See also:ancient Romans, the highest
See also:honour bestowed upon a victorious general . Originally it was only granted on certain conditions, which were subsequently relaxed in
See also:special cases . Only those who had held the
See also:office of dictator,
See also:consul or praetor were entitled to the distinction; the war must have been brought to a definite conclusion, resulting in an extension of the boundaries of the state; at least 5000 of the enemy must have been slain; the victory must have been gained over a
See also:foreign enemy, victories in
See also:civil war or over rebels not being counted . The power of granting a
See also:triumph rested with the
See also:senate, which held a
See also:meeting outside the city walls (generally in the
See also:temple of
See also:Bellona) to consider the claims put forward by the general . If they were considered satisfactory special legislation was necessary to keep the general in possession of the imperium on his entry into the city . Without this, his command would have expired and he would have become a private individual the moment he was inside the city walls, and would have had no right to a triumph . Consequently he remained outside the pomoerium until the special ordinance was passed; thus
See also:Lucullus on his return from
See also:Asia waited outside Rome three years for his triumph . The triumph consisted of a
See also:solemn procession, which, starting from the Campus Martins outside the city walls, passed through the city to the Capitol . The streets were adorned with garlands, the temples open, and the procession was greeted with shouts of lo triumphe 1 At its
See also:head were the magistrates and senate, who were followed by trumpeters and then by the spoils, which included not only arms,
See also:standards, statues, &c., but also representations of battles, and of the towns,
See also:rivers and mountains of the conquered
See also:models of fortresses, &c . Next came the victims destined for sacrifice, especially
See also:white oxen with gilded horns . They were followed by the prisoners who had not been sold as slaves but kept to
See also:grace the triumph; when the procession reached the Capitol they were taken off to prison and put to
See also:death . The chariot which carried the victorious general (triumphator) was crowned with
See also:laurel and
See also:drawn by four horses .
The general was attired like the Capitoline
See also:Jupiter in robes of
See also:purple and gold borrowed from the
See also:treasury of the
See also:god; in his right
See also:hand he held a laurel branch, in his
See also:left an ivory
See also:sceptre surmounted by an eagle . Above his head the
See also:crown of Jupiter was held by a slave who reminded him in the midst of his
See also:glory that he was a mortal man . Last came the soldiers shouting lo triumphe and singing songs both of a laudatory and scurrilous kind . On reaching the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol, the general placed the laurel branch (in later times a palm branch) on the
See also:lap of the image of the god, and then offered the thank-offerings . A feast of the magistrates and senate, and sometimes of the soldiers and
See also:people, concluded the ceremony, which in earlier times lasted one
See also:day, but in later times occupied several . Generals who were not allowed a
See also:regular triumph by the senate had a right to triumph at the temple of Jupiter Latiaris on the
See also:Mount . Under the
See also:empire only the emperors celebrated a triumph, because the generals commanded under the auspices of the emperors (not under their own) merely as lieutenants (legati); the only honour they received was the right of wearing the triumphal insignia (the robes of purple and gold and the wreath of
See also:bay leaves) on holidays . After the
See also:time of Trajan, when all consuls were allowed to
See also:wear the triumphal
See also:dress on entering office and in festal processions, the only military
See also:reward for a successful general was a statue in some public place . The last triumph recorded is that of
See also:Diocletian (A.D . 302) . A
See also:naval or maritime triumph was sometimes allowed for victories at
See also:sea, the earliest being that celebrated by C .
See also:Duilius in honour of his victory over the Carthaginians in 26o B.C .
See also:Mommsen, Romisches Staatsrecht (1887), i . 126–136;
See also:Marquardt, ROmische Staatsverwallung (1884), ii . 582–593; H . A . Gott, De triumphi romani origins, permissu, apparatu, via (1854); S .
See also:Peine, "De ornamentis triumphalibus" (1885), in C . E . Ascherson's Berliner Sludien, ii .
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