See also:kingdom of Hungary . It is bounded by Hungary proper on the W. and N., by
See also:Bukovina on the N.E. and by Rumania on the E. and S., and has an
See also:area of about 21,000 sq. m . Transylvania has the
See also:form of an irregular circle, and is a high
See also:plateau of a mean altitude of 1000–1600 ft. above
See also:sea-level, surrounded on all sides by mountains . These are known under the general name of Transylvanian Mountains (q.v.), which are the south-eastern continuation of the Carpathian
See also:system, and fill the interior of the
See also:country with their ramifications . On the west or Hungarian side there are comparatively easy passes into the interior, but on the east and south frontiers the lofty mountains give Transylvania the aspect of a huge natural fortress . Among the highest peaks are Negoi (8345 ft.), Bucsecs (8230 ft.), Pictrosu (7544 ft.) and
See also:Konigstein (7352 ft.) . There are numerous valleys, ravines and canons in the network of mountains covering the interior of the country . The
See also:principal plains are: in the valley of the Szamos near
See also:Des and Besztercze (Bistritz); in the
See also:middle course of the Maros the beautiful Hatszeg valley; the fertile Cibin valley around Nagy-Szeben; the valley of the Aluta near Csik-Szereda, and the one extending from Reps to the Roteturm pass; and lastly the beautiful and fertile Burzenland in the vicinity of Brasso: The altitude of the valleys generally increases towards the east of Transylvania, the lowest depression being found in the western
See also:part of the Maros valley . Almost in the centre of the country lies a fertile plain about 6o m. in length and 5o m. in breadth, called Mezoseg or ' The Latin name appears first after the 12th century, and signifies " beyond the woods," i.e. from Hungary; the Hungarian and Rumanian name both mean "
See also:land." The German name is usually derived from the seven principal fortified towns or " burgs," founded by the German colonists, though some authorities prefer to connect it with the Cibin Mountains on the south frontier . the Transylvania plain . The principal
See also:rivers of Transylvania, which are either tributaries of the Theiss, or flow
See also:direct into the
See also:Danube, are: the Maros, which rises in the mountains forming the eastern
See also:wall of Transylvania, and taxing first a
See also:northern course flows through the country from east to west; its principal affluents are the Gorggeny, the
See also:Great and Little Kokel or Nagy and Kis Kiikiillo, the
See also:Steel-1 (Sztrigi) and the Cserna on the
See also:left, and on the right the Ampoly and the Aranyos, which is
See also:rich in auriferous sediments . The Aluta (Alt or Olt) rises not far from the Maros, but takes a southerly direction and pierces the Carpathians at the Roteturm pass, to enter Rumania; its principal tributaries in Transylvania are the Vargyas, the Homorod, the Cibin and the Burzen .
The Szamos, formed by the junction of the Great (Nagy) and Little (Kis) Szamos, whose principal affluent is the Bistritz; the Zsil or Jiul; and the
See also:White and the Swift Koros are the other principal rivers . The largest lake of Transylvania. is the Czeger or llodosser See, 13 M. long, situated near Szamos-Ujvar, while a great number of small but beautiful
See also:mountain lakes are found . The
See also:climate of Transylvania is healthy; hot summers alternate with very
See also:cold winters, but the rainfall is not great . Transylvania abounds in
See also:mineral springs of all kinds, especially saline and chalybeate, the principal ones being found at Borszek, Elopatak, Homorod, Rodna, Tusnad and Zaizon . The principal occupations of the inhabitants are
See also:cattle-rearing and
See also:mining . Of the
See also:total area of Transylvania 22.6 % is arable land; 16.5°A,' meadows and gardens; 9.5% pastures and c.5% vineyards; while 37.3% is covered by forests and 13.5% is unproductive
See also:soil . The vegetation of Transylvania is luxuriant, except of course in the higher mountain zones . Fruits abound, as apples,
See also:pears, peaches, apricots, plums, cherries, chestnuts and almonds; mulberries are also cultivated . The
See also:vine flourishes best in the valley of the Maros . The chief
See also:crop is
See also:maize; but wheat,
See also:rye and other grains, potatoes,
See also:flax and
See also:tobacco are also grown . On the boundary mountains the trees are mainly coniferous; in the interior oaks, elms, beeches and ashes are conspicuous . Bears, wolves, foxes, boars and various varieties of
See also:game are found, and on some of the mountains the
See also:chamois .
There is abundant pasturage on which excellent cattle are reared; and in some districts buffaloes are bred for
See also:draught purposes . More important is the breeding of a sturdy
See also:race of horses, thousands of which are annually exported . The mountains maintain large flocks of
See also:sheep, of which two kinds are distinguished—with a
See also:short-stapled and a coarse long-stapled wool respectively . Silkworms are bred, and some
See also:silk is spun; and the export of
See also:honey and
See also:wax is not inconsiderable . Transylvania possesses the richest gold mines in
See also:Europe, and this
See also:metal is also " washed " in some of the streams, chiefly by
See also:gipsies . The gold is often found in conjunction with tellurium (first discovered in Transylvania in 1782) and is extracted principally at Nagyag, Kapnik-Banya, Zalatna and Vorospatak . In 1900 the value of the gold extracted was £300,000 .
See also:Silver, copper, lead and iron are worked to some profit, while arsenic,
See also:alum, Lad. marble,
See also:porcelain, precious and
See also:building stones are also found .
See also:Coal is
See also:mined in the valley of the Zsil, but the abundance of
See also:timber has retarded its exploitation . Some of the saline springs yield
See also:salt enough to render their evaporation profitable . The principal places where salt is extracted are at Maros-Ujvar, Des-Akna, Kolozs, Torda and Vizakna . In 1900 the value of the mineral products, except salt, was £1,000,000 .
See also:industry of Transylvania, although not very
See also:developed, made some progress during the last quarter of the 19th century, and is mostly in the hands of the "
See also:Saxons." The principal branches are
See also:brewing, distilling,
See also:leather, paper, petroleum-refineries,
See also:cloth and earthenwares . The production of
See also:linen from flax and hemp is a home industry throughout Transylvania . The commerce is fairly active, and is mainly in cattle,
See also:dairy products,
See also:wood and wooden articles, and petroleum . The population in Igloo numbered 2,456,838 . Until 1848 the chief influence and privileges, as well as the only
See also:political rights, were divided among the three " privileged nations " of the Hungarians, Szeklers and Saxons . The first are the descendants of the Magyar conquerors . The Szeklers are of disputed origin, but closely akin to the
See also:Magyars (see SZEKLERS) . The Saxons are the posterity of the German immigrants brought by
See also:King Geza II . (1141–1161) from
See also:Flanders and the
See also:lower Rhine to cultivate and repeople his desolated territories . At first these were known as Teutones, Teutonici Hospites and Flandrenses, but since the beginning of the 13th century the general name of " Saxons," as tantamount to " Germans," has prevailed . They are generally the most advanced section of the population . Their
See also:literary language is High German, but their spoken language is more of the Low German character .
The Hungarians and Szeklers together number 814,994, and the Saxons 233,019, but by far the most numerous
See also:element, though long excluded from power and political equality, is formed by the Rumanians, 1,397,282 in number, who arespread all over the country . The gipsies of Transylvania, who are heard of under a voivode or
See also:prince of their own in 1417, are estimated at 50,000; many of them have taken to agriculture or gold-washing . Jews, Armenians, Bulgarians, Ruthenians and Greeks are also represented in the medley of peoples . The Magyars are mostly
See also:Roman Catholics or Unitarians, the Germans Protestants, and the Rumanians adherents of the Greek
See also:Church Transylvania, which was completely incorporated with Hungary in 1868, forms since 1876 one of the seven large administrative divisions into which Hungary was divided in that
See also:year . It was subdivided into fifteen countries, and contains the following principal towns: Kolozsvar, Brassb, Nagy-Szeben, Maros-Vasarhely, Besztercze, Fogaras, Torda,
See also:Segesvar, Gyula-Fehervar, Des, Szamos-Ujvar .
See also:History.—Transylvania formed part of the Roman province of
See also:Dacia . After the withdrawal of the Romans the country became for centuries the
See also:prey of the various peoples who swept across it in their restless migrations . At the beginning of the 1 rth century (1004)
See also:Stephen I. of Hungary made himself
See also:master of the land, which was thenceforward governed as a Hungarian province by a voivode . As mentioned above, King Geza II. introduced German colonists, who founded Nagy-Szeben (Hermannstadt), and in 1211 King Andreas II. called in the German Teutonic orders, who settled in the Burzenland . These German colonists were granted
See also:special privileges, and founded many of the Transylvanian towns . As by the
See also:death of King
See also:Louis II. in 1526 the Hungarian
See also:crown fell to the
See also:house of
See also:Austria, the voivode
See also:John Zapolya succeeded in rendering him-self
See also:independent . He and his successors, who were generally elected by the
See also:people, were supported by the
See also:Turks against the House of Austria, while the difficult nature of their country pre-served them on the other
See also:hand from becoming too dependent on their powerful
See also:allies .
After the defeat of the Turks atVienna in 1683, their influence in Transylvania waned, and in 1699, by the peace of Carlowitz, the
See also:Porte acknowledged the
See also:suzerainty of
See also:Leopold I. of Austria over Transylvania . By the Leopoldine diploma of 1691 Leopold had guaranteed the
See also:ancient rights and
See also:laws of the land, and
See also:united it formally with the Hungarian crown . In 1765 Maria
See also:Theresa made it a
See also:grand principality (Grossfurstentum) . The efforts of the Rumanian inhabitants to secure recognition as a
See also:fourth " nation," and the opposition of the non-Magyar population to a closer union with Hungary, led to troubles early in the 19th century, culminating in 1848 . In 1849 Transylvania was divided from Hungary by an imperial decree, and became an
See also:Austrian crown-land; but in 186o Transylvania became an autonomous province, with a°
See also:Diet, and a high executive power of its own . The Diet assembled in Nagy-Szeben in 1863 decreed the
See also:complete separation from Hungary, the union with Austria, and the recognition of the Rumanians as the " fourth nation." But the Hungarian
See also:government did not recognize this Diet, and the Diet assembled at Kolozsvar in 1865, in which the Hungarians had the majority, decreed again the union with Hungary . By the compromise of 1867 Austria granted the union of Transylvania with Hungary, which was completed in 1868 . Transylvania lost every vestige of autonomy, and was fully and completely incorporated with Hungary . Since that
See also:time the Magyarization of the principality has steadily been carried through, in spite of the bitter protests and discontent of both the Saxons and Rumanians . A Hungarian university was founded at Kolozsvar in 1872; and Hungarian is recognized as the official language . See F . Umlauft, Die
See also:Lander Osterreich-Ungarns in Wort and Bild, vol. xiii .
(Vienna, 1881) ; E . A . Bielz, Siebenburgen (3rd ed., Hermannstadt, 1903) ; L . H . Gehhardi, Geschichte des Grossfurstentums Siebenbiirgen (Vienna, 1803) ; S . Szilagyi, Monumenta comitialia regni Transsylvaniae, vols. i.--xxi . (
See also:Budapest, 1880-1898); F . Teutsch, Geschichte der Siebenbileger Sachsen (2 vols., 3rd ed., Hermannstadt, 1899) .
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