title commonly given both abroad and in Russia itself to the
See also:sovereign of Russia, whose official
See also:style is, however, " Emperor and Autocrat " (Imperator i Samovlastityel) . In its origin the word
See also:tsar seems to have connoted the same as imperator, being identical with the German Kaiser in its derivation from the Latin Caesar . In the old
See also:Slavonic Scriptures the Greek 3wnXeis is always translated tsar, and this title was also given to the
See also:Roman Emperor . The old
See also:Russian title for a sovereign was knyaz,
See also:prince, or veliky knyaz,
See also:grand prince . The title tsar was first adopted by the Slavonic peoples settled in the
See also:Balkan peninsula, who were in close
See also:touch with the Eastern emperor; thus it was used by the
See also:medieval Bulgarian
See also:kings . It penetrated into Russia as a result of the growing intercourse between old Muscovy and Constantinople, notably of the
See also:marriage alliances contracted by Russian princes with the
See also:dynasty of
See also:Basil the Macedonian; and it was assumed by the
See also:Muscovite princes who revolted from the yoke of the
See also:Mongols . The other tsars were gradually ousted by those of Moscow, and the
See also:modern Russian emperors inherit their title of tsar from
See also:Ivan III . (1462-1505), or perhaps rather from his
See also:grandson Ivan IV . (1533—1584) who was solemnly crowned tsar in 1547 . Throughout, however, the title tsar was used, as it still is in popular parlance, indifferently of both emperors and kings, being regarded as the
See also:equivalent of the Slavonic krol or kral (Russ. korol, Magyar, kiraly), a
See also:king, which had been adopted from the name of Charlemagne (Germ . Karl,
See also:Lat . Carolus
See also:Magnus) .
This use being equivocal,
See also:Peter the
See also:Great, at the peace of Nystad (
See also:November 2, 1721), assumed the style of imperator, an exotic word intended to symbolize his imperial dignity as the equal of the western emperor . This new style was not, however, recognized by the
See also:powers until the
See also:time of Catherine II., and then only on the
See also:express understanding that this recognition did not imply any precedency or superiority of the Russian emperor over other sovereigns . Henceforth, what-ever popular usage might be, the title tsar was treated officially as the equivalent of that of king . Thus the Russian emperor is tsar (king) of Poland and of several other parts of his dominions . Thus, too, the prince of Bulgaria, on assuming the royal style, took the title of tsar of Bulgaria . The title "
See also:White Tsar, " applied to the Russian emperor and commonly quoted as though it had a poetic or mystic meaning, is a
See also:translation of a Mongol word meaning "
See also:independent " (cf. the feudal " blanch tenure, " i.e. a tenure
See also:free from all
See also:obligation of
See also:personal service) . The wife of the tsar is tsaritsa . In former times the title tsarevich (king's son) was
See also:borne by every son of a tsar; but the word has now fallen out of use . The
See also:heir to the
See also:throne is known as the tsesarevich or
See also:cesarevich (q.v.), i.e. son of Caesar, the other Imperial princes bearing the old Russian title of veliky knyaz (grand duke; q.v.) .
Both spellings of the word appear to be commonly used in in the English language. From what was words were each spelling derived and is one word considered to be more appropriate to use than the other?
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