See also:device for the snaring or catching anything, and especially
See also:wild animals . Traps for animals are of
See also:great antiquity, and no savage
See also:people has ever been discovered, whatever its culture scale, that did not possess some variety of snare . In the most
See also:form of
See also:trap no mechanism need be
See also:present, e.g. a cavity into which the animal walks, as the pitfall of the
See also:Arabs and Africans or the
See also:snow-hole of the Eskimos . Dr O . T .
See also:Mason has divided traps into three classes: enclosing traps, which imprison the victim without injury; arresting traps, which seize the victim without killing it, unless it be caught by the
See also:neck or
See also:round the lungs; and killing traps, which crush,
See also:pierce or cut to
See also:death . Enclosing traps include the
See also:pen, cage,
See also:pit and
See also:door-traps . Pen-traps are represented by the fences built in Africa into which ante-
See also:lopes and other animals are driven: and by
See also:fish-seines and pound-nets . Among cage-traps may be mentioned
See also:bird-cones filled with corn and smeared with bird-lime, which adhere to the bird's
See also:head, l'linding it and rendering its capture easy; the fish-trap and
See also:lobster-pot; and the coop-traps, of which the
See also:turkey-trap is an example . This consists of a roofed ditch ending in a cul-de-
See also:sac into which the bird is led by a
See also:row of corn-kernels . Over the further end a kind of coop is built; the bird, instead of endeavouring to retrace its steps, always seeks to
See also:escape upward and remains cooped . Pitfalls include not only those dug in the
See also:earth, at the bottom of which knives and spears are often fixed, but also several kinds of traps for small animals .
One of these consists of abox near the top of which a platform is hung, in such a way that, when the animal leaps upon it to secure the bait, it is precipitated into the bottom of the box, while the platform swings back into place . Another kind of pitfall is formed of a sort of
See also:funnel of long poles, into which birds fall upon alighting on a perfectly balanced
See also:bar, to which a dish of corn is made fast . The door-traps form a large and varied class, ranging in
See also:size from the immense cage with sliding door in which such beasts as tigers are caught, to the
See also:common box-trap for mice or squirrels, the door of which falls when the spindle upon which the bait is fixed is moved . The box-trap with a
See also:simple ratchet door, allowing the animal or bird to push under the door or wires which fall back and imprison them, is alike an enclosing and an arresting trap . There are four general classes of arresting traps, the mesh, the set-
See also:hook, the noose and the clutch . The mesh-traps include the mesh and thong toils used of old for the capture of the lion and other large
See also:game, and the gill-
See also:net in the meshes of which fish are caught by the gills . To the set-hook division are reckoned the set-lines of the
See also:angler, several kinds of trawls and the toggle or
See also:gorge attached to a
See also:line, which the animal, bird or fish swallows only to be held prisoner . The noose-trap class is a very extensive one . The simplest examples are the common slip-noose snares of twine,
See also:wire or horsehair, set for birds or small mammals either on their feeding grounds or runways, the victim being caught by the neck,
See also:body or
See also:foot as it tries to push through the noose . When the noose is used with bait it is generally attached to a stout sapling, which is bent over and kept from springing back by some device of the " figure-4 " kind . This is constructed of three pieces of
See also:wood, one of the
See also:horizontal spindle on which the bait is placed, one of the upright driven into the ground, and the third the connecting
See also:cross-piece, fitted to the others so loosely that only the
See also:strain of the elastic sapling keeps the trap together . When the victim tries to secure the bait he dislodges the cross-piece and is caught by the noose, which is spread on the ground under the bait .
The Patagonians take the
See also:vicuna with one variety of this snare, and, before the
See also:moose (Cervus aloes) was protected by
See also:law in
See also:America, even that animal, weighing often 1200 lb, was caught in snares of wire and rope . There are two widely different types of clutch-traps: bird-lime and other tenacious substances, and
See also:jaw and clap-traps . The simplest form of the first is adhesive fly-paper . A common practice in Italy is to smear with bird-lime the branches in the neighbourhood of a
See also:owl, which results in the capture of numbers of birds, gathered to
See also:scold at their common enemy . Examples of the clap-trap are the clap-net, consisting of two nets laid
See also:flat on the ground and attached to cords in such a manner that they fly up and close when the draw-
See also:cord is pulled by a concealed trapper; and the various other
See also:spring-traps used by bird-catchers . The jaw-traps are the most important class of device for the capture of fur-bearing animals, and are the product of
See also:civilization . While
See also:rude specimens are known to have existed in the
See also:middle ages, the
See also:steel-trap as used to-
See also:dates from the middle of the 18th century, and reached perfection in the latter
See also:half of the 19th, the " New-
See also:house," named from the
See also:American inventor, having been the first trap of high grade . Steel-traps consist of two jaws, with or without teeth, which are worked by powerful single or
See also:double springs and are " sprung " when the victim steps upon the "
See also:pan," which is placed between the jaws and attached to a
See also:lever . They are made to many sizes, from the smallest, designed for rats, to the " Great Bear Tamer," weighing over 40 lb, with jaws of 16 in. in which lions, tigers and grizzly bears are trapped . The steel-trap is set and concealed in such a manner that the animal must step on its pan in passing over it to secure the bait . In trapping such wary animals as the
See also:sable, marten,
See also:otter or beaver, great care is taken to obliterate all signs of the trap and of human presence, the
See also:scent of the hands being neutralized by smoking the traps or avoided by the use of gloves . In North America castoreum,
See also:musk, asafoetida, oil of
See also:anise and common fish-oil are used to entice the victims to the traps .
Trails of some one of these scents are laid from different directions to the trap . With the clutch-traps must also be reckoned the
See also:oldest form of steel-trap, now to be seen only in museums, the man-trap, which was used first about the middle of the 18th century when the systematic preservation of game rendered
See also:protection against poachers a
See also:necessity . Such a trap, from
See also:Gloucestershire, is over 6 ft. long, has 19-in. serrated jaws and weighs 88 lb . Another form of man-trap, the spring-
See also:gun, belongs to the next category, the killing traps, which are divided into traps of
See also:weight, point and edge . The most important of the weight class is the dead-fall, of which the typical form consists of a pen over whose narrow entrance one or more logs are laid across a lighter
See also:log, which is balanced upon a spindle necessarily struck by the entering animal, causing the logs to fall upon its back . In some cases the bait is attached to the spindle itself . The dead-fall was always the favourite trap of the American
See also:Indians, and is in use among many aboriginal tribes in Africa and South America . A slab of
See also:stone is often used as a weight . The common
See also:mouse-trap which kills either by a
See also:blow or strangulation is a variety of dead-fall . Of point-traps may be mentioned those of the impaling and the missile classes . An example of the former is the stake or
See also:spear placed by Arab and
See also:African tribes at the bottom of pitfalls for big game . Another impaling trap common in Africa is the
See also:harpoon down-fall, generally used for the hippopotamus .
It consists of a heavily weighted harpoon suspended in such a way that the animal, passing beneath, breaks a cord and precipitates the harpoon upon itself . Another example of impalement is the
See also:hawk-trap, consisting of a circle of stout
See also:sharp wires, in the centre of which a live
See also:fowl is placed . A bird of
See also:prey attempting to secure the fowl is impaled upon the wires . Of missile traps the most universal are the
See also:ancient springbow and its
See also:modern representative the spring-gun . This is fixed upon stakes, or against a
See also:tree, with a line attached to the trigger and stretched immediately in front of the muzzle . An animal pressing against the
See also:string pulls the trigger and discharges the piece into its own body . An arrangement of sticks holding the bait in front of the muzzle is sometimes substituted for the string . Of edge-traps a curious example is the
See also:knife of Western America, which consists of a very sharp blade embedded in frozen
See also:fat . One of the wolves, licking the fat, cuts its
See also:tongue and a flow of
See also:blood ensues, with the result that not only the wolf itself but its companions become infuriated by the smell and taste, and the wounded beast, and often many of the others, are killed and devoured . The Alaskan knife-trap for large game consists of a heavy blade attached to a lever, which, when released by the animal biting at the bait, flies over and kills the victim . See Shifts and Expedients of
See also:Life, by W . B .
See also:Lord (1871); Camp Life and the Tricks of Trapping, by W . H .
See also:Gibson (1902); O . T . Mason, " Traps of the American Indians,"
See also:Report, Smithsonian Institution, for 1901; The
See also:Story of the Trapper, by A . C .
See also:Laut (1903) .
TRAPANI (anc. Drepanum)
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