Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V27, Page 307 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Spread the word: it!
C8H15NO TROPINE, a base formed together with tropic acid, C9H1003, in the hydrolysis of the alkaloid atropine (K. Kraut, Ann., 1863, 128, p. 28o; 1865, 133, p. 87). It crystallizes in plates which melt at 63° C. and boil at 233° C.; it is very hygroscopic and easily soluble in water. It is an optically inactive, strongly alkaline tertiary base. On heating with sodium in amyl alcoholic solution it it sransformed into a stereo-isomer, identical with the '-tropine obtained by hydrolysing tropa-cocaine with hydrochloric acid. It possesses alcoholic properties, since it forms esters, the so-called " tropeines." On distillation with caustic baryta or soda lime it decomposes into methylamine and tropilidine, C7H8 (A. Ladenburg, Ann. 1883, 217, p. 74), the same hydrocarbon being also obtained when it is destructively methylated, a certain amount of tropiline, C7H100, being produced simultaneously When heated with fuming hydrochloric acid to 150--18o° C. it yields tropidine, C3H13N, and with hydriodic acid 'similarly forms an 3 A fourth species, P. indieus, has been described from the Gulf of Oman, but doubt has been expressed as to its validity (Legge, PP. 1173, 1174). ' Sulidae (Gannet), Pelecanidae (Pelican), Plotidae (Snake-bird). Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorant,) and Fregatidae (Frigate-bird). iodo-compound, C8H15NI2, which, on reduction with zinc and hydrochloric acid, is converted into hydrotropidine, C8H15N. It yields various oxidation products. With an alkaline solution of potassium permanganate it yields tropigenine, C7H13NO; with chromic acid in the presence of acetic acid it yields tropinone, C8H13NO; and with chromic acid in the presence of sulphuric acid it yields tropinic acid, C6H11N(CO2H)2. Tropidine, C8H13N, is a liquid having an odour resembling that of confine. It is a strong tertiary base, and is an unsaturated compound, forming addition products with the halogen acids. Hydrotropidine, C8H15N, is also a liquid. Its hydrochloride on distillation loses methyl chloride and yields norhydrotropidine, C7H13N, a compound which is a secondary base, and whose hydro-chloride when distilled over zinc dust yields a-ethylpyridine. Tropinic acid, C6H11N(CO2H)2, obtained as above, is inactive; it was resolved by J. Gadamer (Arch. Pharm., 1901, 239, p. 663) by means of its cinchonine salt. It is a dibasic acid, and the methiodide of its dimethyl ester on fusion with caustic alkalis yields n-adipic acid. It is apparently a derivative of N—methyl pyrrollidine, since it may be oxidized ultimately to N—methyl succinimide. Tropigenine, C7H13NO, is a secondary base. The most important of the oxidation products of tropine is tropinone, C3H13NO, which is a ketone containing the grouping --CH2•CO•CH2—since it yields a di-isonitroso derivative, a dibenzal derivative, and also forms mono- and di-oxalic esters. It is a strong base and has a powerful reducing action. Its constitution is determined by the above facts and also because tropinic acid on destructive methylation yields a diolefine dicarboxylic acid which on reduction is converted into n-pimelic acid. These data point to tropine possessing an unbranched chain of seven carbon atoms and Incidentally determine the constitution of the other various oxidation products, &c. (R. Willstatter, Ber., 1895-1901). These compounds may consequently be represented as
End of Article: C8H15NO TROPINE
TROPHY (Gr. Tpo7rauov, from TpE7rw, put to flight; ...
TROPPAU (Polish, Oppava; Czech, Opava)

Additional information and Comments

There are no comments yet for this article.
» Add information or comments to this article.
Please link directly to this article:
Highlight the code below, right click and select "copy." Paste it into a website, email, or other HTML document.