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Originally appearing in Volume V27, Page 351 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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TSENG KUO-FAN (1811-1872), Chinese statesman and general, was born in 1811 in the province of Hunan, where he took in succession the three degrees of Chinese scholarship. In 1843 he was appointed chief literary examiner in the province of Szechuen, and six years later was made junior vice-president of the board of rites. When holding the office of military examiner (1851) he was compelled by the death of his mother to retire to his native district for the regulation mourning. At this time the Taiping rebels were overrunning Hunan in their conquering career, and had possessed themselves of the cities and strongholds on both shores of the Yangtse-kiang. By a special decree Tseng was ordered to assist the governor of the province in raising a volunteer force, and on his own initiative he built a fleet of war junks, with which he attacked the rebels. In his first engagement he was defeated, but, happily for him, his lieutenants were more successful. They .recovered the capital, Chang-sha, and destroyed the rebel fleet. Following up these victories of his subordinates, Tseng recaptured Wuchang and Hanyang, near Hankow, and was rewarded for his successby being appointed vice-president of the board of war. In 1853 other triumphs led to his being made a baturu (a Manchu order for rewarding military prowess), and to his being decorated with a yellow riding-jacket. Meanwhile, in his absence, the rebels retook Wuchang and burnt the protecting fleet. The tide quickly turned, however, and Tseng succeeded in clearing the country round the Poyang lake, and subsequently in ridding the province of Kiangsu of the enemy. His father died in 1857, and after a brief mourning he was ordered to take supreme command in Cheh-kiang, and to co-operate with the governor of Fukien in the defence of that province. Subsequently the:rebels were driven westwards, and Tseng would have started in pursuit had he not been called on to clear the province of Ngan-hui of rebel bands. In i86o he was appointed viceroy of the two Kiang provinces and Imperial war commissioner. At this time, and for some time previously, he had been fortunate in having the active support of Tso Tsung-tang, who at a later period recovered Kashgar for the emperor, and of Li Hung-Chang. Like all true leaders of men, he knew how to reward good service, and when occasion offered he appointed the former to the governorship of Cheh-kiang and the latter to that of Kiangsu. In 1862 he was appointed assistant grand secretary of state. At this time the Imperial forces, assisted by the " Ever-victorious Army," had checked the progress of the rebellion, and Tseng was able to carry out a scheme which he had long formulated of besieging Nanking, the rebel headquarters. While Gordon, with the help of Li Hung-Chang, was clearing the cities on the lower waters of the Yangtse-kiang, Tseng drew closer his besieging lines around the doomed city. In July 1864 the city fell into his bands, and he was rewarded with the rank and title of marquis and the right to wear the double-eyed peacock's feather. After the suppressign of the Taipings the Nienfei rebellion, closely related to the former movement, broke out in Shantung, and Tseng was sent to quell it. Success did not, however, always attend him on this campaign, and by Imperial order he was relieved of his command by Li Hung-Chang, who in the same way succeeded him in the viceroyalty of Chihli, where, after the massacre of Tientsin (187o), Tseng failed to carry out the wishes of his Imperial master. After this rebuff he retired to his viceroyalty at Nanking, where he died in 1872. Tseng was a voluminous writer. His papers addressed to the throne and his literary disquisitions are held in high esteem by the scholars of China, who treasure as a memorial of a great and uncorrupt statesman the edition of his collected works in 156 books, which was edited by Li Hung-Chang in 1876. (R. K. D.) TSETSE-FLY (Tsetse, an English rendering of the Bantu nsi-nsi, a fly), a name applied indiscriminately to any one of the eight species of Glossina, a genus of African blood-sucking Diptera (two-winged flies, see DIPTERA), of the family Muscidae. Tsetse-flies are of great economic and pathological importance as the disseminators of tsetse-fly disease (nagana) and sleeping sickness. These maladies are caused by minute unicellula animal parasites (haematozoa) of the genus Trypanosoma (see TRYPANOSOMES); and recent investigations have shown that, under normal conditions, the particular species of Trypanosoma concerned (T. brucei, in the case of nagana, and T. gambiense in that of sleeping sickness) are introduced into the blood of susceptible animals or man only by the bite of one or other of the species of tsetse. (See PARASITIC DISEASES). The names of the recognized species of tsetse-flies are as follows: Glossina palpalis (see fig.); G. pallicera; G. morsitans; G. tachinoides; G. pallidipes; G. longipalpis; G. fusca; and G. longipennis. A ninth so-called species, described in 1905 from specimens from Angola, is not really distinct from G. palpalis but appears to be identical with the sub-species G. palpalis wellmani. In appearance tsetse are somewhat narrow-bodied flies, with a prominent proboscis, which projects horizontally in front of the head, and with the wings in the resting position closed flat one over the other like the blades of a pair of scissors (see fig., B). The latter characteristic affords an infallible means for the recognition of these insects, since it at once serves to distinguish them from any blood-sucking flies with which they might otherwise be confused. The coloration of tsetse-flies is sombre and inconspicuous; the brownish or greyish-brown thorax usually exhibits darker longitudinal markings, and when the insect is at rest the abdomen or hinder half of the body is entirely concealed by the brownish wings. In some species the abdomen is of a paler colour and marked with sharply defined, dark brown bands, which are interrupted on the middle line. The length of the body, exclusive of the proboscis, which measures about a line to a line and a half, varies according to the species from 6 or 8 millimetres in the case of G. tachinoides, to about i I z millimetres in that of G. fusca or longipennis; the closed As a rule tsetse-flies are most active during the warmer hours of the day, but they frequently bite at night, especially by moonlight. The blood-sucking habit is common to both sexes, and the abdomen, being capable of great expansion, is adapted for the periodical ingestion of an abundant food-supply. The act of feeding, in which the proboscis is buried in the skin of the victim nearly up to the bulb, is remarkably quick, and in thirty seconds or less the abdomen of the fly, previously flat, becomes swollen out with blood like a berry. Stuhlmann's experiments with G. fusca show that the insect is able to ingest considerably more than (sometimes more than twice) its own weight of blood, which would appear to be the only food, and must be drawn from the tissues of a victim. Specimens of G. fusca, even though fasting and kept for days in absolutely dry air, could never be induced to imbibe water, sugar-cane juice or extravasated blood. The reproduction of tsetse-flies is highly remarkable; instead of laying eggs or being ovoviviparous the females deposit at intervals of about a fortnight or three weeks a single full-grown larva, which forthwith buries itself in the ground to a depth of several centimetres, and assumes the pupal state. The practical importance of this peculiar life-history is very great, since larvae thus protected cannot easily be destroyed. It is important to note that although sleeping sickness (of which the chief foci are at present the Congo Free State and Uganda) has hitherto been associated with one particular species of Glossina, it has been shown experimentally both that other tsetse-flies are able to transmit the parasite of the disease, and that G. palpalis can convey kindred parasites which are fatal to domestic animals. Since, moreover, it is believed that at least five species of Glossina are carriers of nagana, it may well be that all tsetse-flies can disseminate both nagana and sleeping sickness. (E. E. A.) wings, however, project beyond the body and thus increase its TSHI, Tcxw1, CHI, or OIr, a group of Negro peoples of the apparent length. G. palpalis, the disseminator of sleeping sickness Gold Coast (q.v.). The chief of these are the Ashanti, Fanti, (see fig.), is about 91 millimetres in length and is the darkest of Akim and Aquapem. Their common language is the Tshi, all the tsetse-flies, though the dark brown abdomen has pale lateral triangular markings and usually at least an indication of a pale longitudinal median stripe. In all tsetse-flies the proboscis in the living insect is entirely concealed by the palpi, which are grooved in their inner sides and form a closely fitting sheath for the piercing organ; the base of the proboscis is expanded beneath into a large onion-shaped bulb, which is filled with muscles.- The head of the insect contains a muscular pharynx by means of which the blood from the wound inflicted by the proboscis (labium) is pumped into the alimentary canal and the so-called sucking-stomach. The tip of the proboscis is armed with a complicated series of chitinous teeth and rasps, by means of which the fly is enabled to pierce the skin of its victim ; as usual in Diptera the organ is closed on the upper side by the labrum, or upper lip, and contains the hypopharynx or common outlet of the paired salivary glands, which are situated in the abdomen. The proboscis of tsetse-flies is without the paired piercing stilets (mandibles and maxillae) possessed by other blood-sucking Diptera, such as the female horse-flies and mosquitoes. For the anatomy of the tsetse see E. A. Minchin, Proc. Roy. Soc. lxxvi. 531-547. Tsetse-flies are restricted to Africa, where they occur in suitable localities throughout the greater portion of the tropical region, although not found either in the Sahara or in the veld country of the extreme south. For practical purposes the northern limit of Glossina, as at present known, may be shown on the map by drawing a line from Cape Verde to the Nile a little to the south-east of El Obeid, and thence to the coast of Somaliland at 4° N.; while the southern boundary of the genus may similarly be represented by the Cunene river, in the south of Angola, and a line thence to the north-eastern end of St Lucia lake, in Zululand. Within the area thus defined tsetse-flies are not found continuously, however, but occur only in small tracts called" belts " or " patches," which, since cover and shade are necessities of life to these insects, are always situated in forest, bush or banana plantations, or among other shady vegetation. In South and Central Africa, at any rate, " fly-belts " are usually met with in damp, hot, low-lying spots on the margins of water-courses, rivers and lakes, and seldom far from water of some kind. It appears, however, that in this respect the habits of the different species show a certain amount of variation; thus, while G. pal palis exhibits an especial fondness for water and haunts more or less dense cover at the water's edge, recent observations in German East Africa show that G. fusca is in no way connected with water, but is much more frequently encountered at a distance from it. Similarly, the oft-repeated assertion that there is a definite connexion between tsetse-flies and big game, especially the buffalo (Bubalus coffer), in that the former are dependent upon the latter for their continued existence, is certainly not true as regards G. palpalis, although in South Africa there can be no question that the ex-termination of big game has been followed or accompanied by the disappearance of tsetse from many localities in which they formerly abounded. from which they gain their family name. TSU-SHIMA (" the island of the port "), an island belonging to Japan, situated about midway between Korea and the island of Iki, so that the two islands were used as places of call in former times by vessels plying between Japan and Korea. Tsu-shima lies about 34° 20' N., 129 20' E. The nearest point of the Korean coast is 48 m. distant. It has an area of 262 sq. m. and a population of 39,000. It is divided at the waist by a deep sound (Asaji-ura), and the southern section has two hills, Yatachi-yama and Shira-dake, 2130 ft. and 168o ft. high respectively, while the northern section has Ibeshi-yama and Mi-take, whose heights are 1128 ft. and 1598 ft. The chief town is Izu-hara. The Mongol armada visited the island in the 13th century and committed great depredations. In 1861 an attempt was made by Russia to obtain a footing on the island. The name of the battle of Tsu-shima is given to the great naval engagement of the 27th and 28th of May 1905, in which the Russian fleet under Admiral Rozhdestvensky was defeated by the Japanese under Admiral Togo.
End of Article: TSENG

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