodies, many " municipalities " being rural areas centred round a small town. The municipal boards possess very The number of electors at the first registration (1907) was 105,368. wide powers of local government. The Witwatersrand municipalities are for certain purposes combined into one authority, and representatives of these municipalities, together with representatives of the chamber of mines, compose the Rand water board. The basis of municipal qualification is ownership of real property of the value of £loo, or the tenancy of premises of the value of £300, or annual value of £24. Neither aliens nor coloured British subjects can exercise the franchise. Finance.—In 1883, before the Rand gold mines had been found revenue and expenditure were about £150,000; in 1887, when the mines were beginning to be developed, the receipts were £668,000 and the expenditure £721,000; in 1889 the receipts had risen to £1,577 000 and the expenditure to £1,226,000. In 1894 the receipts first exceeded two millions, the figures for that year being: revenue L2,247,000, expenditure £1,734,000. The figures for the four following years were: Revenue. Expenditure. 1895 £3,539,000 £2,679,000 1896 £4,807,000 £4,671,000 1897 £4,480,000 £4,394,000 1898 £3,983,000 £3,971,000 The public debt of the Boer government was £2,500,000. In 1899 war broke out and the finances of the country were disorganized. The accounts of the colony began, for normal purposes, with the year ending 3oth of June 1903, and ended in June 1910 on the establishment of the Union. In May 1903 a loan of £35,000,000, guaranteed by the imperial government and secured on the general revenues of the Transvaal and Orange River colonies, was issued to the extent of £30,000,000, the balance being raised about the middle of 1904. This loan bears interest at 3% per annum, with a sinking fund of 1%, and as to the £30,000,000 was issued at par, the £5,000,000 being put up to tender and realizing an average price of £98, 1os. 3d. The principal head in the allocation of this loan was the purchase of the railways in the two colonies at a cost of £13,520,000, while an additional £5;958,000 was devoted to the building of new lines, purchases of rolling stock, &c. The debt of the South African Republic was paid off ; £542,000 went to make good the deficit on the administration for 1901-1902; the sum of £1,561,000 was paid to burghers of the Cape Colony and Natal as compensation for war losses; £3,000,000 was devoted to land settlement schemes and £2,000,000 to public works other than railways. The railways were treated as the common property of both colonies, and to administer them and other common services the inter-colonial council was created. In addition to the charges enumerated £5,000,000 were spent out of the loan on " repatriation and compensation " of burghers who had suffered during the war.' In addition to the £35,000,000 guaranteed loan of 1903-1904 two small loans for land settlement and public works, together amounting to £254,800, were issued, and in 1907 an imperial guarantee was given for the raising of another loan, of £5,000,000, by the colonial government. The act authorizing the loan devoted £2,500,000 to the establishment of a land and agricultural bank, and £2,500,000 to railways, public works, irrigation and agricultural settlement and development. The loan was raised, as to £4,000,000, in January 1909, the average price obtained being £96, 3s. 7d. The chief sources of revenue are customs, mining royalties, railways, native revenue (poll tax and passes), posts and telegraphs, stamp and transfer duties, land revenue and taxes on trades and professions. A tax of to% is levied on the annual net produce of all gold workings (proclamation of 1902) and the government takes 6o% of the profits on diamond mines. In TRANSVAAL [GOVERNMENT—FINANCE expenditure of the Council was derived from and spent upon the Transvaal, so that had the accounts of the two colonies been entirely distinct the figures of the Transvaal budget for 1903-19o7 would have balanced at about £8,500,000 a year. In July 1907 when the control of the finances passed into the hands of the Transvaal legislature the credit balance on the consolidated fund was £960,000. In 1908 the inter-colonial council was dissolved, but the railways continued to be administered as a joint concern by a railway board on which the governments of both colonies were represented. This board in 1910 handed over its duties to the harbour and railway board of the Union. The Transvaal revenue (apart from railway receipts) in 1908-1909 was £5735,000, the corresponding expenditure £4,524,000. The budget figures for 1909-1910 were: revenue £5,943,000; expenditure £5,231,000. The diamond revenue yielded £235,000 and the gold profits tax £965,000. The balance handed over to the Union government was £1,or5,000. Justice.—The laws are based on Roman-Dutch law, as modified by local acts. Courts of first instance are presided over by magistrates, the whole colony being divided into sixteen magisterial wards. There is a provincial division of the Supreme Court of South Africa sitting at Pretoria (consisting of a judge president and six puisne justices) with original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters. A local division of the Supreme Court, formerly known as the Witwatersrand high court (consisting of one or more judges of the Supreme Court) sits permanently at Johannesburg and has civil and criminal jurisdiction throughout the Rand. Circuit courts are held as occasion requires. Police.—Pretoria and Johannesburg have their own police forces. The rest of the province is policed by the South African constabulary, a body 3700 strong, to which is also entrusted customs preventive work, fire brigade work and such like functions. Education.—Since 1910 education other than elementary is under the control of the Union parliament. The provincial council is responsible for elementary education. At the head of the permanent staff is a director of education. School boards and district committees are formed, but their functions are almost entirely, advisory. In accordance with the terms of the Education Act of 1907 of the Transvaal colony, state schools are provided for the free instruction of all white children in elementary subjects. Attendance at school between the ages of 7 and 14 is, with certain exceptions, compulsory. The medium of instruction in the lower standards is the mother tongue of the children. Above standard III. English is the medium of instruction. No religious tests are imposed on teachers and religious teaching is confined to undenominational Bible teaching. No government grants are given to private schools. (In 1906 members of the Dutch community established a " Christian National Education " organization and opened a number of denominational schools.) Secondary education is provided in the towns and high schools are maintained at Pretoria, Johannesburg and Potchefstroom. There are University colleges at Pretoria and Johannesburg. Education of the natives is chiefly in the hands of the missionaries, but the government gives grants in aid to over too schools for natives. At the census of 1904 the natives able to read formed less than r of the population. At the same census 95 % of the white population over 21 were able to read and write; of the whites between the ages of 5 and 14 59 % could read and write. State schools for white children were established by the Boer government, and in the last year (1898) before the British occupation there were 509 schools and 14,700 scholars, the education vote that year being £226,000. In 1902 the property vested in various 1907 an excise duty was, for the first time, levied on beer. The school committees was transferred to government and control of principal heads of expenditure are on railways and other public the schools vested in a department of state. In 1909 there were works, including posts and telegraphs, justice, education, police, 670 government elementary schools, with more than 42,000 scholars. land settlement and agriculture generally, mines and native In 1997 :1908 the education vote exceeded £ 00,000. Religion.—Of the total population 26.69 are Christians, and affairs. Since June 1910 the control of state finance passed of the Christians 80% are whites. No fewer than yo% of the people, including the bulk of the natives, are officially returned as of " no religion." Of the 336,869 Christians 69,738 were natives. Nearly half of the white community, 142,540 persons, belong to one or other of the Dutch Churches in the Transvaal, but they have only 4305 native members. Of Dutch Churches the first and chief is the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk, founded by the Voor- trekkers and originally the state Church. The others are the Neder- duitsch Gereformeerde Kerk, an offshoot of the Church of the same name at the Cape, and the Gereformeerde Kerk (the "Dopper " Church) with some 15,000 members and adherents in the Transvaal. The " Dopper " Church, an offshoot of the Separatist Re- formed Church of Holland, is distinguished from the other Dutch churches in being more rigidly Calvinistic and " Biblical," and in not using hymns. A " Scouts " Church was formed at the end of the war of 1899-1902 by burghers who had previously acted as " National Scouts "and were ostracized by the synods of their former Churches. After some years of friction " National Scouts " were however readmitted, on terms, to their former membership. to the Union parliament, but the Transvaal provincial council is empowered to raise revenue for provincial purposes by direct taxation and, with the consent of the Union government, to borrow money on the sole credit of the province. In the five years 1902-1907 the average annual receipts and expenditure amounted to £4,00,000, exclusive of the sums received and expended on account of the loans mentioned. The inter-colonial council received and spent in the four years 1903-1907 over £21,500,000, including some £3,500,000 paid in from revenue by the Transvaal and Orange River colonies to make good deficits. Fully two-thirds of the revenue and 'Besides this £5,000,000 an additional sum of £9,500,000 was spent by the imperial government in relieving the necessities of those who had suffered during the war, but of this £9,500,000 the sum of £2,500,000 was in payment for goods received. The Anglicans number 67,882 (including 13,033 natives), and are 19 % of the European population. At the head of the community is the bishop of Pretoria. Next in numbers according to European membership among the Protestant bodies are Presbyterians, 19,821 (including 1194 natives), and Methodists 37,812 (including 20,648 natives). The Lutherans are the chief missionary body. Of a total membership of 24,175 only 5770 are European. The Protestant European community amounts altogether to 35% of the white population. The Roman Catholics number 16,453 (including 2005 natives) and form 5 % of the European population, and the Hebrews 15.478 or 5.34 °,, of the European inhabitants. Defence.—A strong garrison of the British army is maintained in the province, the headquarters of all the imperial military forces in South Africa being at Pretoria. These forces are under the command of a lieutenant-general, who, however, acts under the supreme direction of the governor-general. The Transvaal forms a distinct district command under a major-general. A volunteer force was established in 1904, for service within the Transvaal, or wherever the interests of the country might require. The force, disciplined and organized by a permanent staff of officers and non-commissioned officers of the regular army, is about 6500 strong, and consists of a brigade of artillery, four mounted, three composite and four infantry corps, a cyclist corps, &c. There are also cadet companies some 3000 strong. (F. R. C.) HISTORY A. Foundation of the Republic.—At the beginning of the Igth century the country now known as the Transvaal was inhabited, apparently somewhat sparsely, by Bavenda and other Bantu negroes, and in the south-west by wandering Bushmen and Hottentots. About 1817 the country was invaded by the chieftain Mosilikatze and his impis, who were fleeing from the vengeance of Chaka, king of the Zulus. The inhabitants were unable to withstand the attacks of the disciplined Zulu warriors—or Matabele, as they were henceforth called—by whom large areas of central and western Transvaal were swept bare. The remnants of the Bavenda retreated north to the Waterberg and Zoutpansberg, while Mosilikatze made his chief kraal at Mosega, not far from the site of the town of Zeerust. At that time the region between the Vaal and Limpopo was scarcely known to Europeans. In 1829, however, Mosilikatze was visited at Mosega by Robert Moffat, and between that date and 1836 a few British traders and explorers visited the country and made known its principal features. Such was the situation when Boer emigrants first crossed the Vaal. The causes which led to the exodus of large numbers of Dutch farmers from Cape Colony are discussed elsewhere (see
End of Article: TRANSVAAL
TRANSVERSE RIB (Fr. arc doubleau)

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